Regulation of xCT expression and system x (c) (-) function in neuronal cells.


:The glutamate/cystine antiporter system x(c)(-) transports cystine into cells in exchange for glutamate at a ratio of 1:1. It is composed of a specific light chain, xCT, and a heavy chain, 4F2, linked by a disulfide bridge. Intracellularly, cystine is reduced into cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor of glutathione (GSH), an important small molecule antioxidant. Several lines of evidence suggest that the expression of xCT and thereby the presence system x(c)(-) activity plays an important role in the brain. First, it regulates extracellular glutamate concentrations. Second, as brain is prone to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption and lipid content, system x(c)(-) by favoring GSH synthesis, may prevent oxidative damage. Thus, to understand how xCT expression and system x(c)(-) activity are regulated in the central nervous system is of utmost importance. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about the molecular basis by which xCT expression and system x(c)(-) activity are regulated in neuronal cell lines, especially the hippocampal cell line, HT22. In addition, we will relate these pathways to findings in other cell types, especially those found in the central nervous system. We will focus on the signaling pathways that modulate the transcription of the xCT gene. Furthermore, we describe possible pathways that modify system x(c)(-) activity beyond the level of xCT transcription, including regulation on the level of membrane trafficking and substrate availability, especially the regulation by glutamate transport through excitatory amino acid transporters.


Amino Acids


Amino acids


Lewerenz J,Maher P,Methner A




Has Abstract


2012-01-01 00:00:00












  • Synthesis of a bicyclic delta-amino acid as a constrained Gly-Asn dipeptide isostere.

    abstract::Delta-amino acids are very attractive in drug discovery, especially in the peptidomimetic area, because of their capability to act as dipeptide isosteres and reverse turn mimetics. Herein we report the synthesis of a rigid delta-amino acid constrained by a 3-aza-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-based scaffold, which can ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trabocchi A,Menchi G,Danieli E,Guarna A

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Applications and current challenges of proteomic approaches, focusing on two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    abstract::Since the formulation of the concept of "proteomics" in 1995, a plethora of proteomic technologies have been developed in order to study proteomes of tissues, cells and organelles. The powerful new technologies enabled by proteomic approaches have lead to the application of these methods to an exponentially increasing...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vercauteren FG,Arckens L,Quirion R

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, polyamines, amino acids, and weak bases (amines and ammonia) on development and ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryos.

    abstract::We have been studying control mechanisms of gene expression in early embryogenesis in a South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, especially during the period of midblastula transition (MBT), or the transition from the phase of active cell division (cleavage stage) to the phase of extensive morphogenesis (post-blastul...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shiokawa K,Aso M,Kondo T,Takai J,Yoshida J,Mishina T,Fuchimukai K,Ogasawara T,Kariya T,Tashiro K,Igarashi K

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of nitric oxide synthase activity on amino acid concentration in the quinolinate lesioned rat striatum: a microdialysis and histochemical study.

    abstract::The influence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity on the KCl-evoked amino acid concentrations was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in the striatum in a rat model of excitotoxic lesion. Basal microdialysate levels of amino acids decreased during the quinolinic acid-induced neurodegeneration process, except for...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Böckelmann R,Reiser M,Horn TF,Wolf G

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological and therapeutic effects of carnosine on cardiometabolic risk and disease.

    abstract::Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They represent major public health threat to our society. Increasing prevalence of obesity and T2DM contributes to escalating morbidity and mortality from CVD and stroke. Carnos...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baye E,Ukropcova B,Ukropec J,Hipkiss A,Aldini G,de Courten B

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • In silico investigation of molecular mechanism of laminopathy caused by a point mutation (R482W) in lamin A/C protein.

    abstract::Lamin A/C proteins are the major components of a thin proteinaceous filamentous meshwork, the lamina, that underlies the inner nuclear membrane. A few specific mutations in the lamin A/C gene cause a disease with remarkably different clinical features: FPLD, or familial partial lipodystrophy (Dunnigan-type), which mai...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rajendran V,Purohit R,Sethumadhavan R

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of slow-release β-alanine tablets on absorption kinetics and paresthesia.

    abstract::Oral β-alanine (βA) doses larger than 800 mg commonly result in unpleasant sensory symptoms (paresthesia). However, the association of form (pure vs. slow-release) with side-effects has not been fully described. The aim of this single-blinded, randomized three-arm clinical trial was to compare plasma kinetics and symp...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Décombaz J,Beaumont M,Vuichoud J,Bouisset F,Stellingwerff T

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide substrate for caspase-3 with 2-aminoacridone as reporting group.

    abstract::Synthesis and properties of a new fluorescent/fluorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMAC for caspase-3 are reported. The substrate is obtained by conventional Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis and its properties are investigated with regard to fluorescence, sensitivity, applicability and kinetic constants. A non-tradit...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lozanov V,Ivanov IP,Benkova B,Mitev V

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Two piperazic acid-containing cyclic hexapeptides from Streptomyces alboflavus 313.

    abstract::Two novel cyclic hexapeptides, designated NW-G10 (1) and NW-G11 (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces alboflavus 313. Their relative structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations of several constituent amino acids were determined b...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei S,Fan L,Wu W,Ji Z

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Taurine in adipocytes prevents insulin-mediated H2O2 generation and activates Pka and lipolysis.

    abstract::Among many actions assigned to taurine (Tau), the most abundant amino acid in numerous mammalian tissues, it prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity with increasing resting energy expenditure. To sustain this Tau action, the goal of the present study was to explore the acute effects of Tau on baseline and on adrenaline...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piña-Zentella G,de la Rosa-Cuevas G,Vázquez-Meza H,Piña E,de Piña MZ

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization of hydrolysis conditions, isolation, and identification of neuroprotective peptides derived from seahorse Hippocampus trimaculatus.

    abstract::Hippocampus trimaculatus is one of the most heavily traded seahorse species for traditional medicine purposes in many countries. In the present study, we showed neuroprotective effects of peptide derived from H. trimaculatus against amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) toxicity which are central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disea...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pangestuti R,Ryu B,Himaya S,Kim SK

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • A comparative SAR study of thrombin receptor derived non peptide mimetics: importance of phenyl/guanidino proximity for activity.

    abstract::Thrombin, the most potent physiological platelet agonist interacts with cells through a specific G protein-coupled receptor which has been cloned and sequenced. Synthetic thrombin receptor peptides (TRAPs) comprising the first 5 amino acids (SFLLR and SFLLR-NH2) of the new N-terminus tethered ligand of the thrombin re...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexopoulos K,Matsoukas J,Tselios T,Roumelioti P,Mavromoustakos T,Holada K

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of L-alanine-initiated germination ofBacillus subtilis spores by alanine racemase.

    abstract::Germination ofBacillus subtilis spores was initiated by L-Ala and competitively inhibited by D-Ala, suggesting the presence of an alanine receptor. The spores showed alanine racemase activity in the spore coat. To investigate the role of alanine racemase (L → D) on germination, net racemase activity was determined usi...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yasuda Y,Kanda K,Nishioka S,Tanimoto Y,Kato C,Saito A,Fukuchi S,Nakanishi Y,Tochikubo K

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • A cell permeable peptide analog as a potential-specific PET imaging probe for prostate cancer detection.

    abstract::Non-invasive detection of prostate cancer or metastases still remains a challenge in the field of molecular imaging. In our recent work of screening arginine- or lysine-rich peptides for intracellular delivery of a therapeutic agent into prostate cancer cells, an arginine-rich cell permeable peptide (NH(2)GR(11)) was ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hao G,Zhou J,Guo Y,Long MA,Anthony T,Stanfield J,Hsieh JT,Sun X

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • A dual action of taurine on the delayed rectifier K(+) current in embryonic chick cardiomyocytes.

    abstract::Effects of taurine on the delayed rectifier K(+) channel in isolated 10-day-old embryonic chick ventricular cardiomyocytes were examined at different intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca]i), using whole-cell voltage and current clamp techniques. Experiments were performed at room temperature (22°C). Test pulses we...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Satoh H

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • The many faces of interferon tau.

    abstract::Interferon tau (IFNT) was discovered as the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants, but is now known to have a plethora of physiological functions in the mammalian uterus. The mammalian uterus includes, from the outer surface to the lumen, the serosa, myometrium and endometrium. The endometrium consists of the lumi...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bazer FW,Ying W,Wang X,Dunlap KA,Zhou B,Johnson GA,Wu G

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Functional aspects of the ventral pallidum.

    abstract::The ventral pallidum is part of the corticoaccumbo-thalamocortical loop of the basal ganglia. In the past the function of this structure was discussed as a pure relay station in the process of limbic-motor integration. Some recent studies, however, underline that on the level of the ventral pallidum motor behavior can...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kretschmer BD

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Direct access to side chain N,N'-diaminoalkylated derivatives of basic amino acids suitable for solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    abstract::A simple and efficient one-pot procedure that enables rapid access to orthogonally protected N,N'-diaminoalkylated basic amino acid building blocks fully compatible with standard Boc and Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis is reported. Described synthetic approach includes double reductive alkylation of N (α)-protected...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pitteloud JP,Bionda N,Cudic P

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • The relation between glutamine and the immunodepression observed in exercise.

    abstract::Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body. It is an important fuel for some key cells of the immune system. Both the plasma concentration of glutamine and the functional ability of immune cells in the blood are decreased after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Glutamine feeding has had beneficial effects in ...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castell LM,Newsholme EA

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • ω-Amidase: an underappreciated, but important enzyme in L-glutamine and L-asparagine metabolism; relevance to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism, tumor biology and hyperammonemic diseases.

    abstract::In mammals, two major routes exist for the metabolic conversion of L-glutamine to α-ketoglutarate. The most widely studied pathway involves the hydrolysis of L-glutamine to L-glutamate catalyzed by glutaminases, followed by the conversion of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate by the action of an L-glutamate-linked aminotr...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cooper AJ,Shurubor YI,Dorai T,Pinto JT,Isakova EP,Deryabina YI,Denton TT,Krasnikov BF

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • The therapeutic and nutraceutical potential of agmatine, and its enhanced production using Aspergillus oryzae.

    abstract::Agmatine, a natural polyamine produced from arginine by arginine decarboxylase, was first discovered in 1910, but its physiological significance was disregarded for a century. The recent rediscovery of agmatine as an endogenous ligand for α2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the mammalian brain suggests that thi...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Akasaka N,Fujiwara S

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the regulation of the neuroendocrine stress response in rodents: insights from mutant mice.

    abstract::Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas synthesised from arginine and oxygen by enzymes of the family of the nitric oxide synthase. In particular, the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is highly expressed by cells of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, where the sympatho-adrenal system, the hypothalamic-pitu...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Orlando GF,Wolf G,Engelmann M

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptative response of nitrogen metabolism in early endotoxemia: role of ornithine aminotransferase.

    abstract::Arginine (Arg) and glutamine (Gln) utilization is greatly increased during catabolic stress. While the supply of both amino acids has been advocated in this situation, arginine administration is possibly associated with deleterious effects. From a metabolic point of view, these two amino acids are reciprocal precursor...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ventura G,Moinard C,Segaud F,Le Plenier S,Cynober L,De Bandt JP

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Free carnitine and acetyl carnitine plasma levels and their relationship with body muscular mass in athletes.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma carnitine concentration and body composition variation in relation to muscular and fat masses since there is no experimentally proved correlation between plasma carnitine and body masses. We used bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), t...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gatti R,De Palo CB,Spinella P,De Palo EF

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Biochemical characterization of the catecholaldehyde reactivity of L-carnosine and its therapeutic potential in human myocardium.

    abstract::Oxidative deamination of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidase (MAO) generates the catecholaldehydes 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde (DOPEGAL) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), respectively, and H2O2. Catecholaldehydes are highly reactive electrophiles that have been implicated as cau...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelson MM,Builta ZJ,Monroe TB,Doorn JA,Anderson EJ

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of protein structural classes by Chou's pseudo amino acid composition: approached using continuous wavelet transform and principal component analysis.

    abstract::A prior knowledge of protein structural classes can provide useful information about its overall structure, so it is very important for quick and accurate determination of protein structural class with computation method in protein science. One of the key for computation method is accurate protein sample representatio...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li ZC,Zhou XB,Dai Z,Zou XY

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Quantification of D-amino acids in human urine using GC-MS and HPLC.

    abstract::The relative amounts of free D-amino acids (D-AA) in the urine of seven healthy volunteers (age 27 to 49 years) were determined using chiral phase (Chirasil-L-Val) capillary gas chromatography in conjunction with selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. The absolute amounts of free D-AA were determined by pre-column...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brückner H,Haasmann S,Friedrich A

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Coenzyme preference of Streptococcus pyogenes δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase: evidence supporting NADPH as the physiological electron donor.

    abstract::The streptococcal enzyme that catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis was heterologously expressed and the recombinant protein was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized thoroughly. As for δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases from other sources, it was able to use either NADH or NADPH as th...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Petrollino D,Forlani G

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • A rapid and efficient method for the synthesis of selectively S-Trt or S-Mmt protected Cys-containing peptides.

    abstract::Selective removal of protecting groups under different cleavage mechanisms could be an asset in peptide synthesis, since it provides the feasibility to incorporate different functional groups in similar reactive centres. However, selective protection/deprotection of orthogonal protecting groups in peptides is still ch...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stathopoulos P,Papas S,Sakka M,Tzakos AG,Tsikaris V

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Antizyme inhibitor 2: molecular, cellular and physiological aspects.

    abstract::Polyamines are small organic polycations essential for cell proliferation and survival. Antizymes (AZs) are small proteins regulated by polyamines that inhibit polyamine biosynthesis and uptake in mammalian cells. In addition, antizyme functions are also regulated by antizyme inhibitors, homologue proteins of ornithin...

    journal_title:Amino acids

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: López-Contreras AJ,Ramos-Molina B,Cremades A,Peñafiel R

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00