Description and quantification of cocaine withdrawal signs in Planaria.


:Previous work provided indirect evidence that planarians undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine. The present study's purpose was to determine if planarians display withdrawal signs and, if so, to quantify the behaviors. Planarians were soaked in cocaine then transferred to either the same cocaine concentration or cocaine-free water. Compared to the cocaine/cocaine group, the cocaine/water group displayed a significant number of atypical behaviors, providing direct evidence of a 'withdrawal phenomenon' in planarians.


Brain Res


Brain research


Raffa RB,Desai P




Has Abstract


2005-01-25 00:00:00














  • Assessment of anxiety-like behaviors in female rats bred for differences in kindling susceptibility and amygdala excitability.

    abstract::Two rat lines bred for kindling susceptibility were previously observed to engage in different behavioral strategies in tests of emotionality. In order to extend past research on defensive behaviors in these strains which largely used males, Fast- and Slow-kindling females were assessed for anxiety-like behaviors in a...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Runke D,McIntyre DC

    更新日期:2008-11-13 00:00:00

  • Prestin is expressed on the whole outer hair cell basolateral surface.

    abstract::Prestin has been identified as a motor protein responsible for outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility. Previous experiments revealed that OHC electromotility and its associated nonlinear capacitance resided in the OHC lateral wall and was not detected at the apical cuticular plate and basal region. In this experiment, ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu N,Zhu ML,Zhao HB

    更新日期:2006-06-20 00:00:00

  • Direct parabrachial nuclear projections to the pharyngeal motoneurons in the rat: an anterograde and retrograde double-labeling study.

    abstract::The parabrachial nucleus consists of several subnuclei which contains autonomic, gustatory, visceral sensory, nociceptive, and respiratory related neurons. We have investigated the direct projections from the rat parabrachial region, including the K olliker-Fuse nucleus, to the pharyngeal motoneurons with an anterogra...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayakawa T,Zheng JQ,Seki M

    更新日期:1999-01-23 00:00:00

  • Increased substance P and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in the paws following formalin injection in rat tail.

    abstract::We previously described a rat model where the injection of formalin in the tail induced a facilitation of the hindpaw withdrawal reflexes (hyperalgesia). In the present work, after injecting formalin in the tail, we measured the levels of pro-nociceptive mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and substance P (SP)...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bianchi M,Martucci C,Biella G,Ferrario P,Sacerdote P

    更新日期:2004-09-03 00:00:00

  • The preconditioning modified neuronal expression of apoptosis-related proteins of Bcl-2 superfamily following severe hypobaric hypoxia in rats.

    abstract::The patterns of expression of the Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-xL proteins were examined immunocytochemically in rat hippocampus and neocortex after severe hypobaric hypoxia (180 Torr for 3 h) and severe hypoxia preconditioned by intermittent mild hypoxia (360 Torr for 2 h daily, for 3 consecutive days, 24 h prior to severe hy...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rybnikova E,Sitnik N,Gluschenko T,Tjulkova E,Samoilov MO

    更新日期:2006-05-17 00:00:00

  • Method of administration determines the effect of naloxone on pain.

    abstract::The opiate antagonist, naloxone, produces dose-dependent biphasic changes in clinical pain. The mechanism of the analgesia produced by low dose naloxone is unknown. To study the analgesic effect of naloxone, we have used a programmable infusion pump, which eliminates placebo-induced endorphin-mediated analgesia, to ad...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levine JD,Gordon NC

    更新日期:1986-02-19 00:00:00

  • A metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist does not mediate neuronal degeneration in cortical culture.

    abstract::In light of the evidence that calcium plays a critical role in excitotoxic neuronal death, it has been speculated that the metabotropic glutamate receptor may also contribute to excitotoxic damage through the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In the present study we examined this possibility by studying ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koh JY,Palmer E,Lin A,Cotman CW

    更新日期:1991-10-11 00:00:00

  • Anatomical evidence for a strong ventral parabrachial projection to nucleus raphe magnus and adjacent tegmental field.

    abstract::Injections with [3H]leucine in the ventral parabrachial nuclei and nucleus Kölliker-Fuse of the cat revealed strong projections to the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and adjacent tegmentum, while similar injections in the adjacent nucleus subcoeruleus produced diffuse projections to large parts of the tegmentum, but not s...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holstege G

    更新日期:1988-04-26 00:00:00

  • Angiotensin II excites neurones in cat solitary tract nuclei which are involved in respiration and related reflex activities.

    abstract::In anaesthetized cats, effects of iontophoretic application of angiotensin II were studied in the nuclei of the tractus solitarius. Specifically, its effects were tested on single respiratory neurones, having rhythmic activity related temporally with the phrenic nerve discharge, and on presumed reflex interneurones, w...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sessle BJ,Henry JL

    更新日期:1987-03-24 00:00:00

  • Microglial activation is not prevented by tacrolimus but dopamine neuron damage is reduced in a rat model of Parkinson's disease progression.

    abstract::A progressive model of Parkinson's disease has been recently developed in the rat where a unilateral excitotoxic injection into the globus pallidus leads to a gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra over a period of at least 6 weeks. In this model microglial activation is observed in t...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wright AK,Miller C,Williams M,Arbuthnott G

    更新日期:2008-06-24 00:00:00

  • Some electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the cortical, noradrenergic projection of the locus coeruleus in the rat.

    abstract::The effect of repetitive stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC) on the discharge rate of spontaneously active neurons of the visual, rostral and cingulate cortex was investigated in untreated and catecholamine-depleted rats under chloral hydrate anesthesia. In untreated animals, the inhibitory transsynaptic effects p...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olpe HR,Glatt A,Laszlo J,Schellenberg A

    更新日期:1980-03-17 00:00:00

  • The reflex responses of single motor units in human lower lip muscles to mechanical stimulation.

    abstract::Single motor unit activity was recorded from human lower lip muscles while subjects maintained a firing rate of 20 ips using audio and visual feedback. Each motor unit was classified as belonging to one of three muscles, orbicularis oris inferior (OOI), mentalis (MENT), or depressor labii inferior (DLI). Reflex respon...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McClean MD,Smith A

    更新日期:1982-11-11 00:00:00

  • Energetics of amino acid transport into brain slices: effects of glucose depletion and substitution of Krebs' cycle intermediates.

    abstract::Amino acid uptake by slices of brain is greatly diminished by incubation of the slices in glucose-free media. Uptake can be restored by the addition of a number of substrates, e.g., lactate, citrate, or oxaloacetate. The mixture of succinate, malate, and pyruvate (SMP, 20, 5, and mM) restored amino acid uptake better ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teller DN,Bana-Schwartz M,Deguzman T,Lajtha A

    更新日期:1977-08-12 00:00:00

  • A histologically derived stereotaxic atlas and substance P immunohistochemistry in the brain of the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) support its role as a model organism for behavioral and pharmacological research.

    abstract::Chemotherapy is an effective treatment but difficult to tolerate due to side effects like vomiting. Studies on the etiology of chemotherapy-related emesis have implicated brainstem nuclei and the neurotransmitter substance P, among other substrates. Since rodents do not vomit, other species have been necessary as alte...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ray AP,Darmani NA

    更新日期:2007-07-02 00:00:00

  • Comparison analysis of distributions of tyrosine hydroxylase, calmodulin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in a triple stained slice of rat brain.

    abstract::The immunohistochemical distributions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calmodulin (CaM) and calcium/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the rat forebrain were compared quantitatively to confirm our previous finding that TH activity and dopamine synthesis in the brain are regulated by a calcium/CaM-dependent syste...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutoo D,Akiyama K,Yabe K

    更新日期:2002-04-12 00:00:00

  • Modulation of salt appetite by lateral ventricular infusions of angiotensin II and carbachol during sodium depletion.

    abstract::Infusions of angiotensin II (AII) or carbachol (CBC) into the lateral ventricles of rats which had been depleted of sodium 4 h previously with either furosemide or polyethylene glycol produced significant changes in salt appetite and sodium and water balances relative to rats infused with saline vehicle. Infusions of ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fitts DA,Thunhorst RL,Simpson JB

    更新日期:1985-11-04 00:00:00

  • Naloxone antagonism of GABA-evoked membrane polarizations in cultured mouse spinal cord neurons.

    abstract::Pharmacological studies using an in vitro model system were carried out to determine if naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, could have effects on neuronal membranes which were unrelated to its action as an opiate receptor antagonist. Intracellular recordings were made from cultured mammalian spinal cord neurons. ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gruol DL,Barker JL,Smith TG

    更新日期:1980-10-06 00:00:00

  • Peripheral input pathways projecting to the motor cortex in the cat.

    abstract::The possibility that the motor cortex receives peripheral input directly from the thalamus was examined using the evoked potential method and the following results were obtained. Potentials in the motor cortex evoked by stimulation of superficial radial (SR) or group II deep radial (DR) nerve were neither abolished no...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asanuma H,Larsen KD,Zarzecki P

    更新日期:1979-08-24 00:00:00

  • Regeneration of descending projections in Xenopus laevis tadpole spinal cord demonstrated by retrograde double labeling.

    abstract::Xenopus laevis tadpoles functionally recover from spinal cord transection. Because this recovery requires the tadpole to metamorphose, it may result from compensatory changes initiated by de novo growth of axons involved in limb dominant locomotion rather than from regeneration of cut axons. To determine whether axona...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibbs KM,Szaro BG

    更新日期:2006-05-09 00:00:00

  • A selective involvement of putamen functional connectivity in youth with internet gaming disorder.

    abstract::Brain cortico-striatal circuits have consistently been implicated in the pathology of addiction related disorders. We applied a reliable seed-based analysis of the resting-state brain activity to comprehensively delineate the subdivisions of striatal functional connectivity implicated in internet gaming disorder. Amon...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hong SB,Harrison BJ,Dandash O,Choi EJ,Kim SC,Kim HH,Shim DH,Kim CD,Kim JW,Yi SH

    更新日期:2015-03-30 00:00:00

  • Modified behavioral characteristics following ablation of the voltage-dependent calcium channel beta3 subunit.

    abstract::Voltage-dependent calcium channels are important for calcium influx and the ensuing intracellular calcium signal in various excitable membranes. The beta subunits of these channels modify calcium currents through pore-forming alpha1 subunits of the high-voltage- activated calcium channels. In the present study, beta3 ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murakami M,Nakagawasai O,Yanai K,Nunoki K,Tan-No K,Tadano T,Iijima T

    更新日期:2007-07-30 00:00:00

  • Estrogen-dependent post-translational change in the nitric oxide system may mediate the leptin action on LH and prolactin secretion.

    abstract::Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons do not express the leptin receptor (OB-R) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). We assessed whether the effect of leptin on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) in proestrus...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Del Bianco-Borges B,Franci CR

    更新日期:2015-04-16 00:00:00

  • Peripheral administration of cholecystokinin activates c-fos expression in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus nucleus, dorsal vagal complex and paraventricular nucleus via capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents and CCK-A receptors in the rat.

    abstract::Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of sulfated CCK octapeptide (CCK-8S) has been shown to induce changes in neuronal activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema (AP), sensory parts of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), and in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), as determine...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mönnikes H,Lauer G,Arnold R

    更新日期:1997-10-03 00:00:00

  • Vasopressinergic hypothalamic neurons are recruited during the audiogenic seizure of WARs.

    abstract::The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is a genetic model of reflex epilepsy with seizures induced by high-intensity sound stimulation (120 dB SPL). In spite of the known neural substrates involved in WAR seizure phenotype, neuroendocrine hypothalamic neurons were never investigated. In this work, AVP immunohistochemistry in...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fonseca AG,Santos RA,Moraes MF,Leite MF,Doretto MC

    更新日期:2005-03-15 00:00:00

  • Non-taxoid site microtubule-stabilizing drugs work independently of tau overexpression in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    abstract::Microtubule-stabilizing drugs are useful in cancer therapy and show promise for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. An overlapping binding site between tau and taxoid site drugs has led to a number of research papers investigating the competitive interaction between these drugs and the microtubule. This has impli...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Das V,Miller JH

    更新日期:2012-12-13 00:00:00

  • Activating deltaPKC antagonizes the protective effect of ERK1/2 inhibition against stroke in rats.

    abstract::Two pathways that have been shown to mediate cerebral ischemic damage are the MEK/ERK cascade and the pro-apoptotic deltaPKC pathway. We investigated the relationship between these pathways in a rat model of focal ischemia by observing and modifying the activation state of each pathway. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, U0126, in...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castañeda D,Zhao H,Mochly-Rosen D,Steinberg GK

    更新日期:2009-01-28 00:00:00

  • Ibogaine blocked methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and induction of heat shock protein in mice.

    abstract::Body temperature changes and heat shock protein (HSP-72) induction in the caudate nucleus were studied in female C57BL/6N mice pretreated with ibogaine (50 mg/kg) and sacrificed 48 h. after a single dose of methamphetamine (20 mg/kg). Methamphetamine injection resulted in hyperthermia and induced HSP-72 expression, wh...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu X,Imam SZ,Newport GD,Slikker W Jr,Ali SF

    更新日期:1999-03-27 00:00:00

  • Retrograde optogenetic characterization of the pontospinal module of the locus coeruleus with a canine adenoviral vector.

    abstract::Noradrenergic neurons of the brainstem extend projections throughout the neuraxis to modulate a wide range of processes including attention, arousal, autonomic control and sensory processing. A spinal projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to regulate nociceptive processing. To characterize and selectivel...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Y,Hickey L,Perrins R,Werlen E,Patel AA,Hirschberg S,Jones MW,Salinas S,Kremer EJ,Pickering AE

    更新日期:2016-06-15 00:00:00

  • Reduced glucose-induced neuronal activation in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese rats.

    abstract::Rats predisposed to develop diet-induced obesity (DIO) preferentially activate their sympathetic nervous system during intracarotid glucose infusion [B.E. Levin, Intracarotid glucose-induced norepinephrine response and the development of diet-induced obesity, Int. J. Obesity 16 (1992) 451-457.] but their brains are ge...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levin BE,Govek EK,Dunn-Meynell AA

    更新日期:1998-10-19 00:00:00

  • Diencephalic amnesia: a reorientation towards tracts?

    abstract::The principal thalamic and hypothalamic structures implicated in mnemonic information processing are the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, the pulvinar, anterior thalamus, and laterodorsal nucleus, the mamillary body, and the mamillothalamic tract and internal medullary lamina. Determining the contribution of an in...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Markowitsch HJ

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00