Muscle power, sitting unsupported and trunk rotation in pre-term infants.


:Discrepancies between active and passive muscle power are often seen in pre-term infants over the first year. Generally of a transient nature, they are most obvious in the extensor muscles of the trunk where there is a high active muscle power relative to the passive component. While high active muscle power may not be a sign of cerebral palsy, it is our contention that it will impair functions such as unsupported sitting and the ability to rotate in this position. In this study, 20 full-term and 37 healthy pre-term infants were assessed at the (corrected) ages of 39 and 52 weeks for muscle power in the trunk, sitting unsupported and rotation around the body axis while seated. At the age of 39 weeks, all full-term infants could sit without support. In contrast half of the pre-term infants could not sit without support and the majority of them could not rotate the trunk in this position. At 52 weeks the majority of pre-term infants could sit without support, despite having higher active muscle power in the trunk. However this deviant muscle power prevented rotatory movements of the trunk during sitting. The origin of this deviance may reside in the positioning to which pre-term infants are subjected after birth and thus postural management should be directed towards avoidance of extensor positions.


Early Hum Dev


Early human development


de Groot L,Hopkins B,Touwen B




Has Abstract


1995-08-30 00:00:00














  • Qualitative changes of general movements in preterm infants with brain lesions.

    abstract::The aims of the study were (1) to replicate previous quantitative studies of motor activity in low-risk and high-risk preterm infants and (2) to apply a new method of systematic analysis of the qualitative characteristics of general movements in these two groups of infants. Sequential one-hour videorecordings of the u...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferrari F,Cioni G,Prechtl HF

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • The use of oxygen for delivery room resuscitation of newborn infants in non-Western countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Using pure oxygen (PO) in neonatal resuscitation increases oxidative stress and mortality in full-term hypoxic infants. International neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend air or blended oxygen for resuscitation regardless of gestational age but this requires education and equipment that may not be glo...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koh J,Yeo CL,Wright I,Lui K,Saugstad O,Tarnow-Mordi W,Smyth J,Oei JL

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Early growth patterns are associated with intelligence quotient scores in children born small-for-gestational age.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess whether patterns of growth trajectory during infancy are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 4 years of age in children born small-for-gestational age (SGA). METHODS:Children in the Collaborative Perinatal Project born SGA were eligible for analysis. The primary outcome was the Sta...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Varella MH,Moss WJ

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • The present status of exogenous surfactant for the newborn.

    abstract::This year is the 20th anniversary of the first successful trial of exogenous surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn and it is perhaps a good time to review recent advances in basic science and clinical practice as they relate to surfactant therapy. ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Curley AE,Halliday HL

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Follow-up at age 10 years in ELBW children - functional outcome, brain morphology and results from motor assessments in infancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) children without severe brain injury or CP are at high risk of developing deficits within cognition, attention, behavior and motor function. Assessing the quality of an infant's spontaneous motor-repertoire included in Prechtl's General-Movement-Assessment (GMA) has been sho...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grunewaldt KH,Fjørtoft T,Bjuland KJ,Brubakk AM,Eikenes L,Håberg AK,Løhaugen GC,Skranes J

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison between the pregnancy outcome in women both with or without threatened abortion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the pregnancy outcome in pregnancies with threatened abortion (miscarriage). MATERIAL AND METHOD:A prospective cohort study was performed on 1000 pregnant women. 500 women (case group), had a history of vaginal bleeding during the first half of pregnancy and the other 500 women (control group), d...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dadkhah F,Kashanian M,Eliasi G

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Upper arm measurements of healthy neonates comparing ultrasonography and anthropometric methods.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare measurements of the upper arm cross-sectional areas (total arm area, arm muscle area, and arm fat area of healthy neonates) as calculated using anthropometry with the values obtained by ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This study was performed on 60 consecutively born healthy neonates: gesta...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pereira-da-Silva L,Veiga Gomes J,Clington A,Videira-Amaral JM,Bustamante SA

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Doctors in Star Trek: Drs. Boyce and Piper, the early years.

    abstract::Doctors are frequently depicted as important protagonists in science fiction, including in the science fiction franchise Star Trek. This paper will profile Drs. Philip Boyce and Mark Piper from the first two Star Trek pilot episodes. These doctors are interdisciplinarians with a variety of skills that permit them to c...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,实务指引


    authors: Grech V

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Attention capacities of preterm and term born toddlers: A multi-method approach.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Many preterm children show difficulties in attention at (pre)school age. The development of attention capacities of preterm and term toddlers was compared using a longitudinal and multi-method approach at 12, 18 and 24months. METHOD:Attention was measured for 123 preterm (32-36weeks gestation) and 101 term b...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Jong M,Verhoeven M,van Baar AL

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Transplacental transport of IgG antibodies to preterm infants: a review of the literature.

    abstract::Newborn infants, especially preterm infants, have an immature immune system, which is not capable to actively protect against vaccine-preventable infections. Therefore, the newborn is dependent on transplacental transport of Immunoglobulin G (IgG), an active, FcRn receptor mediated process. Fetal IgG rises from approx...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van den Berg JP,Westerbeek EA,van der Klis FR,Berbers GA,van Elburg RM

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pre-, peri- and postnatal complications in Prader-Willi syndrome in a UK sample.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Few studies describe in detail the pregnancy and early development of infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, variations at these early stages may partially account for differences in the later phenotype. A recent paper described an abnormally high number of problems in pregnancy and early infancy...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whittington JE,Butler JV,Holland AJ

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 6: Standard error and confidence interval.

    abstract::The calculation of descriptive statistics includes the calculation of standard error and confidence interval, an inevitable component of data analysis in inferential statistics. This paper provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel™. ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grech V

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in early auditory exposure across neonatal environments.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To date, no study has compared preterm and full term auditory environments. AIM:To define differences in auditory exposure for preterm infants at term equivalent age in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) compared to auditory exposure in hospital rooms on a labor and delivery ward after full term birth....

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liszka L,Smith J,Mathur A,Schlaggar BL,Colditz G,Pineda R

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • A management programme for Rh alloimmunization during pregnancy.

    abstract::A management programme for the control and treatment of Rh0 (D) immunized during pregnancy is presented. A total of 34,650 births were registered during a 4.5 year period and included 63 D positive newborns to D-immunized mothers. The outcome of all infants has been evaluated according to the severity of the haemolyti...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Filbey D,Berseus O,Lindeberg S,Wesström G

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of perinatal factors on cord thyroxine concentration.

    abstract::Cord blood thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured in 4,068 infants from 28 wk gestation to term. Each chart was reviewed for the following factors: delivery by cesarean section, prolonged rupture of membranes, neonatal asphyxia, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, maternal diabetes mellitus and twinning. Each neonat...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erenberg A

    更新日期:1978-09-01 00:00:00

  • Methods of enteral feeding in preterm infants.

    abstract::Whenever possible, oral feeding is the preferred method in neonatal feeding. However, many premature infants are unable to suck and swallow effectively; in these cases alternative methods of nutrient delivery must be used. We briefly review the different feeding methods used in neonatal units, with particular attentio...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maggio L,Costa S,Zecca C,Giordano L

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cell proliferation correlates with the postconceptual and not with the postnatal age in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, temporal neocortex and cerebellar cortex of preterm infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In previous studies, lower IQ scores and educational difficulties of preterm children were correlated with the reduced size of several brain areas, including the cerebellum and the hippocampus. The most plausible reason for reduction would be the reduced cell formation following premature birth. However, no ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abrahám H,Tornóczky T,Kosztolányi G,Seress L

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Is the association between ACE genes and blood pressure mediated by postnatal growth during the first 3 years?

    abstract::Unlike the defined role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in adult hypertension, ACE gene did not show direct influence on childhood blood pressure (BP), rather, seemed to be related to childhood growth with age-dependent characteristics. Thus, we examined intermediate effects of postnatal growth between the...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Min J,Kim YJ,Lee H,Park EA,Cho SJ,Hong YM,Oh SY,Ha E,Kang D,Park H

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • StaR Child Health: improving global standards for child health research.

    abstract::Standards for Research (StaR) in Child Health, founded in 2009, addresses the current scarcity of and deficiencies in pediatric clinical trials. StaR Child Health brings together leading international experts devoted to developing practical, evidence-based standards to enrich the reliability and relevance of pediatric...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Offringa M,Needham AC,Chan WW,StaR Child Health group.

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Placental expression of VEGF is increased in pregnancies with hydatidiform mole: possible association with developing very early onset preeclampsia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hydatidiform mole is an abnormal pregnancy with over-proliferation of the placenta, which causes the dysfunction of placenta. Although more than 80% of hydatidiform moles are benign with good outcome, hydatidiform moles are associated with developing very early onset preeclampsia. However the association bet...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhao M,Yin Y,Guo F,Wang J,Wang K,Chen Q

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of swaddling on tactile manual learning in preterm infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Swaddling is a well-known technique in developmental care programs as there is some evidence that swaddling is an appropriate stress-reducing method for preterm infants in the NICU. However, no experimental study has investigated the influence of swaddling in a learning context. This study aimed to a...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lejeune F,Delacroix E,Gentaz E,Berne-Audéoud F,Marcus L,Debillon T

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Digit ratio (2D:4D) and testosterone supplementation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Testosterone (T) is taken or prescribed to enhance appearance, increase athletic performance and libido and to treat hypogonadism. Digit ratio (2D:4D) is thought to be a negative correlate of prenatal T. Here we consider the relationship between 2D:4D and T supplementation. AIMS:Our sample was taken from th...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manning J,Cook C,Crewther B

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Oesophageal motor activity and sleep state in the newborn human infant.

    abstract::Oesophageal pressure and ventilation were recorded during sleep in healthy full-term neonates with sleep state defined by one of two methods; in 35 infants by combined behavioural and electroencephalographic criteria, and in a further 13 infants by behavioural criteria alone. Spontaneous oesophageal contractions occur...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manning DJ,Bowden PJ,Hathorn MK,Stothers JK

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal experience revealed by rats: psychobiological insights.

    abstract::Psychobiological studies of fetal ontogenesis in non-human species, particularly in laboratory rat, now have much to offer students of human development. Psychobiological approaches are 'ecologically' oriented which, for fetal research, implies consideration of the adaptive significance of behavior within the uterine ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alberts JR,Ronca AE

    更新日期:1993-12-31 00:00:00

  • Depression during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction- an updated meta-analysis.

    abstract:AIM:Depression during pregnancy is a significant cause of adverse birth outcomes, and its prevalence has increased in recent years. This study aimed to give an updated quantification of the risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that is associated with antenatal d...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghimire U,Papabathini SS,Kawuki J,Obore N,Musa TH

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Catecholaminergic neurons in the brain-stem and sleep apnea in SIDS victims.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a specific marker for catecholaminergic neurones. Some reports have demonstrated a decrease of TH in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) compared with controls. To further investigate this, the correlation between TH and sleep apnea was investigated here. MATERIALS AND METHO...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawaguchi T,Ozawa Y,Patricia F,Kadhim H,Groswasser J,Sottiaux M,Takashima S,Nishida H,Kahn A

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation and management of thrombocytopenic neonates in the intensive care unit.

    abstract::Thrombocytopenia is a very frequent problem among sick neonates, affecting up to 35% of all infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and serves as an important indicator of multiple clinical conditions. The cause of the thrombocytopenia is unclear in up to 60% of affected neonates. A clinical class...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Del Vecchio A

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • The association between cord pH at birth and intellectual function in childhood.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acidemia at birth is very common but little is known about its long-term consequences. AIM:To determine if pH at birth is related to established tests of intellectual function. SUBJECTS:School children aged 6-8, for whom obstetric data were available, who had been delivered after labour at term, and had an...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Svirko E,Mellanby J,Impey L

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between neuronal plasticity and serotonergic neurons in the brainstem of SIDS victims.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is still the main cause of postneonatal infant death and its cause is still unknown. Recently, the medullary serotonergic network deficiency theory has been proposed and an association between SIDS and neuronal plasticity has also been suggested. The growth-associated ...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawaguchi T,Patricia F,Kadhim H,Groswasser J,Sottiaux M,Nishida H,Kahn A

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Foetal size and body proportion at 17-19 weeks of gestation and neonatal size, proportion, and outcome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether proportionate or disproportionate foetal smallness at 17 to 19 weeks of gestation in low-risk pregnancies was associated with size, body constitution, and adverse outcome at birth. METHODS:We included ultrasound measurements at 17-19 weeks of gestation in 7285 uncomplicated pregnancies w...

    journal_title:Early human development

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rasmussen S,Kiserud T,Albrechtsen S

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00