PhTx4, a new class of toxins from Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, inhibits the glutamate uptake in rat brain synaptosomes.


:We report the characterization of a new class of glutamate uptake inhibitors isolated from Phoneutria nigriventer venom. Glutamate transport activity was assayed in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes by using [(3)H]-L-glutamate. PhTx4 inhibited glutamate uptake in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value obtained was 2.35+/-0.9 microg/ml which is in the observed range reported for glutamate uptake blockers. Tx4-7, one of PhTx4 toxins, showed the strongest inhibitory activity (50.3+/-0.69%, n=3).


Brain Res


Brain research


Mafra RA,Figueiredo SG,Diniz CR,Cordeiro MN,Cruz JD,De Lima ME




Has Abstract


1999-06-12 00:00:00














  • Anatomical and ontogenetic factors producing variation in HVc neuron number in zebra finches.

    abstract::The volume of nucleus HVc of the avian song system varies greatly both among and within songbird species, and is positively correlated to song complexity in many species. Moreover, the number of neurons in HVc predicts the ability of individual zebra finches to imitate song accurately. To better understand this brain/...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ward BC,Nordeen EJ,Nordeen KW

    更新日期:2001-06-22 00:00:00

  • Food-entrained circadian rhythms in rats are insensitive to deuterium oxide.

    abstract::Rats anticipate a scheduled daily meal by entrainment of a circadian pacemaker separate from the light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The site and molecular mechanisms of the food-entrainable pacemaker are unknown. The intrinsic period (tau) of the SCN pacemaker is signifi...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mistlberger RE,Marchant EG,Kippin TE

    更新日期:2001-11-23 00:00:00

  • Microtubule organization and synaptogenesis in the vestibular sensory cells.

    abstract::Microtubule organization in type I hair cells has been investigated during the synaptogenesis of vestibular receptors in mammals. The different steps in the maturation of the synapse between the hair cell and the nerve chalice were: a slight symmetrical membrane densification; the appearance of synaptic bodies alongsi...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Favre D,Dememes D,Sans A

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of stimuli on the activity and functional connectivity of local neuronal groups in the cat auditory cortex.

    abstract::Simultaneous extracellular recordings from one electrode of 'local' groups of 3-6 neurons were obtained from the auditory cortex of unanesthetized, paralyzed cats. The activity and functional connectivity of local microenvironments were examined under various auditory stimuli. Single cell response patterns were examin...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frostig RD,Gottlieb Y,Vaadia E,Abeles M

    更新日期:1983-08-08 00:00:00

  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: GABAB receptor-mediated function.

    abstract::The succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) null mouse (SSADH(-/-)) represents a viable animal model for human SSADH deficiency and is characterized by markedly elevated levels of both gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain, blood, and urine. In physiological concentrations, GH...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buzzi A,Wu Y,Frantseva MV,Perez Velazquez JL,Cortez MA,Liu CC,Shen LQ,Gibson KM,Snead OC 3rd

    更新日期:2006-05-23 00:00:00

  • The neurotoxic actions of ibotenic acid on cholinergic and opioid peptidergic systems in the central nervous system of the rat.

    abstract::The neurotoxic effects produced by ibotenic acid (IA) induced chemical lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) cholinergic system were examined on the opioid peptidergic system in adult rats. Forebrain cholinergic systems were bilaterally lesioned by the infusion of IA (1 or 5 micrograms/site) into the nucleus bas...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rattan AK,Tejwani GA

    更新日期:1992-02-07 00:00:00

  • Immunocytochemical localisation of neuropeptide Y and 5-hydroxytryptamine in a subpopulation of amine-handling intracardiac neurones that do not contain dopamine beta-hydroxylase in tissue culture.

    abstract::The colocalisation of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactivities in intracardiac neurones in dissociated cultures from the atria and interatrial septum of newborn guinea pig heart was demonstrated by the sequential application of specific antisera which were visualised by two different flu...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hassall CJ,Burnstock G

    更新日期:1987-09-29 00:00:00

  • Synaptic inhibition of phrenic motoneurones evoked by stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve.

    abstract::Synaptic responses evoked in phrenic motoneurones (PMNs) by stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) were analysed in anaesthetised cats. Stimulation of the SLN was followed by inhibition of ipsilateral phrenic nerve discharge with the latency of 9.5 +/- 2.3 ms (mean +/- S.D.) and hyperpolarizations of ipsila...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bellingham MC,Lipski J,Voss MD

    更新日期:1989-05-08 00:00:00

  • Organization of the intercollicular pathway in rat.

    abstract::The intercollicular pathway of the rat was studied using autoradiographic (ARG) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracing techniques. The HRP experiments demonstrated that the cells of origin of the intertectal pathway were located primarily in the rostral stratum griseum intermediale ( SGI ), stratum album intermedium...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamasaki DS,Krauthamer G,Rhoades RW

    更新日期:1984-05-23 00:00:00

  • Short photoperiod and testosterone-induced modification of GnRH release from the hypothalamus of Peromyscus maniculatus.

    abstract::Seasonally breeding animals undergo numerous physiological changes in response to changes in the length of the photoperiod. In most warm-weather breeding rodents, these changes result in reproductive quiescence during short photoperiods. It has been hypothesized that this change is mediated by changes in the activity ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mintz EM,Lavenburg KR,Blank JL

    更新日期:2007-11-14 00:00:00

  • Effects of chloride flux modulators in an in vitro model of brain edema formation.

    abstract::Brain edema is a serious consequence of hemispheric stroke and traumatic brain injury and contributes significantly to patient mortality. In the present study, we measured water contents in hippocampal slices as an in vitro model of edema formation. Excitotoxic conditions induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 300 mic...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumar V,Naik RS,Hillert M,Klein J

    更新日期:2006-11-29 00:00:00

  • Neurotrophin-3 and TrkC in the frog visual system: changes after axotomy.

    abstract::Neurotrophins are potent regulators of the survival of different neuronal populations in the CNS. Little is known of the immunodistribution of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and tyrosine kinase C (TrkC) receptor in the frog visual system, which can successfully regenerate and recover vision after injury. In this study we show ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Duprey-Díaz MV,Blagburn JM,Blanco RE

    更新日期:2003-08-22 00:00:00

  • Involvement of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in attenuation of radiation-induced hyperthermia by interleukin-1 alpha in rats.

    abstract::Pretreatment with recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (rhIL-1 alpha) 20 h before irradiation attenuates radiation-induced hyperthermia. Experiments were conducted to determine the role of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in rhIL-1 alpha-induced attenuation of ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kandasamy SB,Kumar KS,Harris AH

    更新日期:1993-03-19 00:00:00

  • Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    abstract::Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, t...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Joseph S,Teki S,Kumar S,Husain M,Griffiths TD

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of hypothyroidism on the size of spines of pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex.

    abstract::We have previously shown that hypothyroidism produces a decrease in the number of spines counted along the apical shafts of pyramidal neurons of the cortex. Nevertheless, other authors have found that when an animal is subjected to some adverse living conditions the size of the spines decreases, making them invisible ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berbel PJ,Escobar del Rey F,Morreale de Escobar G,Ruiz-Marcos A

    更新日期:1985-07-01 00:00:00

  • Some properties of solubilized GABA receptor.

    abstract::gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor was solubilized from synaptic membrane of the rat brain by various detergents. Nonidet P-40, a non-ionic detergent, was found to be an effective solubilizing agent, since it caused no interference on the receptor binding assay, yielded a [3H]muscimol binding protein with a high ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ito Y,Kuriyama K

    更新日期:1982-03-25 00:00:00

  • Delayed spontaneous alternation in weaver mutant mice.

    abstract::Weaver mutant mice alternated above chance levels but less often than normal mice in a 2-trial spontaneous alternation test. When the inter-trial (or retention) interval was manipulated, the weaver mutants alternated above chance levels only at the shortest (15 s) but not at the longest (4 or 5 min) intervals, contrar...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lalonde R

    更新日期:1986-11-19 00:00:00

  • Angiotensin II excites neurones in cat solitary tract nuclei which are involved in respiration and related reflex activities.

    abstract::In anaesthetized cats, effects of iontophoretic application of angiotensin II were studied in the nuclei of the tractus solitarius. Specifically, its effects were tested on single respiratory neurones, having rhythmic activity related temporally with the phrenic nerve discharge, and on presumed reflex interneurones, w...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sessle BJ,Henry JL

    更新日期:1987-03-24 00:00:00

  • Adenylyl cyclase isoforms in the vestibular periphery of the rat.

    abstract::The expression of adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms in the adult rat vestibular periphery was investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AC II, IV and V mRNAs were expressed in both Scarpa's ganglion and vestibular end organs. In addition, in the vestibular end organs, an AC mRNA not pre...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wackym PA,Troyanovskaya M,Popper P

    更新日期:2000-03-24 00:00:00

  • Atrophy of medium spiny I striatal dendrites in advanced Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Loss of dopaminergic neurons from the pars compacta of the substantia nigra is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and results in a partial deafferentation to the striatum. Since deafferentation is known to induce transynaptic atrophy of postsynaptic cells, we examined by Golgi impregnation the morph...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McNeill TH,Brown SA,Rafols JA,Shoulson I

    更新日期:1988-07-05 00:00:00

  • Glucocorticoid receptor-immunoreactivity in corticotrophin-releasing factor afferents to the locus coeruleus.

    abstract::The stress-related neurohormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also acts as a neurotransmitter to activate the brain noradrenergic nucleus, locus coeruleus (LC). Previous electrophysiological findings demonstrating that tonic CRF secretion in the LC is increased in adrenalectomized rats suggest that activity o...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lechner SM,Valentino RJ

    更新日期:1999-01-16 00:00:00

  • Superior colliculus efferents to five subcortical visual system structures in the ground squirrel.

    abstract::We compared the laminar location and morphology of superior colliculus cells projecting to the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (LGd, LGv), the pretectum (PT), the parabigeminal nucleus (Pb), and nucleus lateralis posterior (LP) in the ground squirrel Spermophilus tridecemlineatus. Horseradish peroxidase w...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lugo-Garcia N,Kicliter E

    更新日期:1987-11-17 00:00:00

  • Reflex responses of human thigh muscles to non-noxious sural stimulation during stepping.

    abstract::An investigation of reflex responses of leg muscles to sural stimulation during stepping was performed on human subjects. Non-noxious electrical stimulation applied during the swing phase or the latter half of the stance phase produced a mixed increase and decrease of EMG activity in the hamstring muscles. No response...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanda K,Sato H

    更新日期:1983-12-12 00:00:00

  • Butyrate-induced increase in neuron-specific enolase and ornithine decarboxylase in anaplastic glioma cells.

    abstract::Butyrate treatment results in the rapid formation of processes on F98 anaplastic glioma cells. The morphological differentiation occurs more rapidly and to a greater extent than that induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). The incorporation of [3H]thymidine is virtually stopped 1 day after treatment of F98 cells with so...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vinores SA,Marangos PJ,Ko L

    更新日期:1982-09-01 00:00:00

  • Noradrenergic and serotonergic projections to the superior olive: potential for modulation of olivocochlear neurons.

    abstract::The distribution and density of noradrenergic (NA) and serotonergic (5-HT) varicosities in the superior olive (SO) and periolivary region (PO) and their relationship to olivocochlear neurons was studied. Antibodies against 5-HT and the NA precursor enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase were utilized to examine the density ...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woods CI,Azeredo WJ

    更新日期:1999-07-31 00:00:00

  • GDNF partially protects grafted fetal dopaminergic neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity.

    abstract::Rats were given unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and subsequently received transplants of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue into the denervated striatum. Four weeks later transplanted animals were tested for graft-mediated reduction of amphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Subsequently, transplanted a...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yurek DM,Fletcher-Turner A

    更新日期:1999-10-16 00:00:00

  • Seizure-induced neuronal apoptosis is related to dysregulation of the RNA-edited GluR2 subunit in the developing mouse brain.

    abstract::Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (AMPAR) which crucially modify maturational programs of the developing brain are involved in seizure-induced glutamate excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Regulatory effects on AMPAR subunit composition and RNA-editing in the developing brain and their significance as therapeutic targets are no...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung S,Ballheimer YE,Brackmann F,Zoglauer D,Geppert CI,Hartmann A,Trollmann R

    更新日期:2020-05-15 00:00:00

  • Synthesis of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) from phosphatidylethanolamine in bovine brain.

    abstract::Choline molecules are needed for the synthesis of acetylcholine and phospholipids in the mammalian brain. An enzymatic activity capable of forming lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) from the step-by-step methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is identified in the bovine brain. This enzyme(s), phosphatidylethanolamine-N-m...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blusztajn JK,Zeisel SH,Wurtman RJ

    更新日期:1979-12-28 00:00:00

  • Neuropeptide Y attenuates NMDA-induced phase shifts in the SCN of NPY Y1 receptor knockout mice in vitro.

    abstract::Neuropeptide Y (NPY) blocks the effect of light on the mammalian circadian clock during the subjective night. The present study explores the role of the NPY Y1 receptor in this interaction. The effect of NPY when co-applied with NMDA, a glutamate agonist that can mimic the effect of light, was examined in NPY Y1-/- mi...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soscia SJ,Harrington ME

    更新日期:2004-10-08 00:00:00

  • Opioids can enhance and inhibit the electrically evoked release of methionine-enkephalin.

    abstract::The stimulated (40 Hz) release of enkephalin from the myenteric plexus can be modulated by multiple types of opiate receptor. The direction of the modulation is not fixed but is bimodal. Both an inhibition and an enhancement of evoked release is observed depending on the concentration of opioid agonist that is used. E...

    journal_title:Brain research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu H,Smolens I,Gintzler AR

    更新日期:1989-12-11 00:00:00