Androgen effects on bone and muscle.


:Bone health and strength are dependent on the coupling of cone resorption and bone formation. This process is governed by the interaction of osteoclasts and osteoblasts plus the modulating influence of the bone mechanicosensory cells-the osteocytes. Both sex steroids-estrogen (E) and testosterone (T)- have receptors on all bone cells, with androgen dominance on osteoblasts and osteocytes. Specific receptors for the weaker androgens, such as DHEA have also been identified. The activity of the sex steroids, influenced by various enzymes found in bone, is reflective of the hormone ligand before its binding to the bone cells. As a result, T acts both directly and via its aromatization to estradiol. The activity of the androgens also varies with the bone surface; periosteal cells, for example, do not have 5alpha-reductase activity, indicating that T is the active metabolite at this clinically important site. Androgens influence bone cell function via local and systemic growth factors and cytokines. By enhancing osteoblast differentiation, androgens regulate bone matrix production, organization, and mineralization. Androgens also regulate osteoclast recruitment and activity. Endogenous androgens increase bone mineral density (BMD) in both adolescent and adult premenopausal women. Women with excess endogenous androgen-for example, those with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-have increased BMD compared with normal young women. E and androgen therapy increases BMD to a greater degree than does E therapy alone. This is true for both oral combinations of esterified E and methyltestosterone and for subcutaneous T implants. Androgenic progestins have an additive effect on BMD when combined with E therapy and have the further advantage of being protective to the endometrium in E-treated women. Androgens increase muscle mass and strength. The resulting improvement in physical activity leads to the activation of bone-forming sites and the stimulation of the bone formation-modulating cells, the osteocytes. Mechanical loading, when combined with hormone therapy, results in greater osteogenic response than does either alone.


Fertil Steril


Fertility and sterility


Notelovitz M





Has Abstract


2002-04-01 00:00:00










77 Suppl 4


  • Effect of injectable contraceptives Depo-Provera and norethisterone oenanthate on pituitary gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    abstract::The pituitary response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was tested in women before and approximately 2, 8, and 12 weeks after the injection of either Depo-Provera or norethisterone oenanthate. The secretion of both luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in response to LHRH was similar in t...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toppozada M,Parmar C,Fotherby K

    更新日期:1978-11-01 00:00:00

  • Enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells from long-term cultured human testicular cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the degree of enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from human testicular cell cultures by ITGA6+, HLA-/ITGA6+, GPR125+, and HLA-/GPR125+ magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS). DESIGN:Experimental basic science study. SETTING:Reproductive biology laboratory. PATIENT(S):Multiple samples...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nickkholgh B,Mizrak SC,Korver CM,van Daalen SK,Meissner A,Repping S,van Pelt AM

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-17A is present in neutrophils in endometrioma and stimulates the secretion of growth-regulated oncogene-α (Gro-α) from endometrioma stromal cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate a new role of interleukin (IL)-17A in endometriosis. DESIGN:Laboratory study. SETTING:University hospital. PATIENT(S):Patients with ovarian endometrioma undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy. INTERVENTION(S):Primary culture of endometrioma stromal cells (EoSCs) was stimulated with IL-17A. Se...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takamura M,Osuga Y,Izumi G,Yoshino O,Koga K,Saito A,Hirata T,Hirota Y,Harada M,Hasegawa A,Taketani Y

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fertility treatment when the prognosis is very poor or futile.

    abstract::The Ethics Committee recommends development of evidence-based policies that are patient centered for each IVF center. In most cases, the provision of futile therapies is not ethically justifiable. For those treatments with very poor success rates, clinicians must be vigilant in their presentation of risks, benefits, a...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Blastocyst formation, pregnancy, and birth derived from human oocytes cryopreserved for 5 years.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To report a live birth after the transfer of a single blastocyst derived from a human oocyte cryopreserved for 5 years. DESIGN:Case report. SETTING:Private assisted reproduction center. PATIENT(S):A 39-year-old woman with tubal infertility and her partner with male-related infertility. INTERVENTION(S):Ooc...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parmegiani L,Fabbri R,Cognigni GE,Bernardi S,Pocognoli P,Filicori M

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Virtual hysterosalpingography in the diagnosis of bicornuate versus septate uterus.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the value of virtual hysterosalpingography (VHSG) in the diagnosis of bicornuate vs. septate uterus. DESIGN:Retrospective study of all cases with bicornuate or septate uterus that had VHSG during the last 3 years at our center. SETTING:Private fertility center and radiology institute with universit...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carrascosa P,Sueldo C,Capuñay C,Baronio M,Papier S

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sonographic assessment of endometrial pattern and thickness in patients treated with human menopausal gonadotropins.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To analyze sonographically the endometrium in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation with menotropins in order to determine the significance of endometrial pattern and thickness on pregnancy rate. DESIGN:This is a prospective, nonrandomized study comparing pregnancy rates in patients with hyperec...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Bohrer MK,Hock DL,Rhoads GG,Kemmann E

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Ovarian expression of markers associated with proliferation or apoptosis in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine DNA fragmentation and several molecules associated with apoptosis or proliferation in ovaries of patients with diminished ovarian reserve. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING:Tertiary institutional hospital. PATIENT(S):Patients with benign uterine pathology who had undergone a hysterectom...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vital-Reyes V,Rodríguez-Burford C,Chhieng DC,Alvarado-Cabrero I,Reyes-Fuentes A,Grizzle WE

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cryopreservation of human prophase I oocytes collected from unstimulated follicles.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the cryopreservation of immature human oocytes obtained from unstimulated ovarian tissue. DESIGN:Immature prophase I oocytes were obtained from unstimulated follicles and were either cryopreserved or cultured as controls. Cryopreservation was performed in a programmable freezing machine using one...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toth TL,Lanzendorf SE,Sandow BA,Veeck LL,Hassen WA,Hansen K,Hodgen GD

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescent infertility--to treat or not to treat.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To present the set of reasons for and against fertility treatment for a very young patient. DESIGN:An expert opinion based on clinical experience. SETTING:An academic-affiliated fertility clinic situated in East Jerusalem. PATIENT(S):A 16-year-old married teenager with 2 years' duration of infertility due ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haimov-Kochman R,Imbar T,Farchat M,Bdolah Y,Hurwitz A

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Retinoic acid suppresses interleukin-6 production in human endometrial cells.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether retinoic acid (RA) can regulate the expression of interleukin (IL)-6 in human endometrial cells in a manner that might be beneficial to women with endometriosis. DESIGN:In vitro study. SETTING:Academic medical center. PATIENT(S):Patients with endometriosis and controls. INTERVENTION(S...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawatsri S,Desai N,Rock JA,Sidell N

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Immunocytochemistry of the estrogen receptor in spontaneous endometriosis in rhesus macaques.

    abstract::Immunocytochemical, biochemical, and histologic analysis of endometriotic lesions and endometria from rhesus macaques with endometriosis revealed several distinctions between ectopic and eutopic endometrium. In lesions, unlike endometrium, neither the mean percentages of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells nor the ...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sternfeld MD,West NB,Brenner RM

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Carbohydrate and lipid studies in women using the progesterone intrauterine device for one year.

    abstract::Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was evaluated in 31 women before and after 1 year's use of a progesterone-releasing intrauterine device. The studies involved measuring blood glucose and plasma insulin levels during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test and also measuring fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels. T...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spellacy WN,Buhi WC,Birk SA

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00

  • Management of the dry ejaculate: a systematic review of aspermia and retrograde ejaculation.

    abstract::A dry ejaculate (aspermia), may occur either because of an inability to transport semen (anejaculation) or because of an inability to ejaculate in an antegrade direction (retrograde ejaculation). The treatment of aspermia varies with underlying etiology and includes medical therapy with sympathomimetics, urinary sperm...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mehta A,Sigman M

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Semen quality in men with disseminated testicular cancer: relation with human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit and pituitary gonadal hormones.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the semen quality and hormonal status between patients with testicular cancer and normal versus increased serum levels of beta-hCG. DESIGN:Retrospective study. SETTING:Academic research environment. PATIENT(S):All 203 patients with testicular cancer who required chemotherapy in the period 1995-2...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Bruin D,de Jong IJ,Arts EG,Nuver J,Dullaart RP,Sluiter WJ,Hoekstra HJ,Sleijfer DT,Gietema JA

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of the insulin-like growth factor and insulin systems in the luteinizing macaque ovarian follicle.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine intrafollicular hormone levels and characterize the mRNA expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in granulosa cells before and after an ovulatory hCG stimulus. DESIGN:Experimental animal study....

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brogan RS,Mix S,Puttabyatappa M,VandeVoort CA,Chaffin CL

    更新日期:2010-03-15 00:00:00

  • Complications of the third stage of labor in in vitro fertilization pregnancies: an additional expression of abnormal placentation?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the correlation between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and complications of the third stage of labor. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort of vaginal deliveries from November 2008 to January 2020. Maternal and obstetric outcomes of singleton deliveries were compared between IVF and non-IVF pregnancies. SETTI...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ganer Herman H,Farhadian Y,Shevach Alon A,Mizrachi Y,Ariel D,Raziel A,Bar J,Kovo M

    更新日期:2020-11-30 00:00:00

  • Importance of reactive oxygen species in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis or idiopathic infertility.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether reactive oxygen species in peritoneal fluid might be a factor in infertility. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Andrology laboratory and gynecology clinic at a tertiary care facility. PATIENT(S):Women with endometriosis (n = 15) or idiopathic infertility (n = 11) who underwent laparosc...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Y,Sharma RK,Falcone T,Goldberg J,Agarwal A

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of ethinyl estradiol on semen quality and various hormonal parameters in a eugonadal male.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the influence of estrogens on male fertility. DESIGN:A 36-year-old eugonadal male was subjected to two different regimens of treatment with ethinyl estradiol (EE2). Sperm quality, immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estr...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lübbert H,Leo-Rossberg I,Hammerstein J

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antisperm antibodies and fertility after vasovasostomy: a follow-up study of 216 men.

    abstract::A group of 216 vasovasostomized men were tested with the mixed antiglobulin reaction for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, and secretory IgA antisperm antibodies bound to the sperm membrane. Free antisperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma were detected with the gelatin agglutination test and the tray agglutination test...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meinertz H,Linnet L,Fogh-Andersen P,Hjort T

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Laryngeal cytological aspects in women with surgically induced menopause who were treated with transdermal estrogen replacement therapy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on laryngeal cytology in postmenopausal women. DESIGN:Prospective open clinical trial. SETTING:Outpatient menopausal clinic in the Department of Gynecology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. PATIENT(S):Eighty-four healthy, surgically pos...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Caruso S,Roccasalva L,Sapienza G,Zappalá M,Nuciforo G,Biondi S

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anaphylactic reaction because of intrauterine 32% dextran-70 instillation.

    abstract::Anaphylactic reaction associated with hysteroscopy using 32% dextran-70 as a distending medium is a rare phenomenon. We report anaphylactic reaction associated with hysteroscopy using dextran that was delivered manually in three otherwise healthy women occurring within a 6-month period. The rapidity and pressure of de...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahmed N,Falcone T,Tulandi T,Houle G

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacology of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. II. Single doses and steady state pharmacokinetics.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the single-dose pharmacokinetics of a recombinant human FSH preparation (Gonal-F; Laboratoires Serono, Aubonne, Switzerland), administered by i.v., IM, and SC routes and its pharmacokinetics at steady state after multiple dosing by the SC route. DESIGN:Twelve healthy down-regulated female volunteer...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: le Contonnec JY,Porchet HC,Beltrami V,Khan A,Toon S,Rowland M

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • The development of cytotoxicity in peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the activation status of peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis. DESIGN:Peritoneal macrophages from patients undergoing laparoscopy were tested for cytotoxic activity against a cultured hepatoma cell line. SETTING:Patients were tested at initial laparoscopy or at the completion of th...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Braun DP,Gebel H,Rotman C,Rana N,Dmowski WP

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lapatinib inhibits meiotic maturation of porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes cultured in vitro in gonadotropin-supplemented medium.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase with lapatinib affects oocyte maturation, expression of the cumulus expansion-associated genes such as tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and synthe...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagyova E,Nemcova L,Mlynarcikova A,Scsukova S,Kalous J

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • The origin of orchiopexy-induced testicular lesions in the pig.

    abstract::Cooling experiments of abdominal testes in adult, naturally cryptorchid pigs indicate that spermatogenic arrest in abdominal testes is not due to an inborn defect, but is caused solely by maintenance of the testis at abdominal temperature. It is postulated that failure of spermatogenic cells to differentiate after orc...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frankenhuis MT,Wiegerinck MA,Schoorl M,Kremer J,Wensing CJ

    更新日期:1979-11-01 00:00:00

  • Family-based analysis of adiponectin gene polymorphisms in Chinese Han polycystic ovary syndrome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the association between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) variants (rs2241766 and rs1501299) of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in PCOS family trios. DESIGN:Family-based study. SETTING:University hospital. PATIENT(S):A total of 224 unrelated PCOS proband...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang W,Wei D,Sun X,Li J,Yu X,Shi Y,Chen ZJ

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • A polymorphism of the CYP17 gene related to sex steroid metabolism is associated with female-to-male but not male-to-female transsexualism.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the association between transsexualism and allele and genotype frequencies of the common cytochrome P450 (CYP) 17 -34 T>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING:Academic research institution. PATIENT(S):102 male-to-female (MtF) and 49 female-to-male (FtM) transse...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bentz EK,Hefler LA,Kaufmann U,Huber JC,Kolbus A,Tempfer CB

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between genital tract infections, sperm antibodies in seminal fluid, and infertility.

    abstract::To explore possible relationships between genital tract infections, sperm antibodies, and infertility, seminal fluid from 100 men was analyzed. Sperm antibodies, measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were detected in 14 of 29 men (48%) with culture-positive asymptomatic infections, 8 of 17 men (47%) with a...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Witkin SS,Toth A

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Digital road mapping image--a novel fluoroscopic real-time guide for selective transcervical catheterization in the treatment of proximal tubal obstruction.

    abstract::Ten infertile women 20 to 40 years of age, with a standard HSG diagnosis of unilateral proximal tubal obstruction, underwent a transvaginal catheterization and recanalization of the fallopian tubes. To set a fluoroscopic real-time guidance technique for improving the results of transvaginal catheterization and recanal...

    journal_title:Fertility and sterility

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eckstein N,Orron DE,Vagman I,Papo J,Lidor A,Chen Z,Ayalon D

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00