abstract：RESEARCH QUESTION:There is no widely accepted grading system for IPF disease severity, although physiologic impairment based on pulmonary function testing is frequently employed. We sought to describe clinical and functional characteristics as well as outcomes of patients with severe physiologic impairment. PATIENTS A...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Differences in the expression of regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been suggested to explain why some smokers develop COPD and some do not. Upregulation of Tregs in response to smoking would restrain airway inflammation and thus the development of COPD; while the absense of such upregulation would over time le...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Although protective mechanical ventilation (MV) has been used in a variety of applications, lung injury may occur in both patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this study is to use machine learning to identify clinical phenotypes for critically ill patients with...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal disorder with a variable disease course. The recent advancement of antifibrotic therapy has increased the need for reliable and specific biomarkers. This study aimed to assess alveolar epithelial biomarkers as predictors for the efficacy of the anti...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Nintedanib is an approved therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Some patients treated with nintedanib experience weight loss. Exploratory data suggest that low body mass index or weight loss are associated with worse outcomes in patients with IPF. We investigated whether BMI at baseline or weight ...
abstract：BACKGROUND:The investigation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-conditioned medium or extracellular vesicles (exosomes or microvesicles) as a remedy for acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has become a fast-growing field in recent years. Our purpose was to conduct a meta-analysis to inv...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Pleural effusion (PE) can be divided into benign pleural effusion (BPE) and malignant pleural effusion (MPE). There is no consensus on the identification of lung cancer-associated MPE using the optimal cut-off levels from five common tumor biomarkers (CEA, CYFRA 21-1, CA125, SCC-Ag, and NSE). Therefore, we a...
abstract：BACKGROUND:The role of the microbiota in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is largely unknown. METHODS:Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to clean air, biomass fuel (BMF), or motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) for 4, 12, and 24...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma, particularly those with a non-eosinophilic phenotype, have a great unmet need for new treatments that act on a broad range of inflammatory pathways in the airway. Tezepelumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks the activity of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, an...
abstract：:COVID-19 is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The pathogenesis and the complications of the disease are not fully elucidated, and increasing evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 causes a systemic inflammatory disease rather than a pulmonary disease. The management of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 dedicated units is a...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Manual auscultation to detect abnormal breath sounds has poor inter-observer reliability. Digital stethoscopes with artificial intelligence (AI) could improve reliable detection of these sounds. We aimed to independently test the abilities of AI developed for this purpose. METHODS:One hundred and ninety two...
abstract：:The role of the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in maintaining cellular lipid homeostasis in cardiovascular disease is well established. More recently, the important beneficial role played by ABCA1 in modulating pathogenic disease mechanisms, such as inflammation, in a broad range of chronic conditions has...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) regulates multiple aspects of innate immunity and tissue inflammation. Recently, it has been reported that PTX3 deficiency enhances interleukin (IL)-17A-dominant pulmonary inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model. However, whether PTX3 treatment would provide protectio...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Emphysema is a crucial pathological characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress, apoptosis and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of emphysema. However, an attempt to accurately identify whether these mechanisms interact with each other and how they are ...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are an important aspect of the treatment of children with chronic obstructive lung diseases. Unfortunately, a sound evidence base is lacking and airway clearance strategies are largely based on clinical expertise. One of the reasons for the limited evidence is the lack of a...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can have various causes. The study objective was to investigate whether different pathophysiologic models of ARDS would show different respiratory, cardiovascular and inflammatory outcomes. METHODS:We performed a prospective, randomized study in 27 ventilated ewes ...
abstract：RATIONALE:Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been associated with increased risk of acute exacerbations, hospitalization, emergency room visits, costs, and quality-of-life impairment. However, it remains unclear whether GERD contributes...
abstract：BACKGROUND:The human small airway epithelium (SAE) plays a central role in the early events in the pathogenesis of most inherited and acquired lung disorders. Little is known about the molecular phenotypes of the specific cell populations comprising the SAE in humans, and the contribution of SAE specific cell populatio...
abstract：BACKGROUND:A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-15 (ADAM15) is expressed by activated leukocytes, and fibroblasts in vitro. Whether ADAM15 expression is increased in the lungs of COPD patients is not known. METHODS:ADAM15 gene expression and/or protein levels were measured in whole lung and bronchoalveolar lavag...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Possible variation in bronchodilator response (BDR) according to age at the diagnosis of adult-onset asthma is unknown. Our aim was to assess if BDR in FEV1 is related to age at diagnosis of adult-onset asthma and how many subjects fulfill the 400 mL criterion of BDR, the suggested cut-off for asthma-like re...
abstract：:Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is routine and near-universal in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). It has been suggested that BCG can have a protective effect on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. This commentary discusses the limitations of the evidence around BCG and COVID-19. We argue that hig...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Several previously healthy young adults have developed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and a few of them progressed to the severe stage. However, the factors are not yet determined. METHOD:We retrospectively analyzed 123 previously healthy young adults diagnosed with COVID-19 from January to March 2020...
abstract：BACKGROUND:The relationship between the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is uncertain and even poor. The major problem associated with the ESS might be a lack of consideration of weight in prediction in clinical practice. Would awarding different item-scores to the four scales of ESS it...
abstract：BACKGROUND:It has been confirmed that NF-κB p65 signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of alveolar hypercoagulation and fibrinolysis inhibition in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether SN50, a NF-κB cell permeable inhibitor, could attenuate alveolar hypercoagulation and fibrinolysis inhibition in...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Obesity augments pulmonary responses to ozone. We have reported that IL-33 contributes to these effects of obesity in db/db mice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether IL-33 also contributes to obesity-related changes in the response to ozone in mice with diet-induced obesity. METHODS:Male wild...
abstract：:The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The CT image is used to assess the disease progress, whereas the continued two times of negative results from SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection had been co...
abstract：OBJECTIVES:Swimming is one of the most popular forms of physical activity. Pool water is cleaned with chlorine, which - in combination with compounds contained in water - could form chloramines and trichloromethane in the swimmer's lungs. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of swimming training in an...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Although phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors have been shown to reduce COPD exacerbation rate, their biological mechanism of action is not completely elucidated at the molecular level. We aimed to characterise the whole genome gene expression profile of the inhaled PDE4-inhibitor CHF6001 on top of triple t...
abstract：OBJECTIVE:We aimed to identify the prevalence and distribution patterns of allergens among Chinese children with asthma/asthma-like symptoms (ALS). METHODS:A total of 3479 children with asthma/ALS were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) was used to test the allergen-specific IgE. We analysed allergens prevalence and dist...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Discrepancy exists amongst studies investigating the effect of comorbid heart failure (HF) on the morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS:MEDLINE and Embase were searched using a pre-specified search strategy for studies comparing hospitalisation, rehospital...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. However, the spatial and temporal trends in prevalence and incidence of CRDs have not been estimated. METHODS:Based on data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017, we analyzed the prevalence and...
abstract：OBJECTIVE:To investigate the differences in the proportions of BMPR2 mutations in familial hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) between males and females and the relationship between BMPR2 mutation and PAH severity. METHODS:A computer was used to searc...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and morbid obesity (MO), defined by a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2, are two closely related conditions. Recent studies suggest that circulating microRNA (miRNA) plays a potential role in the physiopathology of both conditions. To date, circulating miRNA expression has been studied...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Alveolar macrophages are professional phagocytes that remove microbial pathogens inhaled into the lung. The phagocytic ability is compromised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this defect in phagocytosis are not clearly defined. MATERIALS AND METHO...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Several small molecule corrector and potentiator drugs have recently been licensed for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) therapy. However, other aspects of the disease, especially inflammation, are less effectively treated by these drugs. We hypothesized that small molecule drugs could function either alone or as an adju...
abstract：INTRODUCTION:Bacteria have been extensively implicated in the development of smoking related diseases, such as COPD, by either direct infection or bacteria-mediated inflammation. In response to the health risks associated with tobacco exposure, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased. This study compare...
abstract：BACKGROUND:β2 receptor agonists induce airway smooth muscle relaxation by increasing intracellular cAMP production. PKA is the traditional downstream signaling pathway of cAMP. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) was identified as another important signaling molecule of cAMP recently. The role of Epac in...
abstract：:By airway surface liquid, we mean a thin fluid continuum consisting of the airway lining layer and the alveolar lining layer, which not only serves as a protective barrier against foreign particles but also contributes to maintaining normal respiratory mechanics. In recent years, measurements of the rheological proper...
abstract：BACKGROUND:Airway epithelial barrier function is maintained by the formation of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). Inhalation of cigarette smoke causes airway epithelial barrier dysfunction and may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...
abstract：:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membranous vesicles secreted by cells into the extracellular space, which play a role in cell to cell communication. EVs are categorized into 3 groups depending on their size, surface marker, and method of release from the host cell. Recently, EVs have become of interest i...