Cytokine targets in the brain: impact on neurotransmitters and neurocircuits.


:Increasing attention has been paid to the role of inflammation in a host of illnesses including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Activation of the inflammatory response leads to release of inflammatory cytokines and mobilization of immune cells both of which have been shown to access the brain and alter behavior. The mechanisms of the effects of inflammation on the brain have become an area of intensive study. Data indicate that cytokines and their signaling pathways including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase have significant effects on the metabolism of multiple neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate through impact on their synthesis, release, and reuptake. Cytokines also activate the kynurenine pathway, which not only depletes tryptophan, the primary amino acid precursor of serotonin, but also generates neuroactive metabolites that can significantly influence the regulation of dopamine and glutamate. Through their effects on neurotransmitter systems, cytokines impact neurocircuits in the brain including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, leading to significant changes in motor activity and motivation as well as anxiety, arousal, and alarm. In the context of environmental challenge from the microbial world, these effects of inflammatory cytokines on the brain represent an orchestrated suite of behavioral and immune responses that subserve evolutionary priorities to shunt metabolic resources away from environmental exploration to fighting infection and wound healing, while also maintaining vigilance against attack, injury, and further pathogen exposure. Chronic activation of this innate behavioral and immune response may lead to depression and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.


Depress Anxiety


Depression and anxiety


Miller AH,Haroon E,Raison CL,Felger JC




Has Abstract


2013-04-01 00:00:00












  • Decreased chaos of heart rate time series in children of patients with panic disorder.

    abstract::This study examined the differences of heart rate variability measures between children of parents with panic disorder and children of healthy controls using linear as well as nonlinear techniques. Supine and standing heart rate variability indices were measured in all children using power spectral analysis and a meas...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Srinivasan K,Ashok MV,Vaz M,Yeragani VK

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • EEG effects of ECT: implications for rTMS.

    abstract::Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves the use of electrical stimulation to elicit a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures for therapeutic purposes and is the most effective treatment known for major depression. These treatments have significant neurophysiologic effects, many of which are manifest in the elect...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Krystal AD,West M,Prado R,Greenside H,Zoldi S,Weiner RD

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of early adverse experience and adulthood stress in the prediction of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women: a multiple regression analysis.

    abstract::Sensitization of stress-responsive neurobiological systems as a possible consequence of early adverse experience has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. In addition to early adversities, adulthood stressors are also known to precipitate the manifestation of these disorders. The presen...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heim C,Newport DJ,Wagner D,Wilcox MM,Miller AH,Nemeroff CB

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of comorbid anxiety in exercise and depression trials: Secondary analysis of the SMILE-II randomized clinical trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To explore the anxiolytic effects of a 4-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial of exercise and antidepressant medication in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and to examine the potential modifying effects of anxiety in treating depressive symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this secondary a...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blumenthal JA,Babyak MA,Craighead WE,Davidson J,Hinderliter A,Hoffman B,Doraiswamy PM,Sherwood A

    更新日期:2020-08-12 00:00:00

  • Treatment of late-onset OCD following basal ganglia infarct.

    abstract::Current consensus on the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) includes cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the form of exposure and response prevention (ERP). However, the generalizability of these methods to elderly populations remains largely undocumented. This clinical case study examines the effectiven...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carmin CN,Wiegartz PS,Yunus U,Gillock KL

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of childhood adversity on the course and suicidality of depressive disorders: the CRESCEND study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The impact of childhood adversity persists across the life course. This study aimed to investigate the associations of childhood adversity with the course, suicidality, and treatment outcomes of depressive disorders. METHOD:A total of 919 people with depressive disorders were recruited. Childhood adversities...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim SW,Kang HJ,Kim SY,Kim JM,Yoon JS,Jung SW,Lee MS,Yim HW,Jun TY

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fluvoxamine treatment in veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder.

    abstract::This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the antidepressant fluvoxamine in the treatment of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifteen veterans with combat-related PTSD and no other psychiatric diagnosis except depression were recruited to participate in a 14-week open-label study of f...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Escalona R,Canive JM,Calais LA,Davidson JR

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sedentary behaviors, physical activity, and changes in depression and psychological distress symptoms in older adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Television (TV) viewing and computer use have been associated with higher risk of depression, but studies specifically assessing the impact of these and other types of sedentary behaviors (SBs) on the mental health of older adults are scarce and their results are inconclusive. Similarly, the association betw...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andrade-Gómez E,Martínez-Gómez D,Rodríguez-Artalejo F,García-Esquinas E

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Validity of a simpler definition of major depressive disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In previous reports from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we developed a briefer definition of major depressive disorder (MDD), and found high levels of agreement between the simplified and DSM-IV definitions of MDD. The goal of the present study was to examine ...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimmerman M,Galione JN,Chelminski I,Young D,Dalrymple K,Witt CF

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial fu...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brière FN,Rohde P,Seeley JR,Klein D,Lewinsohn PM

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00


    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning has been implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric diagnoses and response to adverse life experiences. This study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and epigenetics in HPA axis and response to cognitive behavior therapy...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Roberts S,Keers R,Lester KJ,Coleman JR,Breen G,Arendt K,Blatter-Meunier J,Cooper P,Creswell C,Fjermestad K,Havik OE,Herren C,Hogendoorn SM,Hudson JL,Krause K,Lyneham HJ,Morris T,Nauta M,Rapee RM,Rey Y,Schneider S

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders.

    abstract::There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) neurotransmitter systems in depression and anxiety disorders. The majority of evidence supports underactivation of serotonergic function and complex dysregulation of noradrenergic function, most consistent with overactivation o...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ressler KJ,Nemeroff CB

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Uncertainty increases neural indices of attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience abnormally high levels of uncertainty, and unpredictability is evaluated negatively and not well tolerated. The current study examined neural correlates of attentional processing in response to experimentally induced uncertainty in OCD. METHODS:Tw...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dieterich R,Endrass T,Kathmann N

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Convergent, discriminant, and criterion-related validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory.

    abstract::The psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) were assessed in a sample of participants who either had a primary diagnosis of social phobia or were normal volunteers. Positive evidence was obtained on the SPAI's concurrent and predictive convergent validity: it was significantly correlated ...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodebaugh TL,Chambless DL,Terrill DR,Floyd M,Uhde T

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct electrocortical and behavioral evidence for increased attention to threat in generalized anxiety disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Neural activity is increasingly used in addition to behavioral measures to study anxiety and attentional biases toward threatening stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) might be particularly useful because of their excellent temporal resolution. In particular, the late positive potential (LPP) reflects in...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacNamara A,Hajcak G

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Do anxiety and depression cluster into distinct groups?: a test of tripartite model predictions in a community sample of youth.

    abstract::Because of their high comorbidity and strong associations, the distinctiveness of anxiety and depression in youth continues to be debated. In this study we used cluster analysis in a community sample (n=225) of youth to test tripartite model predictions regarding the grouping of individuals based on their levels of an...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cannon MF,Weems CF

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physical health problems in depressed and nondepressed children and adolescents of parents with opiate dependence.

    abstract::The increased risk of physical health problems in adult depressed patients has been shown in numerous studies. A recent study of the offspring of depressed parents found similar associations. The purpose of this study is to examine the strength and specificity of the association between depression and physical health ...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: McAvay G,Nunes EV,Zaider TI,Goldstein RB,Weissman MM

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Attention bias to threat faces in severe mood dysregulation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We used a dot-probe paradigm to examine attention bias toward threat (i.e., angry) and happy face stimuli in severe mood dysregulation (SMD) versus healthy comparison (HC) youth. The tendency to allocate attention to threat is well established in anxiety and other disorders of negative affect. SMD is charact...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hommer RE,Meyer A,Stoddard J,Connolly ME,Mogg K,Bradley BP,Pine DS,Leibenluft E,Brotman MA

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of impaired sleep on the development of PTSD symptoms in combat veterans: a prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A significant proportion of soldiers return from deployment with symptoms of fatigue, sleep difficulties, and posttraumatic complaints. Disrupted sleep has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigates the impact of impaired sleep ...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Liempt S,van Zuiden M,Westenberg H,Super A,Vermetten E

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differential neural predictors of treatment response for fear and dysphoric features of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the frontline treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least one-third of patients are treatment nonresponders. This study aimed to identify neural markers of treatment response, specifically the prediction of remission of specifi...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bryant RA,Erlinger M,Felmingham K,Malhi GS,O'Donnell ML,Williams LM,Korgaonkar MS

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Re-examining the differential familial liability of agoraphobia and panic disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Controversy surrounds the question of whether agoraphobia (AG) exists as an independent diagnostic entity apart from panic. In favor of this position, AG without panic disorder (PD) in parents was found being unrelated to offsprings' risk for AG or PD, albeit it may enhance the familial transmission of PD (N...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knappe S,Beesdo-Baum K,Nocon A,Wittchen HU

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in reported physical health symptoms and social function with prolonged exposure therapy for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with significant health risk, illness, and functional impairment, e.g., Green and Kimerling [2004: Physical Health Consequences of Exposure to Extreme Stress. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] Kimerling et al. [2000: Trauma and Health: J Tr...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rauch SA,Grunfeld TE,Yadin E,Cahill SP,Hembree E,Foa EB

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Trajectories of childhood adversity and the risk of depression in young adulthood: Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The significance of the timing and chronicity of childhood adversity for depression outcomes later in life is unclear. Identifying trajectories of adversity throughout childhood would allow classification of children according to the accumulation, timing, and persistence of adversity, and may provide unique ...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tracy M,Salo M,Slopen N,Udo T,Appleton AA

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Parenting mediates the impact of maternal depression on child internalizing symptoms.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviors in the longitudinal, bidirectional relationships between maternal depression and child internalizing symptoms (i.e. depression and anxiety). METHODS:We analyzed data from 4,581 mother-child dyads from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Stu...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuckertz JM,Mitchell C,Wiggins JL

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • The interaction of 5-HTT variation, recent stress, and resilience on current anxiety levels in adolescents and young adults from the general population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous work on gene-environment (GxE) interplay concerning anxiety has focused on the interaction of 5-HTTLPR with childhood adversities or traumatic events whereas the impact of recent stressors is understudied, as is the integration of resilience. The current study aimed to investigate the interactive ef...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ollmann TM,Voss C,Venz J,Seidl E,Hoyer J,Kische H,Pieper L,Schiele MA,Domschke K,Beesdo-Baum K

    更新日期:2020-10-14 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in DNA methylation may contribute to risk of PTSD and depression: a review of existing evidence.

    abstract::There are well-established sex differences in the prevalence of certain mental disorders. Work in animal models has provided us with an emerging understanding of the role that epigenetic factors play in establishing sex differences in the brain during development. Similarly, work in animal models, and a more limited b...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Uddin M,Sipahi L,Li J,Koenen KC

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive-behavioral group therapy versus group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder among college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:In this randomized controlled trial, cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) was compared to group psychotherapy (GPT), a credible, structurally equivalent control condition that included only nonspecific factors of group treatment (such as group dynamics). METHODS:Partici...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bjornsson AS,Bidwell LC,Brosse AL,Carey G,Hauser M,Mackiewicz Seghete KL,Schulz-Heik RJ,Weatherley D,Erwin BA,Craighead WE

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Fluoxetine in child and adolescent depression: acute and maintenance treatment.

    abstract::The objective was to present naturalistic 1-year follow-up information of 96 child and adolescent outpatients with major depressive disorder who had been randomized in an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine. Subjects were children and adolescents, ages 8-18 years, who were entered in a randomiz...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Emslie GJ,Rush AJ,Weinberg WA,Kowatch RA,Carmody T,Mayes TL

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Research article: Antidepressant use among Asians in the United States.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined the prevalence and predictors of past-year antidepressant use in a nationally representative sample of Asian Americans and non-Latino Whites. METHODS:Analyses of 12-month antidepressant medication use were based on data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys that surveyed Asian ...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González HM,Tarraf W,West BT,Chan D,Miranda PY,Leong FT

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in primary-care settings.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This article describes a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program designed to support the delivery of evidenced-based CBT for the four most commonly occurring anxiety disorders (panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) in pr...

    journal_title:Depression and anxiety

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Craske MG,Rose RD,Lang A,Welch SS,Campbell-Sills L,Sullivan G,Sherbourne C,Bystritsky A,Stein MB,Roy-Byrne PP

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00