New insights into the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in Mediterranean countries.

Abstract:

:In Mediterranean countries, the incidence (per 100,000 per year) of Type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years shows wide variation from country to country, ranging from 2.45 in Macedonia to 34.4 in Sardinia. By interacting with environmental factors such as diet, toxins or viral infections, the HLA plus non-HLA genes of susceptibility or resistance to Type 1 diabetes so far identified are the strongest determinants of the disease as far as incidence, age at onset and sex ratio are concerned. The distribution of these genes in the Mediterranean region is still not completely known. Sardinians are the most suitable population for studying such phenomena for three main reasons: their genetic features have been repeatedly analysed in depth; their incidence rate of Type 1 diabetes is by far the highest in the Mediterranean area; and considerable colonies of Sardinian emigrants settled in neighbouring low-incidence Italian regions. Studies on Spaniards and Jews have also contributed to a better understanding of the respective roles of genetic and environmental factors. From a body of research on the Mediterranean populations, it can be concluded that great genetic heterogeneity accounts for the wide variation in incidence of Type 1 diabetes, while rather ubiquitious environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

journal_name

Diabetes Metab Res Rev

authors

Muntoni S,Muntoni S

doi

10.1002/(sici)1520-7560(199903/04)15:2<133::aid-dm

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1999-03-01 00:00:00

pages

133-40

issue

2

eissn

1520-7552

issn

1520-7560

pii

10.1002/(SICI)1520-7560(199903/04)15:2<133::AID-DM

journal_volume

15

pub_type

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