abstract：:Accelerated tuberculosis and AIDS progression seen in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-coinfected individuals indicates the important interaction between these syndemic pathogens. The immunological interaction between HIV-1 and Mtb has been largely defined by how the virus exacerbates tuberculosis disease pa...
abstract：:Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect many species causing a variety of diseases with a range of severities. Their members include zoonotic viruses with pandemic potential where therapeutic options are currently limited. Despite this diversity CoVs share some common features including the production, in infected cells, of elabo...
abstract：:Nucleotide sequences of HIV isolates are obtained routinely to evaluate the presence of resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs. But, beyond their clinical use, these and other viral sequences include a wealth of information that can be used to better understand and characterize the epidemiology of HIV in relevan...
abstract：:West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus, has become endemic in the USA and parts of Europe since 1999. There is no licensed WNV vaccine for humans. Considering the robust immunity from immunization with live, attenuated vaccines, a live WNV vaccine is an ideal platform for disease control. Anima...
abstract：:Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are engineered and/or evolved to propagate selectively in cancerous tissues. They have a dual mechanism of action; direct killing of infected cancer cells cross-primes anticancer immunity to boost the killing of uninfected cancer cells. The goal of the field is to develop OVs that are easily ma...
abstract：:Despite progress in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy suggests that establishment of long-term cellular reservoirs of virus is a significant barrier to functional cure. There is considerable evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in systemic virus disse...
abstract：:Vaccination is the most effective strategy for prevention and control of influenza. Timely production and deployment of seasonal influenza vaccines is based on an understanding of the epidemiology of influenza and on global disease and virologic surveillance. Experience with seasonal influenza vaccines guided the init...
abstract：:The use of animal models in the study of HIV and AIDS has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of infection. Of the multitude of HIV disease manifestations, peripheral neuropathy remains one of the most common long-term side effects. Several of the most important causes of periphera...
abstract：AIM:To determine the role of primary antifungal prophylaxis in the prevention of cryptococcal meningitis and all-cause mortality in advanced HIV infection. MATERIALS & METHODS:This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and observational studies. Google Scholar™, PubMed and Embase databases wer...
abstract：:Integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA is an essential step in the replication cycle of HIV and other retroviruses. The first antiviral drugs that target integrase, the viral enzyme that catalyzes DNA integration, have recently been approved and more are in the pipeline. These drugs bind to an intermediate in DNA ...
abstract：:AIMS: HIV-1 sequence diversity can affect host immune responses and phenotypic characteristics such as antiretroviral drug resistance. Current HIV-1 sequence diversity classification uses phylogeny-based methods to identify subtypes and recombinants, which may overlook distinct subpopulations within subtypes. While lo...
abstract：AIMS:Chronic inflammation has become increasingly recognized as a health threat for people living with HIV, given its associations with multiple diseases. Accordingly, the scientific community has prioritized the need to identify mechanisms triggering inflammation. PARTICIPANTS METHODS:A clinic-based case-control stud...
abstract：:HIV infection affects the clinical pattern of malaria. There is emerging evidence to suggest that previously documented interactions may be modified by recently scaled-up HIV and malaria interventions. Prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) in combination with use of insecticide-treated nets can markedly ...
abstract：:This article provides a summary of emerging psychosocial evidence relevant to the success of comprehensive family-centered approaches to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support programs in poorly resourced settings. This report synthesizes current evidence on maternal, paternal and family experiences of HIV preven...
abstract：:Naturally occurring smallpox has been eradicated, yet it remains as one of the highest priority pathogens due to its potential as a biological weapon. The majority of the US population would be vulnerable in a smallpox outbreak. SIGA Technologies, Inc. has responded to the call of the US government to develop and supp...
abstract：:The transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 by corneal transplantation has rarely been reported. It is believed that these cases have resulted either from reactivated virus traveling from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea or from latent HSV-1 in the donor cornea itself. Studies of long-term viral presence in ...
abstract：:Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging infectious disease in Latin America. Outbreaks have been recorded for decades in countries with enzootic circulation, and the recent implementation of surveillance systems has allowed the detection of additional human cases in countries and areas with previously unkn...
abstract：:Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most important mode of HIV-1 acquisition among infants and children and it can occur in utero, intrapartum and postnatally through breastfeeding. Great progress has been made in preventing MTCT through use of antiretroviral regimens during gestation, labor/delivery and breast...
abstract：:Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an important animal and human threat and leads to longstanding morbidity and mortality in susceptible hosts. Since no therapies currently exist to treat Rift Valley fever, it remains a public and animal health priority to develop safe, effective RVFV vaccines (whether for animals, hum...
abstract：:Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are widely spread throughout the human population, yet no pathology has been associated with infection. This fact, together with the availability of simple molecular techniques to alter the packaged viral genome, has made AAV a serious contender in the search for an ideal gene therapy de...
abstract：:HIV-1 R5 viruses predominantly use CCR5 as a coreceptor to infect CD4(+) T cells and macrophages. While R5 viruses generally infect CD4(+) T cells, research over the past few years has demonstrated that they vary extensively in their capacity to infect macrophages. Thus, R5 variants that are highly macrophage tropic h...
abstract：:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most recently discovered human herpesvirus, first isolated and identified from a Kaposi's sarcoma lesion in 1994. It is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, a vascular lesion that is the predominant cancer among AIDS patients. KSHV is also the primary etiolog...
abstract：:Ebolavirus (EBOV) is a highly virulent pathogen capable of causing a severe hemorrhagic fever with 50-90% lethality. The EBOV glycoprotein (GP) is the only virally expressed protein on the virion surface and is critical for attachment to host cells and catalysis of membrane fusion. Hence, the EBOV GP is a critical com...
abstract：:The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein gathers other cellular proteins, such as Daxx and Sp100, to form subnuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) or ND10 domains. Many infecting viral genomes localize to PML-NBs, leading to speculation that these structures may represent the most efficient subnuclear...
abstract：:Infection with HIV represents a significant global health problem, with high infection rates and high mortality worldwide. Treatment with antiretroviral therapy is inaccessible to many patients and efficacy is limited by development of resistance and side effects. The interactions of HIV with the human immune system, ...