Alkyl halides, super hydrogen production and the pathogenesis of pneumatosis cystoides coli.


BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The colons of patients with pneumatosis cystoides coli produce excessive H2. Exposure to alkyl halides could explain this. Six consecutive patients who had pneumatosis cystoides coli while taking chloral hydrate (1-5+ g/day) are reported. Patients 2 and 3 were investigated after they had ceased chloral hydrate treatment. One produced methane, the other did not. (Pneumatosis cystoides coli patients are non-methanogenic according to the literature.) Both had overnight fasting breath H2 of less than 10 ppm. A literature review disclosed just one patient who was using chloral at the time of diagnosed pneumatosis cystoides coli, but an epidemic of the disease in workers exposed to trichloroethylene. METHODS:(i) In vitro experiments with human faeces: chloral or closely related alkyl halides were added to anaerobic faecal cultures derived from four methane-producing and three non-methanogenic human subjects. H2 and CH4 gases were measured. (ii) In vivo animal experiment: chloral hydrate was added to drinking water of four Wistar rats, and faecal H2 compared with control rats. RESULTS:Alkyl halides increased H2 up to 900 times in methanogenic and 10 times in non-methanogenic faecal cultures. The Ki of chloral was 0.2 mM. Methanogenesis was inhibited in concert with the increase in net H2. In the rat experiment, chloral hydrate increased H2 10 times, but did not cause pneumatosis. CONCLUSIONS:Chloral and trichloroethylene are alkyl halides chemically similar to chloroform, a potent inhibitor of H2 consumption by methanogens and acetogens. These bacteria are the most important H2-consuming species in the colon. It is postulated that exposure to these alkyl halides increases net H2 production, which sets the scene for "counterperfusion supersaturation" and the formation of gas cysts. In recent times, very low prescribing rates for chloral have caused primary pneumatosis cystoides to become extremely rare. As with primary pneumatosis, secondary pneumatosis cystoides, which occurs if there is small bowel bacterial overgrowth distal to a proximally located gut obstruction, is predicted by counterperfusion supersaturation. "Inherent unsaturation" due to metabolism of O2 is a safety factor, which could explain why gas bubbles do not form more often in tissue with high H2 tension.






Florin TH




Has Abstract


1997-12-01 00:00:00














  • Effect of scheduled second therapeutic endoscopy on peptic ulcer rebleeding: a prospective randomised trial.

    abstract:AIM:Recurrent bleeding after initial haemostasis is an important factor that directly relates to the outcome in the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Conflicting reports have been published concerning the effectiveness of scheduled second therapeutic endoscopy on ulcer rebleeding. We investigate the use of scheduled...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Chiu PW,Lam CY,Lee SW,Kwong KH,Lam SH,Lee DT,Kwok SP

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of red cell membrane lipid peroxidation by sulphasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid.

    abstract::The effects of sulphasalazine, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), and sulphapyridine on peroxidation of red cell membrane lipids, measured as malondialdehyde production, were assessed. Sulphasalazine and 5-ASA, at concentrations of 10(-5)-10(-3) M significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation, suggesting an antioxidant action ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenfield SM,Punchard NA,Thompson RP

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in colonic function: a randomised trial.

    abstract::There are sex differences in large bowel cancer rates and a variety of other gastrointestinal disorders possibly because of differences in gut biology. To determine whether men and women have different gastrointestinal responses when consuming identical intakes of dietary fibre, 16 women and 18 men consumed liquid for...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lampe JW,Fredstrom SB,Slavin JL,Potter JD

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Motor activity recorded in the unprepared colon of healthy humans.

    abstract::A manometric method was developed to study the motor activity in the unprepared human colon, and the results in eight healthy subjects were compared with those obtained in the same subjects after bowel cleansing with a non-absorbable solution containing polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG). A tube assembly (4.5 m long, 12 l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lémann M,Flourié B,Picon L,Coffin B,Jian R,Rambaud JC

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • Global prevalence of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer in individuals with gastro-oesophageal reflux: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux might lead to the development of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) or even oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There has been no definitive systematic review and meta-analysis of data to estimate global prevalence of BO or oesophageal adenocarcinoma in individuals with gastro-oesophageal re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eusebi LH,Cirota GG,Zagari RM,Ford AC

    更新日期:2020-07-30 00:00:00

  • The predictive value of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of biliary tract complications after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In transplant recipients with choledococholedocostomy (CDCD), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of biliary leak or strictures. Transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) has been used to screen patients with suspected biliary tract complications, pri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hussaini SH,Sheridan MB,Davies M

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic misclassification reduces the ability to detect linkage in inflammatory bowel disease genetic studies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Linkage data have now identified several inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility loci but these data have not been consistently replicated in independent studies. One potential explanation for this is the possibility that patients enrolled in such studies may have been erroneously classified with res...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silverberg MS,Daly MJ,Moskovitz DN,Rioux JD,McLeod RS,Cohen Z,Greenberg GR,Hudson TJ,Siminovitch KA,Steinhart AH

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Lithogenic bile in patients with ileal dysfunction.

    abstract::Ileal disease or resection causes bile salt malabsorption and a reduction in the bile salt content of bile. Since cholesterol solubility requires adequate bile salt concentrations, depletion of the bile salt content of bile might, therefore, jeopardize cholesterol solubility and predispose to cholesterol gallstone for...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dowling RH,Bell GD,White J

    更新日期:1972-06-01 00:00:00

  • Progress towards the comprehensive control of hepatitis B in Africa: a view from South Africa.

    abstract::The carrier rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in black Africans averages 10.4% throughout the continent. Even within each country, however, there may be wide variations. HBV carriage in black Africans is largely established in early childhood, mostly through horizontal transmission. Perinatal transmission also occurs bu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kew MC

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Absent ileal uptake of IF-bound vitamin B12 in vivo in the Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (familial vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria).

    abstract::A Syrian family is described with three children who had inherited selective vitamin B12 malabsorption associated with proteinuria. (Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome). Although inherited the defect was apparently not present at birth. A third child had less severe vitamin B12 malabsorption, was not vitamin B12 deficient an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burman JF,Jenkins WJ,Walker-Smith JA,Phillips AD,Sourial NA,Williams CB,Mollin DL

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • What activates visceral afferents?

    abstract::Vagal and spinal afferents represent the information superhighways that convey sensory information from the gut to the central nervous system. These afferents are sensitive to both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Vagal afferents terminate in the muscle layers and in the mucosa. Muscle afferents are activated at physi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grundy D

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Nr5a2 maintains acinar cell differentiation and constrains oncogenic Kras-mediated pancreatic neoplastic initiation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Emerging evidence from mouse models suggests that mutant Kras can drive the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) precursors from acinar cells by enforcing ductal de-differentiation at the expense of acinar identity. Recently, human genome-wide association studies have identified NR5A2, a key...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: von Figura G,Morris JP 4th,Wright CV,Hebrok M

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • SRSF6-regulated alternative splicing that promotes tumour progression offers a therapy target for colorectal cancer.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the molecular function of splicing factor SRSF6 in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and discover candidate chemicals for cancer therapy through targeting SRSF6. DESIGN:We performed comprehensive analysis for the expression of SRSF6 in 311 CRC samples, The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expres...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wan L,Yu W,Shen E,Sun W,Liu Y,Kong J,Wu Y,Han F,Zhang L,Yu T,Zhou Y,Xie S,Xu E,Zhang H,Lai M

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in the rat: effect of iron and protein deficiency on the anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole, pyrantel, piperazine, and levamisole.

    abstract::The benzimidazole anthelmintics mebendazole and fenbendazole have been shown to be much less effective against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections in the rat on a combined iron and protein deficient diet. In the present experiments it was shown that the anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole was significantly impair...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Duncombe VM,Bolin TD,Davis AE,Fagan MR,Kelly JD

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of Crohn's disease-associated small bowel strictures and fibrosis on cross-sectional imaging: a systematic review.

    abstract::Patients with Crohn's disease commonly develop ileal and less commonly colonic strictures, containing various degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. While predominantly inflammatory strictures may benefit from a medical anti-inflammatory treatment, predominantly fibrotic strictures currently require endoscopic balloon ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bettenworth D,Bokemeyer A,Baker M,Mao R,Parker CE,Nguyen T,Ma C,Panés J,Rimola J,Fletcher JG,Jairath V,Feagan BG,Rieder F,Stenosis Therapy and Anti-Fibrotic Research (STAR) Consortium.

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis induced by traditional Chinese herbs; possible toxic components.

    abstract::Traditional Chinese herbal remedies are widely available in the United Kingdom for the treatment of chronic skin disorders. Their benefits are considerable, but their use is completely unregulated. Two patients are described here who suffered an acute hepatitic illness related to taking traditional Chinese herbs. Both...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kane JA,Kane SP,Jain S

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thiopurine monotherapy is effective in ulcerative colitis but significantly less so in Crohn's disease: long-term outcomes for 11 928 patients in the UK inflammatory bowel disease bioresource.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Thiopurines are widely used as maintenance therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the evidence base for their use is sparse and their role increasingly questioned. Using the largest series reported to date, we assessed the long-term effectiveness of thiopurines in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stournaras E,Qian W,Pappas A,Hong YY,Shawky R,UK IBD BioResource Investigators.,Raine T,Parkes M,UK IBD Bioresource Investigators.

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Localisation of PGK1 determines metabolic phenotype to balance metastasis and proliferation in patients with SMAD4-negative pancreatic cancer.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most aggressive type of GI tumour, and it possesses deregulated cellular energetics. Although recent advances in PDAC biology have led to the discovery of recurrent genetic mutations in Kras, TP53 and SMAD4, which are related to this disease, clinical application...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liang C,Shi S,Qin Y,Meng Q,Hua J,Hu Q,Ji S,Zhang B,Xu J,Yu XJ

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Phenotypic differences in familial adenomatous polyposis based on APC gene mutation status.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a clinically well defined hereditary disease caused by germline mutations within the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Although several techniques are applied in the mutation analysis of FAP kindreds about 20-50% of cases remain unclear, with no APC mutation ident...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heinimann K,Müllhaupt B,Weber W,Attenhofer M,Scott RJ,Fried M,Martinoli S,Müller H,Dobbie Z

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of pouchitis, a major complication after ileal pouch anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Recently, controlled trials have demonstrated that probiotics are effective in maintenance of remission in pouchitis patients. Howe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kühbacher T,Ott SJ,Helwig U,Mimura T,Rizzello F,Kleessen B,Gionchetti P,Blaut M,Campieri M,Fölsch UR,Kamm MA,Schreiber S

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • The gastric response to a transpyloric duodenal tube.

    abstract::The quantification of gastric, pancreatic, biliary, and small bowel functions in man often requires the use of intestinal tubes. In this study, the presence of a transpyloric tube did not alter gastric emptying, acid secretion, or serum gastrin levels in response to an ordinary solid meal. ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Longstreth GF,Malagelada JR,Go VL

    更新日期:1975-10-01 00:00:00

  • Randomised controlled trial of long term portographic follow up versus variceal band ligation following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt for preventing oesophageal variceal rebleeding.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) is effective in the prevention of variceal rebleeding but requires invasive portographic follow up. This randomised controlled trial aims to test the hypothesis that combining variceal band ligation (VBL) with TIPSS can obviate the need for lon...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Tripathi D,Lui HF,Helmy A,Dabos K,Forrest E,Stanley AJ,Jalan R,Redhead DN,Hayes PC

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Acetylator phenotype and adverse effects of sulphasalazine in healthy subjects.

    abstract::Sulphasalazine (salicyl-azo-sulphapyridine) was ingested by 27 healthy subjects for five days at a dosage of 4 g daily. The acetylator phenotype of each subject had been established previously. The serum concentrations of the parent drug and its sulphapyridine-metabolites were determined and the adverse effects were r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schröder H,Evans DA

    更新日期:1972-04-01 00:00:00

  • Visceral sensation and emotion: a study using hypnosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:We have previously shown that hypnosis can be used to study the effect of different emotions on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. These studies demonstrated that both anger and excitement increased colonic motility while happiness led to a reduction. The purpose of this study was to ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Houghton LA,Calvert EL,Jackson NA,Cooper P,Whorwell PJ

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular cathepsin K exerts antimicrobial activity and is protective against chronic intestinal inflammation in mice.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Cathepsin K is a lysosomal cysteine protease that has pleiotropic roles in bone resorption, arthritis, atherosclerosis, blood pressure regulation, obesity and cancer. Recently, it was demonstrated that cathepsin K-deficient (Ctsk(-/-) ) mice are less susceptible to experimental autoimmune arthritis and enceph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sina C,Lipinski S,Gavrilova O,Aden K,Rehman A,Till A,Rittger A,Podschun R,Meyer-Hoffert U,Haesler R,Midtling E,Pütsep K,McGuckin MA,Schreiber S,Saftig P,Rosenstiel P

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Chromoendoscopy versus narrow band imaging in UC: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with long-standing UC have an increased risk for the development of colonic neoplastic lesions. Chromoendoscopy (CE) has been proven to enhance neoplasia detection while the role of virtual chromoendoscopy (VC) is still to be defined. OBJECTIVE:To compare the performance of CE to VC for the detecti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Bisschops R,Bessissow T,Joseph JA,Baert F,Ferrante M,Ballet V,Willekens H,Demedts I,Geboes K,De Hertogh G,Vermeire S,Rutgeerts P,Van Assche G

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of mutant p53 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    abstract::p53 mutations are a common genetic finding in hepatocellular carcinoma from areas of high aflatoxin exposure. Recent small studies have shown that p53 gene mutations may be less common in areas with a low prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma such as Great Britain. The protein product of mutant p53 can be detected im...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collier JD,Carpenter M,Burt AD,Bassendine MF

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical and laboratory study of postvagotomy diarrhoea.

    abstract::Thirty-two patients with diarrhoea, on average four years following truncal vagotomy and drainage, were studied. A comparison was made with 24 patients without postvagotomy diarrhoea. The incidence of bacterial colonization of the upper small intestine was no different in the two groups, though patients with a gastroe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Browning GG,Buchan KA,Mackay C

    更新日期:1974-08-01 00:00:00

  • Spirochaetosis of the human rectum associated with an intraepithelial mast cell and IgE plasma cell response.

    abstract::In two patients presenting with mild intestinal symptoms, rectal spirochaetosis was the only morphological abnormality diagnosed by light microscopy. A re-evaluation of the morphological changes using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry showed certain unusual features: the microorganisms were observed within ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gebbers JO,Ferguson DJ,Mason C,Kelly P,Jewell DP

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Once daily versus three times daily mesalazine granules in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To determine the therapeutic equivalence and safety of once daily (OD) versus three times daily (TID) dosing of a total daily dose of 3 g Salofalk (mesalazine) granules in patients with active ulcerative colitis. DESIGN:A randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, multicentre, international, ph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Kruis W,Kiudelis G,Rácz I,Gorelov IA,Pokrotnieks J,Horynski M,Batovsky M,Kykal J,Boehm S,Greinwald R,Mueller R,International Salofalk OD Study Group.

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00