Resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.


:Inhibitors that target the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) have played an indispensable role in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. They can be grouped into two distinct therapeutic groups, namely the nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs), and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs form the backbones of most first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens formulated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. They are also used to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and as pre-exposure prophylaxis in individuals at risk of HIV-1 infection. The NNRTIs nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz and rilpivirine also used to form part of first-line ART regimens, although this is no longer recommended, while etravirine can be used in salvage ART regimens. A single-dose of NVP administered to both mother and child has routinely been used in resource-limited settings to reduce the rate of HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, the development of HIV-1 resistance to RT inhibitors can compromise the efficacy of these antiviral drugs in both the treatment and prevention arenas. Here, we provide an up-to-date review on drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 RT, and discuss their cross-resistance profiles, molecular mechanisms and clinical significance.


Future Microbiol


Future microbiology


Sluis-Cremer N,Wainberg MA,Schinazi RF




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












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    abstract::Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi are the causative agents of human typhoid fever. Current typhoid vaccines are ineffective and are not widely used in endemic areas. Greater understanding of host-pathogen interactions during Salmonella infection should facilitate the development of improved vaccines to ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pham OH,McSorley SJ

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application in epidemiologic studies.

    abstract::Genotyping is used to track specific isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a community. It has been successfully used in epidemiologic research (termed 'molecular epidemiology') to study the transmission dynamics of TB. In this article, we review the genetic markers used in molecular epidemiologic studies includin...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kato-Maeda M,Metcalfe JZ,Flores L

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  • Tuberculosis drugs: new candidates and how to find more.

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sala C,Hartkoorn RC

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Frey KM

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Feldman C,Anderson R

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McFarland LV

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Correia I,Román E,Prieto D,Eisman B,Pla J

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

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    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chitlaru T,Shafferman A

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mallick S,Dey S,Mandal S,Dutta A,Mukherjee D,Biswas G,Chatterjee S,Mallick S,Lai TK,Acharya K,Pal C

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

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    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tovy A,Ankri S

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ulbert S,Magnusson SE

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy A,Roy P

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • The dominance of bacterial genotypes leads to susceptibility variations under sublethal antibiotic pressure.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate the collective resistance of the bacteria population with resistant horizontal gene transfer under sublethal bactericide pressure. MATERIALS & METHODS:By employing qualitative analysis of ordinary differential equations, particularly bifurcation theory and several numerical simulations, a modified 4...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu S,Yang J,Yin C,Zhao X

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Käding N,Szaszák M,Rupp J

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lima FL,Joazeiro PP,Lancellotti M,de Hollanda LM,de Araújo Lima B,Linares E,Augusto O,Brocchi M,Giorgio S

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Letermovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus manifestations in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hecke SV,Calcoen B,Lagrou K,Maertens J

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang H,Li W,Gu L,Gao X,Ni B,Deng H,Yang R,Han Y

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Variants of the bile: solubility test to differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci.

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ercibengoa M,Morales M,Alonso M,Ardanuy C,Marimón JM

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Methods for culturing anaerobes from human specimen.

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guilhot E,Khelaifia S,La Scola B,Raoult D,Dubourg G

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of AFN-1252 administered as immediate release tablets in healthy subjects.

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    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hafkin B,Kaplan N,Hunt TL

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00