Differential sensitivity to ACTH, but not stress, in two sources of outbred Sprague-Dawley rats.


:Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is the major regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in mammals. By comparing the sensitivity to ACTH of isolated adrenocortical cells from two sources of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley, SD) of outbred rats, we have identified a source of rat with low sensitivity to ACTH in vitro. Cells isolated from Holtzman SD rats had a high sensitivity to ACTH (minimal effective concentration 50 pg/ml), whereas Taconic SD rats had a low sensitivity (minimal effective concentration 250 pg/ml; maximal steroidogenesis < 50% of Holtzman cells). The responsiveness to analogues of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cholesterol was also significantly lower in Taconic SD rats. Taconic adrenals were smaller, had significantly more mitochondria per cell, but approximately 20% less total lipid droplet volume per cell. There was no difference in latency to ACTH in vitro; however, steroidogenesis plateaued in Taconic cells after 25 min, while Holtzman cells secreted corticosterone almost linearly for at least 120 min. By contrast, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion increased at the same rate for at least 120 min in cells from both sources. There were no differences between cells from the two sources in immunoreactive steroidogenic enzyme content. In vivo, the magnitude of the ACTH and corticosterone responses to two types of stress were similar in both sources. The thymus glands of Holtzman rats were significantly larger than those of Taconic rats. It is concluded that: (1) reduced sensitivity to ACTH in vitro in Taconic SD rats results from differences in the later stages of the steroidogenic pathway; (2) factors in addition to ACTH are required for maximal steroidogenesis in Taconic SD rats: (3) a comparison of the steroidogenic pathways in adrenal cells from these two sources of outbred rats should be useful in further delineating the relative importance of putative intracellular signalling mechanisms involved in initiation and maintenance of steroidogenesis, and (4) these data suggest that different sources of the same strain of rats sufficiently diverge over time to become separate strains ('substrains'). Overreliance on a single source of laboratory rodent may obscure natural variability in endocrine responses to stress and provide a misleading indication of homogeneity of responses.






Matthys L,Castello R,Zilz A,Widmaier EP




Has Abstract


1998-06-01 00:00:00














  • mu-Opioid agonists stimulate growth hormone secretion in immature rats.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the opioid receptor subtype mediating opioid modulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion during ontogeny. The mu-agonist morphine and the kappa agonist U50,488 caused a stimulation and inhibition of GH secretion, respectively, on postnatal day 10. Studies on postnatal d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eason MG,Francis RS,Kuhn CM

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of stimulation of the preoptic area on hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus unit activity and corticosterone secretion in freely moving rats.

    abstract::Recordings were made of single unit activity through chronically implanted electrodes within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of freely moving male rats also bearing chronically implanted stimulating electrodes in the preoptic area (POA) and indwelling jugular cannulae. High frequency electrical stimulation of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saphier D,Feldman S

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dorsal and ventral medullary catecholamine cell groups contribute differentially to systemic interleukin-1beta-induced hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis responses.

    abstract::Medial parvocellular paraventricular corticotropin-releasing hormone (mPVN CRH) cells are critical in generating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to systemic interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). However, although it is understood that catecholamine inputs are important in initiating mPVN CRH cell responses...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buller K,Xu Y,Dayas C,Day T

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    abstract::The primary treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) is surgery with curative intent or debulking of the tumor mass. In case of metastatic disease, cytoreductive options are limited. A relatively new therapeutic modality, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with radiolabeled somatos...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Vliet EI,Teunissen JJ,Kam BL,de Jong M,Krenning EP,Kwekkeboom DJ

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of MicroRNAs Differentially Expressed in Lung Carcinoid Subtypes and Progression.

    abstract:AIM:To extensively explore microRNA expression profiles in lung carcinoids in correlation with clinical and pathological features. METHODS:A PCR-based array was employed in the screening phase to analyze 752 microRNAs in a discovery set of 12 lung carcinoids, including 6 typical (3 with lymph node metastasis) and 6 at...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rapa I,Votta A,Felice B,Righi L,Giorcelli J,Scarpa A,Speel EJ,Scagliotti GV,Papotti M,Volante M

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of short-term constant light on the proestrous luteinizing hormone surge and pituitary responsiveness in the female rat.

    abstract::We have investigated the effects of exposure to short-term constant light (LL) on the spontaneous, proestrous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the female rat. Exposure to LL during the 3 days preceding proestrus delayed and reduced the magnitude of the LH surge which was measured in blood samples taken from conscious...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watts AG,Fink G

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels in cycling and anestrous ewes.

    abstract::Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (Prl) in the serum of anestrous and cycling ewes were compared. The concentration of LH in serum and the frequency of episodic releases of LH were lower in anestrous than in cycling ewes. Concentrations of LH in serum rose as rapidly after ovariectomy of anestro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jackson GL,Davis SL

    更新日期:1979-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic Testosterone Deprivation Sensitizes the Middle-Aged Rat Brain to Damaging Effects of Testosterone Replacement.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:An increasing number of middle-aged men are being screened for low testosterone levels and the number of prescriptions for various forms of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. However, the safety of TRT has come into question with some studies suggestin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith C,Contreras-Garza J,Cunningham RL,Wong JM,Vann PH,Metzger D,Kasanga E,Oppong-Gyebi A,Sumien N,Schreihofer DA

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Splenic denervation blocks leptin-induced enhancement of humoral immunity in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    abstract::Nontropical rodents have evolved adaptations to maximize winter survival, including alterations in reproduction, energy balance and immunity. Short-day-housed Siberian hamsters display reductions in body fat and decreases in humoral immunity compared with long-day hamsters. The hormone leptin, secreted by adipose tiss...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Demas GE

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence that serotonin stimulates a prolactin-releasing factor in the rat.

    abstract::Methanol extracts of rat plasma resulted in release of prolactin (PRL) from rat hemipituitaries in vitro with a linear log-dose relationship. This prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)-like activity was not altered in plasma from rats treated with bromocryptine or chlorpromazine despite significant suppression and stimulat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garthwaite TL,Hagen TC

    更新日期:1979-01-01 00:00:00

  • Defeminization of brain functions by a single injection of estrogen receptor α or β agonist in neonatal female rats.

    abstract::Sexual differentiation of brain function is regulated by estrogen in the perinatal period of rodents. However, the role of the estrogen receptor subtypes ERα and ERβ is still in question. Accordingly, the effects of neonatal treatment with the ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) or the ERβ agonist diarylpropionitr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanaya M,Yamanouchi K

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • New insights into the endocrine and metabolic roles of dopamine D2 receptors gained from the Drd2 mouse.

    abstract::Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) participation in prolactin regulation is well documented, but the role of D2Rs in the control of other hormones involved in growth, food intake and glucose metabolism has not been extensively studied. The study of D2R knockout mice (Drd2(-/-)) puts forward new insights into the role of the D...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Garcia-Tornadú I,Perez-Millan MI,Recouvreux V,Ramirez MC,Luque G,Risso GS,Ornstein AM,Cristina C,Diaz-Torga G,Becu-Villalobos D

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of tumor-induced hyperprolactinemia on LH secretion following stimulation of the medial preoptic area, pituitary responsiveness and the estrogen-induced LH surge.

    abstract::In the present study we utilized the 7315a PRL- and ACTH-secreting tumor to induce a hyperprolactinemic (HP) state sufficient to profoundly suppress the postcastration LH rise in female rats. Tumor-induced prolactin levels which ranged 2,000-3,000 ng/ml substantially reduced the LH rise in both ovariectomized (OVX) an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shu C,Selmanoff M

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Increased number of corticotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::Observations in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis (MS), have indicated that a low activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is accompanied by a high susceptibility for EAE in rat strains and that elevated corticosteroid levels are necessary for spontaneous r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Purba JS,Raadsheer FC,Hofman MA,Ravid R,Polman CH,Kamphorst W,Swaab DF

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of the adrenergic beta-receptor stimulates prolactin release from primary cultured pituitary cells.

    abstract::Prolactin release from primary cultured pituitary cells was investigated using a dynamic perifusion system. Although epinephrine (1 mumol/l) produced an elevation in the mean value of the prolactin concentration at the onset of the perifusion, the elevation was not statistically significant, and the overall effect of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shin SH,Barton RE

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • A role for agouti-related protein in appetite regulation in a species with continuous nutrient delivery.

    abstract::Knowledge of specific neurotransmitters as well as the pathways and mechanisms regulating appetite in ruminants that continually graze, such as sheep, is incomplete. Although fundamentally agouti-related protein (AGRP) has a similar function across species to increase food intake, the regulation of AGRP may vary acros...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wagner CG,McMahon CD,Marks DL,Daniel JA,Steele B,Sartin JL

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Growth hormone and somatostatin gene expression in adult and aging rats as measured by quantitative in situ hybridization.

    abstract::We have investigated the variations in growth hormone (GH) and somatostatin (SOM) mRNAs in adult, middle-aged and aging rats of both sexes using quantitative in situ hybridization. cDNA probes complementary to GH mRNA and SOM mRNA were used on fixed pituitary and hypothalamic sections, respectively. A clear sexual dim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martinoli MG,Ouellet J,Rhéaume E,Pelletier G

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • Septal and hippocampal release of vasopressin and oxytocin during late pregnancy and parturition in the rat.

    abstract::The push-pull perfusion technique, in conjunction with specific radioimmunoassays, was used to monitor the release of both arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) within distinct limbic brain areas of conscious female rats. In pregnant rats near term, the release of AVP was greater than that of virgin rats in bo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Landgraf R,Neumann I,Pittman QJ

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of prolactin secretion by dopamine at the level of the hypothalamus in the turkey.

    abstract::Avian prolactin (PRL) secretion is regulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons residing in the infundibular nuclear complex (INF) of the hypothalamus. This VIPergic activity is modulated by stimulatory dopaminergic inputs. Dynorphin, serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and VIP all appear to stimulate PRL secr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Youngren O,Chaiseha Y,Al-Zailaie K,Whiting S,Kang SW,El Halawani M

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Positive feedback in hypogonadal female mice with preoptic area brain transplants.

    abstract::When fetal preoptic area (POA) brain grafts that contain gonadotropin-releasing hormone cells are transplanted into the third ventricle of adult female hypogonadal mice, the animals respond with sexual maturation, persistent estrus, and the ability to ovulate reflexively after mating. However, the absence of normal sp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibson MJ,Kokoris GJ,Silverman AJ

    更新日期:1988-08-01 00:00:00

  • Phospholipase C-eta enzymes as putative protein kinase C and Ca2+ signalling components in neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues.

    abstract::Phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes (PLCs) are central to inositol lipid signalling pathways, facilitating intracellular Ca2+ release and protein kinase C activation. A sixth class of phosphoinositol-specific PLC with a novel domain structure, PLC-eta (PLCeta) has recently been discovered in mammals. Rece...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stewart AJ,Morgan K,Farquharson C,Millar RP

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative studies of prolactin secretion in estradiol-primed and normal male rats induced by ether stress, pimozide and TRH.

    abstract::The differences in plasma prolactin concentration between normal and estradiol-implanted male rats were compared after treatment with 3 different stimulating agents of prolactin secretion [ether anesthesia, pimozide (a "specific' dopaminergic receptor blocking agent) and TRH] using conscious, free-moving rats implante...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piercy M,Shin SH

    更新日期:1980-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of serotonin-releasing drugs on serum corticosterone concentration in rats.

    abstract::(+/-)p-Chloroamphetamine hydrochloride, at doses of 1-8 mg/kg i.p. in rats, caused a dose-related increase in serum corticosterone concentration. The increase occurred rapidly, within 30 min, and was over within 4 h. Evidence that the increase was mediated by serotonin release consisted of the following findings: (1) ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fuller RW,Snoddy HD

    更新日期:1980-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pre- and postnatal influence of an estrogen antagonist and an androgen antagonist on differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male and female rats.

    abstract::The volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of the rat brain is severalfold larger in adult male rats than in adult females. This sex difference in brain structure was previously shown to develop under the influence of androgenic and estrogenic hormones during the perinatal period. We t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Döhler KD,Coquelin A,Davis F,Hines M,Shryne JE,Sickmöller PM,Jarzab B,Gorski RA

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy as a Novel Treatment for Metastatic and Invasive Phaeochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

    abstract::At present there is no clinical guideline or standardised protocol for the treatment of metastatic or invasive phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (collectively known as PPGL) due to the rarity of the disease and the lack of prospective studies or extended national databases. Prognosis is mainly determined by genetic ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mak IYF,Hayes AR,Khoo B,Grossman A

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • 5-Hydroxytryptamine synthesis and metabolism in discrete nuclei of the rat brain during surges of prolactin associated with restraint stress or suckling.

    abstract::5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis [accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) following inhibition of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase with NSD 1015] and metabolism [concentration of the primary metabolite of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA)] were measured in the suprachiasmatic (SCN), medial preopt...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnston CA,Demarest KT,Moore KE

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • Corticotropin-releasing factor: evidence for a neurotransmitter role in the locus ceruleus during hemodynamic stress.

    abstract::Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is localized in fibers in the noradrenergic nucleus locus ceruleus (LC) and alters LC discharge characteristics when administered centrally. To determine whether CRF functions as a neurotransmitter in the LC during stress, the effects of hemodynamic stress on LC discharge were comp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valentino RJ,Wehby RG

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Opioid peptidergic control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity in the ovariectomized goat.

    abstract::The role of endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity was examined in long-term ovariectomized goats by recording the hypothalamic multiple-unit activity specifically associated with pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion (MUA volleys). Administration of nalo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ito K,Tanaka T,Mori Y

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Chromogranin A in diagnosing and monitoring patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a large series from a single institution.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Plasma chromogranin A (CgA) is the most widely used biochemical biomarker in the diagnostic workup and follow-up of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendo- crine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Herein, we assessed the clinical utility of CgA in diagnosing and monitoring a large series of GEP-NENs. PATIENTS AND METHODS...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Massironi S,Rossi RE,Casazza G,Conte D,Ciafardini C,Galeazzi M,Peracchi M

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gonadal steroids modify dendritic spine density in ventromedial hypothalamic neurons: a Golgi study in the adult rat.

    abstract::Neurons in the adult rat ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN, 4-6 neurons per brain; 3-7 brains per group) were studied under various hormonal conditions using the single-section Golgi impregnation technique. Intact rats of both sexes and ovariectomized females treated with oil, estrogen or estrogen and progesteron...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frankfurt M,Gould E,Woolley CS,McEwen BS

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00