New insights into the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes in Mediterranean countries.


:In Mediterranean countries, the incidence (per 100,000 per year) of Type 1 diabetes in children aged under 15 years shows wide variation from country to country, ranging from 2.45 in Macedonia to 34.4 in Sardinia. By interacting with environmental factors such as diet, toxins or viral infections, the HLA plus non-HLA genes of susceptibility or resistance to Type 1 diabetes so far identified are the strongest determinants of the disease as far as incidence, age at onset and sex ratio are concerned. The distribution of these genes in the Mediterranean region is still not completely known. Sardinians are the most suitable population for studying such phenomena for three main reasons: their genetic features have been repeatedly analysed in depth; their incidence rate of Type 1 diabetes is by far the highest in the Mediterranean area; and considerable colonies of Sardinian emigrants settled in neighbouring low-incidence Italian regions. Studies on Spaniards and Jews have also contributed to a better understanding of the respective roles of genetic and environmental factors. From a body of research on the Mediterranean populations, it can be concluded that great genetic heterogeneity accounts for the wide variation in incidence of Type 1 diabetes, while rather ubiquitious environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically predisposed individuals.


Diabetes Metab Res Rev


Muntoni S,Muntoni S





Has Abstract


1999-03-01 00:00:00














  • Essential phospholipids prevent islet damage induced by proinflammatory cytokines and hypoxic conditions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The pancreatic islet damage that occurs through an inflammatory response and hypoxia after infusion is a major hurdle in islet transplantation. Because essential phospholipids (EPL) have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in liver disease, we analysed their protective effect on islets in infl...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shahbazov R,Kanak MA,Takita M,Kunnathodi F,Khan O,Borenstein N,Lawrence MC,Levy MF,Naziruddin B

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromuscular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes: underlying mechanisms and effect of resistance training.

    abstract::Diabetic patients are at higher risk of developing physical disabilities than non-diabetic subjects. Physical disability appears to be related, at least in part, to muscle dysfunction. Several studies have reported reduced muscle strength and power under dynamic and static conditions in both the upper and lower limbs ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Orlando G,Balducci S,Bazzucchi I,Pugliese G,Sacchetti M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Validity of diagnostic codes and estimation of prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers using a large electronic medical record database.

    abstract:AIMS:To assess the validity of the diagnostic codes relating to diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in the electronic medical records of a large integrated care provider and to assess the prevalence of DFU among its members. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Data were obtained from the diabetes registry of Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS)...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cahn A,Altaras T,Agami T,Liran O,Touaty CE,Drahy M,Pollack R,Raz I,Chodick G,Zucker I

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Low-intensity exercise increases skeletal muscle protein expression of PPARdelta and UCP3 in type 2 diabetic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Physical exercise provides health benefits for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, partly by enhancing skeletal muscle insulin action. We tested the hypothesis that changes in expression of key genes in skeletal muscles relate to exercise-induced improvements in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS:We determ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fritz T,Krämer DK,Karlsson HK,Galuska D,Engfeldt P,Zierath JR,Krook A

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Role of endothelin-1, sodium hydrogen exchanger-1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cardiac hypertrophy is a key structural feature of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Previous studies have shown that diabetes-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) and sodium hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE-1) mediate structural and functional deficits in the heart. In order to gain a mechanistic understanding of the role of ET-1 a...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen S,Khan ZA,Karmazyn M,Chakrabarti S

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Thiazolidinedione therapy and breast cancer risk in diabetic women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Rising experimental evidence suggests that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) exert a protective effect on breast cancer. However, studies concerning this issue were inconsistent and limited. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis with data from currently available studies to evaluate the effect of TZDs on breast cancer risk amon...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Du R,Lin L,Cheng D,Xu Y,Xu M,Chen Y,Wang W,Bi Y,Li D,Lu J

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • The important role of physical activity in the prevention and management of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::The actual pathophysiology behind gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still unclear, but a deterioration in insulin resistance beyond that induced by pregnancy, combined with beta cell dysfunction, plays a key role. Interventions that help improve glucose tolerance by attenuating pregnancy-induced insulin resistanc...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ruchat SM,Mottola MF

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::The article's objective is to review the key advances in the scientific literature related to the association of stroke with diabetes mellitus and to summarize the current approaches to stroke prevention in diabetic patients. The key findings from the literature regarding stroke incidence in patients with diabetes, sp...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mankovsky BN,Ziegler D

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • LIPS islet autoantibody assays in high-throughput format for DASP 2010.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:For cost-effective population-based diabetes prediction and confirmation, islet autoantibody assays must be made more economical. METHODS:We evaluated glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-Ruc (renilla luciferase) and IA2ic (also known as ICA512ic)-Ruc (renilla luciferase) fusion protein constructs in high-thro...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marcus P,Yan X,Bartley B,Hagopian W

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Stability of mitochondrial DNA against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria has been proposed as the pathogenic mechanism for chronic complications of diabetes. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species. However, there are few data on the mitochondrial DNA damage in diabetes and these...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Savu O,Sunkari VG,Botusan IR,Grünler J,Nikoshkov A,Catrina SB

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prognostic value of serum liver enzymes levels in type 2 diabetic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Elevated liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease, while their relationship with cancer-related mortality has not been assessed so far in diabetic patients. METHODS:An observational cohort study was performed on a consecutive series of 1952 type 2 diabetic patients. The association of liver ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monami M,Balzi D,Lamanna C,Melani C,Cocca C,Lotti E,Fedeli A,Masotti G,Marchionni N,Mannucci E

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • How to transform a metabolic syndrome score into an insulin sensitivity value?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts cardiovascular risk and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of a MetS is defined by the clustering of ≥3 out of 5 cardiometabolic criteria (hyperglycemia; hypertension; enlarged waist; low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; and hypertriglyceridemia), each...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hermans MP,Bouenizabila E,Ahn SA,Rousseau MF

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Painful diabetic neuropathy: treatment and future aspects.

    abstract::Around one of three diabetic patients is affected by distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) which represents a major health problem, as it may present with partly excruciating neuropathic pain and is responsible for substantial morbidity and increased mortality. Treatment is based on four cornerstones: (1) multifactori...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ziegler D

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes in pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and proposed codification of definitions.

    abstract::Rising rates of diabetes in pregnancy have led to an escalation in research in this area. As in any area of clinical research, definitions of outcomes vary from study to study, making it difficult to compare research findings and draw conclusions. Our aim was to compile and create a repository of definitions, which co...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) Working Group on Outcome Definitions.,Feig DS,Corcoy R,Jensen DM,Kautzky-Willer A,Nolan CJ,Oats JJ,Sacks DA,Caimari F,McIntyre HD

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Should we change the target blood pressure in diabetic patients?

    abstract::Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Guidelines recommend lowering blood pressure (BP) to less than 130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients. These recommendations are based on several studies in diabetic patients that showed the benefit of intensive B...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shlomai G,Grossman E

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Questions on therapy with DPP-4 inhibitors and bone homeostasis.

    abstract::A recent study from Gallagher et al. aimed to investigate the effect of a new depeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor, MK-0626, on bone turnover in a mouse model developing insulin resistance and diabetes (MKR mice). Authors have found that treatment with MK-0626 did not affect either MKR mice fasting glucose or parameters o...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Napoli N

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pilot study on the significance of random intrasite placement of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The possible effect of random intrasite placement on the outcome of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWF) test is not known. We sought to determine the significance of this variable in the diagnosis of loss of protective sensation (LOPS) in patients with diabetes. METHODS:Forty-five patients with diabetes...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slater RA,Koren S,Ramot Y,Buchs A,Rapoport MJ

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Coincident diabetes mellitus and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    abstract::The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in primary hyperparathyroidism is approximately 8% and that of primary hyperparathyroidism in diabetic patients is approximately 1%. Both values are about three-fold higher than the respective expected prevalences in general populations. Patients with both disorders are over 40 year...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Taylor WH,Khaleeli AA

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Polyneuropathy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: comparison of nerve conduction studies, thermal perception thresholds and intraepidermal nerve fibre densities.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To evaluate possible differences in distal polyneuropathy (PN) characteristics and degree of abnormalities for various small and large fibre parameters in diabetes type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2). METHODS:Sixty-six DM1 and 57 DM2 patients with or without PN symptoms were included. Nerve conduction studies (NC...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Løseth S,Mellgren SI,Jorde R,Lindal S,Stålberg E

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatic glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis and the regulation of glycogen synthesis.

    abstract::Hepatic glycogen is replenished during the absorptive period postprandially. This repletion is prompted partly by an increased hepatic uptake of glucose by the liver, partly by metabolite and hormonal signals in the portal vein, and partly by an increased gluconeogenic flux to glycogen (glyconeogenesis). There is some...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Radziuk J,Pye S

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Endothelin-mediated remodeling in aortas of diabetic rats.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Smooth muscle cells proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition are key features of diabetic macroangiopathy. In the present study, we have studied the role of endothelin(A) (ET(A)) receptor, the predominant receptor on smooth muscle cells, in diabetes-induced vascular hypertrophy and rem...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukuda G,Khan ZA,Barbin YP,Farhangkhoee H,Tilton RG,Chakrabarti S

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of muscle malonyl-CoA levels in the nutritionally insulin-resistant desert gerbil, Psammomys obesus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Malonyl-CoA, an allosteric inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyl transferase, controls the oxidation of fatty acids in muscle and other tissues by regulating their entrance into mitochondria. The level of malonyl-CoA in muscle is influenced by the uptake of energy substrates such as glucose, the precursor of its ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shafrir E,Ziv E,Saha AK,Ruderman NB

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Case series of a hybrid closed-loop system used in pregnancies in clinical practice.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hybrid closed-loop (HCL) therapy is rarely studied in pregnancy. We present three cases of women with type 1 diabetes who used the Medtronic 670G HCL system for most or all of gestation. METHODS:The Medtronic 670G system has a manual mode (no automated insulin delivery) and an auto mode (AM, HCL therapy). W...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Polsky S,Akturk HK

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • The future for diabetic foot ulcer prevention: A paradigm shift from stratified healthcare towards personalized medicine.

    abstract::Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers is important to reduce the burden of diabetic foot disease. However, we found that ulcer prevention is underexposed in research and clinical practice. Barriers to explain this are seen in patient's goal-setting; in the lack of interdisciplinary teams for ulcer prevention; in sample s...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Netten JJ,Woodburn J,Bus SA

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Association of ELMO1 gene polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy among Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end stage renal failure or even death among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genetic predisposition is widely studied among these patients to identify manageable aspects of the disease pathogenesis. This study was carried out to test ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bayoumy NMK,El-Shabrawi MM,Leheta OF,Abo El-Ela AEM,Omar HH

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • A linkage study of 12 IDDM susceptibility loci in the Finnish population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:HLA region is the major locus (IDDM1) of type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. It explains approximately 50% of the genetic background of T1D, indicating additional genetic determinants. Genome scans and candidate gene studies have generated several chromosomal candidate regions that may have a role in T1D d...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Laine AP,Nejentsev S,Veijola R,Korpinen E,Sjöroos M,Simell O,Knip M,Akerblom HK,Ilonen J

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Oestradiol levels may differ between premenopausal women, ages 18-50, with type 1 diabetes and matched controls.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to investigate whether oestradiol differs between premenopausal women with and without type 1 diabetes and whether levels are associated with such factors as age, reproductive history or diabetes management. METHODS:Oestradiol in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89; age = 18-50...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hassan LS,Monson RS,Danielson KK

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Combination therapy with insulin and oral agents: optimizing glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) showed that tight glycemic control with any of several therapeutic regimens has the potential to significantly reduce the risk for long-term microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. An important question that remains to be answered is what is the best approa...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yki-Järvinen H

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Thymic expression of insulin-related genes in an animal model of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Insulin and multiple other autoantigens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes, but the origin of immunological self-reactivity specifically oriented against insulin-secreting islet beta-cells remains obscure. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the h...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kecha-Kamoun O,Achour I,Martens H,Collette J,Lefebvre PJ,Greiner DL,Geenen V

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • The association between fasting plasma glucose and all-cause and cause-specific mortality by gender: The rural Chinese cohort study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and mortality by gender. METHODS:A total of 17 248 eligible participants from a rural Chinese prospective cohort population were included. The same questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at both b...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu L,Chen X,Liu Y,Sun X,Yin Z,Li H,Zhang M,Wang B,Ren Y,Zhao Y,Liu D,Zhou J,Liu X,Zhang D,Cheng C,Liu F,Zhou Q,Xu Q,Xiong Y,Liu J,You Z,Hong S,Wang C,Hu D

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00