Effect of raloxifene, 17beta-estradiol, and progesterone on mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms 121 and 165 and thrombospondin-1 in Ishikawa cells.


OBJECTIVE:To compare the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 121 and 165 isoforms and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) after raloxifene, 17beta-E(2), and P administration in cultured Ishikawa cells. DESIGN:Prospective basic research study. SETTING:Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. PATIENT(S):None. INTERVENTION(S):Ishikawa cells were cultured in vitro. Raloxifene, 17beta-E(2), and P at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 microM were added to confluent cells. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The VEGF 121 and 165 isoforms and TSP-1 mRNA expression from treated Ishikawa cells were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULT(S):17beta-Estradiol increased both VEGF 121 and 165 mRNA compared to control. Raloxifene did not increase either VEGF 121 or 165 mRNA above control values. Progesterone at all concentrations did not increase VEGF 121 isoform mRNA, whereas VEGF 165 isoform was minimally increased by P at the lowest concentration. Progesterone and raloxifene increased TSP-1 mRNA expression. 17beta-Estradiol did not stimulate TSP-1 mRNA expression at any concentration. CONCLUSION(S):Raloxifene did not stimulate VEGF 121 and 165, whereas it increased TSP-1 mRNA synthesis in Ishikawa cells. Our hypothesis is that raloxifene's lack of endometrial stimulation may be partly mediated by an antiangiogenic effect.


Fertil Steril


Fertility and sterility


Navarro FJ,Mirkin S,Archer DF





Has Abstract


2003-06-01 00:00:00














  • Occupation and the follow-up of infertile couples.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on the outcomes of infertility, including pregnancy, adoption, resolution, and loss to follow-up. DESIGN:Prospective observational study. SETTING:Infertility clinics in 11 teaching hospitals. PATIENTS:Newly registered couples with infertility of > 1 year. ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collins JA,Burrows EA,Willan AR

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of hyperandrogenemia among nonhirsute oligo-ovulatory women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that oligo-ovulatory ovulation is associated with hyperandrogenemia in the absence of other clinical signs of androgen excess. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort controlled. SETTING:Tertiary care university-based outpatient clinic. PATIENT(S):Thirty-two consecutive nonhirsute oligo-ovulator...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen SE,Potter HD,Azziz R

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Increased expression of c-fos protein associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein expression in the endometrium of endometriotic patients.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate c-fos and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in the endometrium from women with or without endometriosis throughout the menstrual cycle, and to explore the correlation of c-fos expression with MMP-9 expression and 17beta-E(2) levels in serum. DESIGN:Molecular studies in human tissue...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan H,Sheng JZ,Tang L,Zhu R,Zhou TH,Huang HF

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • A meta-analysis of meta-analyses.

    abstract::Meta-analyses have become an increasingly popular method of drawing conclusions when there are multiple publications addressing a particular topic. While the statistical calculations are straightforward, many of the decisions regarding the research question, populations of interest, and inclusion/exclusion criteria ar...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sigman M

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mutation frequency of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator is not increased in oligozoospermic male candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the frequency of anomalies of the vas deferens and the frequency of mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene in male candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) who had severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. DESIGN:The clinical data for male candidates for ICSI...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tuerlings JH,Mol B,Kremer JA,Looman M,Meuleman EJ,te Meerman GJ,Buys CH,Merkus HM,Scheffer H

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibin and relaxin concentrations in early singleton, multiple, and failing pregnancy: relationship to gonadotropin and steroid profiles.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the inter-relationships between inhibin, relaxin, steroid concentrations, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), and gonadotropins in early pregnancy. DESIGN:Hormone concentrations in plasma were measured during the luteal phase of subjects who became pregnant (n = 58) or failed to become pregnant (n =...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norman RJ,McLoughlin JW,Borthwick GM,Yohkaichiya T,Matthews CD,MacLennan AH,de Kretser DM

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Selective insulin-like growth factor-I antagonist inhibits mouse embryo development in a dose-dependent manner.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the role of a synthetic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) antagonist, picropodophyllin, for mouse preimplantation embryo development in vivo and in vitro. DESIGN:In vitro and in vivo study. SETTING:Hospital-based research unit. ANIMALS:FVB/N mice and mouse embryos. INTERVENTION(S):Th...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Inzunza J,Danielsson O,Lalitkumar PG,Larsson O,Axelson M,Töhönen V,Danielsson KG,Stavreus-Evers A

    更新日期:2010-05-15 00:00:00

  • Collagenolytic enzyme activity in human ovary: an ovulatory enzyme system.

    abstract::Collagenolytic enzyme activities presumed to play an important role in ovulation were investigated in the human follicular apex, base, and granulosa cell layer throughout the ovarian cycle. Those analyzed were human ovarian collagenase, 2,4-dinitrophenyl-Pro-Gln-Gly-Ile-Ala-Gly-Gln-D-Arg-OH peptidase, N-carbobenzoxy-G...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukumoto M,Yajima Y,Okamura H,Midorikawa O

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Combined use of uterine artery embolization and local methotrexate injection in interstitial ectopic pregnancies with poor prognosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To report three cases of interstitial pregnancies treated successfully by combining uterine artery embolization (UAE) and ultrasound-guided local administration of methotrexate (MTX); and to assess the effect of UAE on ovarian reserve by prospectively measuring serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels. DESIG...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tamarit G,Lonjedo E,González M,Tamarit S,Domingo S,Pellicer A

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Progestins activate vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether progestins activate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. DESIGN:In vitro study. SETTING:University reproductive biology laboratories. PATIENT(S):None. INTERVENTION(S):Ishikawa cells were transfected with VEGF promoter-lucife...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mueller MD,Vigne JL,Pritts EA,Chao V,Dreher E,Taylor RN

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • One versus two inseminations per cycle in intrauterine insemination with sperm from patients' husbands: a systematic review of the literature.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the efficacy of performing two inseminations per cycle in IUI with husband's sperm compared with one insemination per cycle. DESIGN:Meta-analysis. SETTING:Randomized and prospective trials comparing two inseminations vs. one insemination per cycle in IUI with husband's sperm, retrieved by MEDLINE a...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Osuna C,Matorras R,Pijoan JI,Rodríguez-Escudero FJ

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Higher luteinizing hormone levels associated with antimüllerian hormone in postmenarchal daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the reproductive and metabolic differences between daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOSd) and control women (Cd) after menarche. DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING:Clinical endocrinology unit. PATIENT(S):We studied 43 PCOSd and 28 Cd 1.5-6 years after menarche. INTERVENTION(S):...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crisosto N,Ladrón de Guevara A,Echiburú B,Maliqueo M,Cavada G,Codner E,Paez F,Sir-Petermann T

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • RU486 inhibits ovulation, fertilization and early embryonic development in rabbits: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To clarify the role of P in ovulation, fertilization, and early embryonic development using RU486, a potent P receptor blocker. DESIGN:Ovulatory efficiency, IVF, and early embryonic development were evaluated after RU486 administration in vivo and in vitro. SETTING:Research laboratory of a university hospit...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen SH,Dharmarajan AM,Wallach EE,Mastroyannis C

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Monitoring techniques for improved pregnancy rates during clomiphene ovulation induction.

    abstract::Despite the introduction of new ovulation-inducing agents, CC remains the drug of choice for most anovulatory patients. Before initiating therapy, patients should be evaluated to determine the cause of anovulation. Patients with ovarian failure, hyperprolactinemia, hypothyroidism, or forms of CAH should be treated wit...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hammond MG

    更新日期:1984-10-01 00:00:00

  • Psychosocial aspects of ejaculatory dysfunction and male reproduction.

    abstract::This article provides a summary of the biopsychosocial model and the assessment and treatment of male sexual dysfunction as manifested in cases of infertility. In couples trying to get pregnant, a unique set of psychosocial and behavioral changes may evolve that directly interferes with a couple's usual pattern of sex...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wincze JP

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Liver function tests in women using intravaginal spermicide nonoxynol-9.

    abstract::The effects of intravaginal application of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) on hematological parameters, routine liver function biochemistry (bilirubin, serum bile acid, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, alkaline phosphatase), and serum lipids (cholesterol and triglyceride) were evaluated in 10 normal women who received 150 mg N-9 daily for 14 conse...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Chvapil M,Droegemueller W,Earnest DL

    更新日期:1982-02-01 00:00:00

  • Significance of mRNA levels of connexin37, connexin43, and connexin45 in luteinized granulosa cells of controlled hyperstimulated follicles.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the mRNA levels of connexins in different sizes of luteinized follicles. DESIGN:Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the connexin mRNA levels in the granulosa cells of 91 luteinized follicles. SETTING:Academic tertiary care medical center and res...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsai MY,Lan KC,Huang KE,Huang FJ,Kung FT,Chang SY

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Superoxide anion in human semen related to seminal parameters and clinical aspects.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the possible presence of extracellular superoxide anion (O2-) in untreated semen of normal and pathological subjects and to determine the possible relationship between superoxide anion levels, number of seminal leukocytes (WBCs) and seminal parameters. PATIENTS:Semen samples were analyzed from ferti...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mazzilli F,Rossi T,Marchesini M,Ronconi C,Dondero F

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sperm recovering efficiency, a mathematical model, is designed to objectively evaluate semen processing techniques and methods.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To propose the sperm recovering efficiency (SRE) model, an equation that can be used to objectively quantify the technical skill of individual operators processing semen specimens in an andrology laboratory. Additionally, this equation can be used to compare different semen processing methods and protocols. T...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanz E,Olivares R

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Randomized trial of one versus two transcervical insertions of quinacrine pellets for sterilization.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the relative effectiveness of single vs. two transcervical monthly insertions of 252 mg of quinacrine for female sterilization. DESIGN:Controlled clinical study. SETTING:Family planning clinics of 6 academic centers. PATIENT(S):Sexually active reproductive-age women requesting sterilization. ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Agoestina T,Hoesni RH,Purwara BH,Santoso BI,Siswanto P,Dasuki D,Samsulhadi A,Surya GP

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cytogenetic investigations on human oocytes and early human embryonic stages.

    abstract::The chromosome analysis of undivided oocytes and polyploid embryos within a human in vitro fertilization and embryo replacement program offers a unique opportunity to develop correlations between a successful or unsuccessful fertilization and the maturity of the oocytes or the quality of the sperm. Furthermore, it pro...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Michelmann HW,Mettler L

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene mutations are rare in Japanese women with premature ovarian failure and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether the known inactivating FSH receptor gene mutations are present in Japanese women with secondary amenorrhea because of premature ovarian failure (POF) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN:Clinical and molecular studies. SETTING:An outpatient clinic in a university hospital. PATI...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takakura K,Takebayashi K,Wang HQ,Kimura F,Kasahara K,Noda Y

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Azoospermia after treatment with clomiphene citrate in patients with oligospermia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe three cases of azoospermia in patients with oligospermia after clomiphene citrate (CC) intake. DESIGN:Case report. SETTING(S):Academic medical center. PATIENT(S):Three patients with oligospermia. INTERVENTION(S):Three oligospermic men used CC, resulting in azoospermia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pasqualotto FF,Fonseca GP,Pasqualotto EB

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian surgery in an infertility patient as an indication for a short-interval second-look laparoscopy: a preliminary study.

    abstract::The usefulness of a short-interval second-look laparoscopy (SLL) after ovarian surgery was examined. In 23 infertile women who had either bilateral wedge resection (BWR) of polycystic ovaries, an oophorocystectomy (OC), or resection of endometriomata (RE), adhesions were graded before and after surgery and before and ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pittaway DE,Daniell JF,Maxson WS

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Human chorionic gonadotropin suppresses ovarian epithelial neoplastic cell proliferation in vitro.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To quantify the in vitro effects of gonadotropins on benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian cell lines. DESIGN:In vitro cell culture. SETTING:Research laboratory. PATIENT(S):None. INTERVENTION(S):Three hormonally sensitive ovarian neoplastic cell lines were exposed to control medium, FSH (40 mIU/mL), h...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tourgeman DE,Lu JJ,Boostanfar R,Amezcua C,Felix JC,Paulson RJ

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Early ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is completely prevented by gonadotropin releasing-hormone agonist triggering in high-risk oocyte donor cycles: a prospective, luteal-phase follow-up study.

    abstract::In this prospective, follow-up study of 102 high-risk oocyte donors in their luteal phase, we found a complete absence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (no signs of hemoconcentration or ascites) after the donors were triggered with a gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) agonist. Due to its powerful preventive eff...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Bodri D,Guillén JJ,Trullenque M,Schwenn K,Esteve C,Coll O

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrasonographic predictors of implantation after assisted reproduction.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the utility of endometrial thickness, echogenic endometrial pattern, and uterine artery impedance measured as pulsativity index in predicting implantation. DESIGN:Prospective case-controlled study of infertile patients undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). PATIENTS:Four hundred fiv...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Coulam CB,Bustillo M,Soenksen DM,Britten S

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Thrombophilic gene polymorphisms are risk factors for unexplained infertility.

    abstract::Earlier studies have shown inherited thrombophilia to be a risk factor for recurrent implantation failure, raising the question of whether this risk is related to the underlying cause of unexplained infertility or to the mechanisms involved in the implantation process. When nine thrombophilic gene polymorphisms were c...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coulam CB,Jeyendran RS

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis increases the implantation rate in human in vitro fertilization by avoiding the transfer of chromosomally abnormal embryos.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To verify the percentage of chromosomally abnormal preimplantation embryos in patients with a poor prognosis and possibly to increase the chance of implantation by selecting chromosomally normal embryos. DESIGN:A prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING:In vitro fertilization program at the Reprod...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Gianaroli L,Magli MC,Ferraretti AP,Fiorentino A,Garrisi J,Munné S

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prepubertal serum inhibin B in cryptorchid infants and in monorchid boys with compensatory testicular hypertrophy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the prepubertal serum inhibin B levels in monorchid boys with compensatory testicular hypertrophy (CTH) and in surgically treated cryptorchid boys with normal testicular volume. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Pediatric Division, University of Verona, Italy. PATIENT(S):Thirty-two prepubert...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaudino R,Cavarzere P,Camilot M,Teofoli F,Zampieri N,Tatò L

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00