abstract：:Although drug use disorders are among the most important modifiable factors for violence perpetration, previous reviews have not investigated links with individual categories of drug use disorders or explored sources of variation in risk estimates between studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of ...
abstract：:Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are pathogenic bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Severe infections could lead to life-threatening complications, especially in young children and the elderly. Understanding the distribution of the incubation period, which is currently inconsistent and ambigu...
abstract：:In 2014-2015, a large Ebola outbreak afflicted Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. We performed a systematic review of 26 manuscripts, published between 2014 and April 2015, that forecasted the West African Ebola outbreak while it was occurring, and we derived implications for how results could be interpreted by policy...
abstract：:Transgender people experience a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and incarceration. Discrimination, victimization, poverty, and poor mental health drive vulnerability to HIV and related infections, as well as risk of arrest, detention, and incarceration. In this paper, we systematically re...
abstract：:Substance use disorders are among the most common health problems of people involved with the criminal justice system. Scaling up addiction services in prisons is a global public health and human rights challenge, especially in poorly resourced countries. We systematically reviewed the prevalence of substance use in p...
abstract：:High levels of drug dependence have been observed in the prison population globally, and the sharing of injecting drug equipment in prisons has contributed to higher prevalence of bloodborne diseases in prisoners than in the general population. Few prison needle and syringe programs (PNSPs) exist. We conducted a syste...
abstract：:Cancer centers, particularly those supported by the National Cancer Institute, are charged with reducing the cancer burden in their catchment area. However, methods to define both the catchment area and the cancer burden are diverse and range in complexity often based on data availability, staff resources, or confusio...
abstract：:The growing burden of cancer among several major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) requires national implementation of tailored public health surveillance. For many emerging economies where emphasis has traditionally been placed on the surveillance of communicable diseases, it is critical to understand the specificities...
abstract：:The use of firearms in intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely recognized as an important public health threat. However, what we know about the risks of firearm access on IPV outcomes is limited. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to determine the state of knowledge on 1) the risks of firearm access and use...
abstract：:Rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported to be higher among US military veterans, who currently number more than 21 million, but the causal factor(s) has not been identified. We conducted a review to examine the weight of evidence for associations between military service, deployments, and expos...
abstract：:Individuals with chronic pain often report using cigarettes to cope, and smoking and chronic pain appear prevalent among US veterans. Pain may be a barrier to cigarette cessation and abstinence in this population. Because of physiological effects, smoking cigarettes may also interfere with pain management. A better un...
abstract：:Although the evidence for the associations between preconceptional risk factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes is extensive, the effectiveness of preconceptional interventions to reduce risk factors and to improve pregnancy outcomes remains partly unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the available eff...
abstract：:Growing evidence indicates that women with a history of common pregnancy complications, including fetal growth restriction and preterm delivery (often combined as low birth weight), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and gestational diabetes, are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The purpos...
abstract：:The relationship of postmenopausal hormone therapy with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia has been controversial. Given continued interest in the role of hormone therapy in chronic disease prevention and the emergence of more prospective studies, we conducted a systematic review to identify all epide...
abstract：:The relatively large birth cohort between 1946 and 1964, combined with the economic recession in the first decade of the 21st century, have led to an increase in the proportion of older workers in the US workplace. Understanding the health and safety needs of an aging workforce will be critical, especially in the cons...
abstract：:This volume of Epidemiologic Reviews features 13 articles covering a variety of injury problems and research topics. In this commentary, the authors highlight the remarkable achievements in injury control and the important role the Haddon Matrix has played in understanding injury causation and developing preventive st...
abstract：:In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing res...
abstract：:In this review, the authors provide an approach to the study of health disparities in the US Latino population and evaluate the evidence, using mortality rates for discrete medical conditions and the total US population as a standard for comparison. They examine the demographic structure of the Latino population and h...
abstract：:The incidence of chronic disease is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries than in industrialized countries. A potential emerging public health issue may be the increasing incidence of childhood obesity in developing countries and the resulting socioeconomic and public health burden faced by these countr...
abstract：:Economic endpoints are increasingly common in randomized clinical trials. As a relatively new addition to the field, methods of measuring and analyzing cost data are still evolving. These developments will be stimulated by the demands of the public for efficient and effective medical care, which will be based on the f...
abstract：:As we have presented, it is evident that cohort studies are confronted with their own special, non-trivial issues of quality assurance and quality control. Such studies are typically large-scale designs and involve an extensive amount of data to be collected and processed, the quality of which depends on a variety of ...
abstract：:When used to evaluate vaccination effectiveness, case-control studies are useful surrogates for controlled trials of vaccination programs. Their advantages over controlled trials are that 1) they involve relatively few participants, 2) the necessary information can be obtained within a short time, and 3) their results...
abstract：:The most important recent development in our understanding of Reye's syndrome is the epidemiologic evidence linking this disease to aspirin in the United States. Assessment of epidemiologic issues of concern raised in prior studies did not explain the extremely high odds ratios observed in more recent studies. The obs...
abstract：:The broad spectrum of preventive health concerns in the elderly ranges from incident disease to prevalent disease to the effect (sequelae) of disease. A major component of the burden of illness for the elderly derives from prevalent chronic disease. For a substantial impact on this burden, unique preventive health car...
abstract：:The greatest strength of coronary arteriography as an epidemiologic tool is that it allows coronary atherosclerosis to be studied rather than its clinical manifestations. Thus, the pathogenic sequence in which a normal coronary artery becomes progressively narrowed and then occluded can be examined in terms of the fac...
abstract：:This review of the longterm impact of induced abortion on reproductive function includes a comprehensive survey of the published and the preliminary literature. Over 200 anecdotal, descriptive, and observational epidemiologic reports were reviewed, and more than 150 studies in 11 languages from 21 countries that empl...
abstract：:A comprehensive review of what was known of the epidemiology of breast cancer as of the early 1970s was published by MacMahon et al. in 1973. This review covers the major aspects of the epidemiology of breast cancer included in the 1973 review and, additionally, emphasizes recently reported work. Attention is direct...