Excitation of Limulus photoreceptors by hydrolysis-resistant analogs of cGMP and cAMP.


:cGMP was proposed to be the agent which directly opens the light-sensitive channel in Limulus ventral photoreceptors. However, the light-sensitive rhabdomeral-lobe (R-lobe) is not uniformly responsive to cGMP injection; that is, there are 'hot spots' of sensitivity. A potent phosphodiesterase which rapidly hydrolyses cGMP was suggested to explain the existence of these 'hot spots'. To test this idea we injected ventral photoreceptors with hydrolysis-resistant cyclic nucleotide analogues. Whereas there can be a lack of a response to cGMP injection into the R-lobe, we find a reproducible depolarization upon R-lobe injection of hydrolysis-resistant cGMP analogues. Furthermore, the depolarization resulting from the injection of cGMP analogues does not require a rise in intracellular Ca2+, as it is not blocked by the Ca2+ buffer, BAPTA. Surprisingly, R-lobe injection of a hydrolysis-resistant cAMP analogue also depolarized ventral photoreceptors. Further work will be needed to resolve the role of cGMP in Limulus visual transduction.


Brain Res


Brain research


Feng JJ,Frank TM,Fein A




Has Abstract


1991-06-28 00:00:00














  • Ultrastructural study of motor endings on long chain intrafusal fibers in muscle spindles of the cat.

    abstract::Five complete poles of long nuclear chain intrafusal fibers of cat tenuissimus muscle spindles embedded in a plastic medium were cut in serial, 1 micron thick transverse sections and stained with toluidine blue. Each fiber pole displayed one plate-type motor ending positioned outside the encapsulated part of the spind...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kucera J,Hughes R

    更新日期:1983-03-07 00:00:00

  • The association of tissue transglutaminase with human recombinant tau results in the formation of insoluble filamentous structures.

    abstract::To determine possible mechanisms by which NFTs are formed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the ability of tissue transglutaminase (TGase) to convert human recombinant tau proteins into insoluble filamentous structures. TGase derived from guinea pig liver was activated by calcium to catalyze the in vitro cr...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Appelt DM,Balin BJ

    更新日期:1997-01-16 00:00:00

  • Endocrine, cognitive and hippocampal/cortical 5HT 1A/2A receptor changes evoked by a time-dependent sensitisation (TDS) stress model in rats.

    abstract::Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by hyperarousal, anxiety and amnesic symptoms. Deficits in explicit memory recall have been causally related to volume reductions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. While stress-related glucocorticoid secretion appears involved in this apparent atrophy, the...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harvey BH,Naciti C,Brand L,Stein DJ

    更新日期:2003-09-05 00:00:00

  • Distribution of somatostatin in the brain and of somatostatin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in peripheral tissues of the chicken.

    abstract::Our research group recently presented the distribution of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the chicken brain. In this study we measured somatostatin (SRIH) concentrations in different brain parts and nuclei. The distribution of SRIH and TRH in peripheral tissues was also studied. Although the highest SRIH conten...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geris KL,Meeussen G,Kühn ER,Darras VM

    更新日期:2000-08-11 00:00:00

  • Intragranular colocalization of CRF and Met-Enk-8 in nerve terminals in the rat median eminence.

    abstract::The ultrastructural localizations of rat corticoliberin (rCRF) and methionine-enkephalin octapeptide (Met-Enk-8) in the external layer of the rat median eminence were examined by double-immunogold labeling with anti-rCRF and anti-Met-Enk-8 sera labeled with small-sized (Gs) and medium-sized (Gm) gold particles, respec...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hisano S,Daikoku S,Yanaihara N,Shibasaki T

    更新日期:1986-04-09 00:00:00

  • Carrageenan-induced inflammation alters the content of i-cGMP and i-cAMP in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

    abstract::Hindpaw injections of carrageenan (CARRA) decreased paw withdrawal latencies to radiant heat and increased hindpaw edema. At the peak of hyperalgesia, the content of immunoreactive guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (i-cGMP) was increased, while immunoreactive adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (i-cAMP) was decrea...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garry MG,Richardson JD,Hargreaves KM

    更新日期:1994-05-16 00:00:00

  • Enriched environment delays the onset of hippocampal damage after global cerebral ischemia in rats.

    abstract::An enriched environment has been shown to improve cognitive, behavioral and histopathological outcome after focal cerebral ischemia and head trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an enriched environment on histopathology following global cerebral ischemia. Wistar rats (21 weeks of age) were ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belayev A,Saul I,Liu Y,Zhao W,Ginsberg MD,Valdes MA,Busto R,Belayev L

    更新日期:2003-02-21 00:00:00

  • Recombinant nef HIV-IIIB protein is toxic to human neurons in culture.

    abstract::The expression of HIV-1 negative factor (nef) has been positively correlated with HIV disease progression [Z. Hanna, D.G. Kay, N. Rebai, A. Guimond, S. Jothy, P. Jocicoeur, Nef harbors a makor determinant of pathogenicity for an AIDS-like disease induced by HIV-1 in transgenic mice. Cell 95 (1998) 163-175]. Nef expres...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trillo-Pazos G,McFarlane-Abdulla E,Campbell IC,Pilkington GJ,Everall IP

    更新日期:2000-05-12 00:00:00

  • Burst-firing activity of presumed 5-HT neurones of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus: electrophysiological analysis by antidromic stimulation.

    abstract::We recently reported raphe neurones which frequently fired spikes in short bursts. However, the action potentials were broad and the neurones fired in a slow and regular pattern, suggesting they were an unusual type of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurone. In the present study, we investigated whether these putative bur...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hajós M,Sharp T

    更新日期:1996-11-18 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effects of hypoxia and adenosine on N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced pial arteriolar dilation in piglets.

    abstract::Our previous studies have indicated that oxygen radicals, produced during reoxygenation following short-term arterial hypoxia, lead to sustained suppression of cerebral arteriolar responses to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). However, whether arteriolar dilator responses to NMDA are reduced during arterial hypoxia has nev...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bari F,Thore CR,Louis TM,Busija DW

    更新日期:1998-01-12 00:00:00

  • Penicillin-induced epileptic phenomena in the rabbit's neocortex II. Laminar specific generation of interictal spikes after the application of penicillin to different cortical depths.

    abstract::To elucidate the generation mechanisms of interictal spikes we analyzed the electrical events in the different layers of the rabbit's neocortex after application of penicillin to distinct cortical layers. Field potentials (FP) recorded simultaneously from all layers with a 16-fold micro-electrode-assembly were subject...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pockberger H,Rappelsberger P,Petsche H

    更新日期:1984-09-10 00:00:00

  • Studies on the relationship between Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria and the release of amino acid neurotransmitters.

    abstract::It is known that transmitter release depends upon the entry of calcium ions into the synaptic terminal. Mitochondria have been suggested to play a key role on the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, thereby influencing transmitter liberation and synaptic transmission. Here we report the stimulatory effect ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sandoval ME

    更新日期:1980-01-13 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological correlates of the efficient detection of emotional facial expressions.

    abstract::Behavioral studies have shown that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly and accurately than are neutral expressions. However, the neural mechanism underlying this efficient detection has remained unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during a visual searc...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawada R,Sato W,Uono S,Kochiyama T,Toichi M

    更新日期:2014-04-29 00:00:00

  • Escape responses following elimination of the giant interneuron pathway in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    abstract::The entire set of giant interneurons (GIs) in the nerve cord of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, was ablated using either electrolytic or surgical techniques. All animals with these lesions were capable of turning and running away from standard wind puffs. However, all animals responded much less frequently to st...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Comer CM,Dowd JP,Stubblefield GT

    更新日期:1988-04-05 00:00:00

  • Sigma receptor regulation of norepinephrine release from rat hippocampal slices.

    abstract::Multiple sigma receptor subtypes have been identified in the hippocampus, yet their physiological role remains largely undefined. In the current study, we examined the role of sigma receptors in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-stimulated [3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) release from rat hippocampal slices. Bo...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gonzalez-Alvear GM,Werling LL

    更新日期:1995-02-27 00:00:00

  • Differential inhibition of transient and long-lasting calcium channel currents by benzodiazepines in neuroblastoma cells.

    abstract::The effects of diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, and Ro5-4864 on transient (type I) and long-lasting (type II) calcium channels associated with low-affinity benzodiazepine receptors were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Clonazepam (100 microM), a specific agonist for the central-type benzodiaze...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watabe S,Yoshii M,Ogata N,Tsunoo A,Narahashi T

    更新日期:1993-03-26 00:00:00

  • gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in mouse and rat first somatosensory (SI) cortex: description and comparison.

    abstract::The location and morphological characteristics of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunopositive cells and their processes were studied in rat and mouse first somatosensory (SI) cortex (including 'barrels') in layer IV, and layers above (I-III), and below (V and VI). In coronal sections of SI cortex of both species GAB...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chmielowska J,Stewart MG,Bourne RC

    更新日期:1988-01-26 00:00:00

  • Phorbol ester enhances excitatory amino acid-induced dopamine release from mesencephalic cell cultures.

    abstract::The hypothesis that protein kinase C activation can modulate excitatory amino acid-induced dopamine release was tested by investigating effects of phorbol esters, direct activators of protein kinase C, on dopamine release stimulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA sub-types of excitatory amino acid agonist...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boksa P,Mount H,Chaudieu I

    更新日期:1992-03-06 00:00:00

  • Energetics of amino acid transport into brain slices: effects of glucose depletion and substitution of Krebs' cycle intermediates.

    abstract::Amino acid uptake by slices of brain is greatly diminished by incubation of the slices in glucose-free media. Uptake can be restored by the addition of a number of substrates, e.g., lactate, citrate, or oxaloacetate. The mixture of succinate, malate, and pyruvate (SMP, 20, 5, and mM) restored amino acid uptake better ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Teller DN,Bana-Schwartz M,Deguzman T,Lajtha A

    更新日期:1977-08-12 00:00:00

  • Transmission routes of HIV-1 gp120 from brain to lymphoid tissues.

    abstract::The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of antiviral agents into the CNS thereby facilitating the creation of a reservoir of HIV that could potentially reinfect peripheral tissues. We characterized the efflux from brain of radioactively labeled viral coat HIV-1 gp120 (I-gp120) after intracerebroventricular (...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cashion MF,Banks WA,Bost KL,Kastin AJ

    更新日期:1999-03-20 00:00:00

  • The effect of electroacupuncture on proteomic changes in the motor cortex of 6-OHDA Parkinsonian rats.

    abstract::Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to alleviate motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and PD animal models. However, the mechanisms by which EA improves motor function have not been investigated. We have employed a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) unilateral injection induced PD model to investigate wh...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li M,Li L,Wang K,Su W,Jia J,Wang X

    更新日期:2017-10-15 00:00:00

  • Effect of amniotic-fluid ingestion on vaginal-cervical-stimulation-induced Fos expression in female rats during estrus.

    abstract::Placental Opioid-Enhancing Factor (POEF) is a substance found in amniotic fluid (AF) that, when ingested, potentiates opioid-mediated, but not non-opioid-mediated, hypoalgesia. Vaginal-cervical stimulation (VCS) produces a stimulus-bound, partially opioid-mediated hypoalgesia that previous research has shown to be pot...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoey RF,Hurley SW,Daniels D,Kristal MB

    更新日期:2011-02-28 00:00:00

  • Single neuron cultivation of embryonic and perinatal rabbit or rat brains based on plasma clot technique.

    abstract::Isolated neuronal cells dissociated from the brain of embryonic rabbits on the sixteenth day of gestation and of perinatal rats (eighteenth embryonic day, to E18, thirteenth day postnatum, p.n. 13) were selectively cultured using a plasma clot technique. The cells grown were shown to be neurons by means of the neuron-...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buse E,Matthaei H

    更新日期:1983-04-01 00:00:00

  • Discharge of neurons in the parabrachial pons related to the cardiac cycle: changes during different sleep-waking states.

    abstract::Neuronal activity in the nucleus parabrachialis medialis (NPBM) was examined in unanesthetized, unrestrained cats during each sleep-waking state. Discharge related to the cardiac cycle was assessed by calculating cross-correlation functions between neuronal and cardiac events (using the peak of the EKG 'R' wave as a r...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sieck GC,Harper RM

    更新日期:1980-10-20 00:00:00

  • ASIC3-immunoreactive neurons in the rat vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory ganglia.

    abstract::ASIC3-immunoreactivity (ir) was examined in the rat vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory ganglia. In the jugular, petrosal and nodose ganglia, 24.8%, 30.8% and 20.6% of sensory neurons, respectively, were immunoreactive for ASIC3. These neurons were observed throughout the ganglia. A double immunofluorescence method dem...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukuda T,Ichikawa H,Terayama R,Yamaai T,Kuboki T,Sugimoto T

    更新日期:2006-04-07 00:00:00

  • The cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium (AF64A) induces an increase in MAO-B activity in the rat brain.

    abstract::Recently it was reported that there is an increase in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity in post-mortem brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. It was postulated that this increase in MAO-B activity was due to gliosis associated with neuronal degeneration. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate th...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jossan SS,Hiraga Y,Oreland L

    更新日期:1989-01-09 00:00:00

  • Thirteen-month inhibition of aldose reductase by zenarestat prevents morphological abnormalities in the dorsal root ganglia of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    abstract::The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) have been identified as the target tissue in diabetic somatosensory neuropathy. It has been reported that, in the chronically diabetic state, DRG sensory neurons may undergo morphological changes. In this study, we examined the effect of zenarestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, on the m...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shimoshige Y,Minoura K,Matsuoka N,Takakura S,Mutoh S,Kamijo M

    更新日期:2009-01-09 00:00:00

  • Evidence to suggest that cytosolic acetylcholine in rat hippocampal nerve terminals is not directly transferred into synaptic vesicles for release.

    abstract::Rat hippocampal minces were loaded with [acetyl 1-14C]acetylcholine ([14C]ACh) in the presence of the "poorly penetrating" acetylcholinesterase (EC; AChE) inhibitor echothiophate and the effect of high K+ depolarization determined on the subcellular storage and release of [14C]ACh and its metabolites. Results ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carroll PT

    更新日期:1996-06-24 00:00:00

  • D-serine: the right or wrong isoform?

    abstract::Only recently, d-amino acids have been identified in mammals. Of these, d-serine has been most extensively studied. d-Serine was found to play an important role as a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system (CNS) by binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr), similar to glycine. Therefore, d-seri...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fuchs SA,Berger R,de Koning TJ

    更新日期:2011-07-15 00:00:00

  • Neuroanatomical patterns of fos-like immunoreactivity induced by a palatable meal and meal-paired environment in saline- and naltrexone-treated rats.

    abstract::Opioid antagonists block the positive hedonic response to food taste and are potent inhibitors of palatability-driven feeding. However, the specific brain regions within which opioid peptide secretion contributes to the maintenance of palatability-driven feeding have not been clearly established. In the present study,...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park TH,Carr KD

    更新日期:1998-09-14 00:00:00