Resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.


:Inhibitors that target the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) have played an indispensable role in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. They can be grouped into two distinct therapeutic groups, namely the nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs), and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs form the backbones of most first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens formulated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. They are also used to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and as pre-exposure prophylaxis in individuals at risk of HIV-1 infection. The NNRTIs nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz and rilpivirine also used to form part of first-line ART regimens, although this is no longer recommended, while etravirine can be used in salvage ART regimens. A single-dose of NVP administered to both mother and child has routinely been used in resource-limited settings to reduce the rate of HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, the development of HIV-1 resistance to RT inhibitors can compromise the efficacy of these antiviral drugs in both the treatment and prevention arenas. Here, we provide an up-to-date review on drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 RT, and discuss their cross-resistance profiles, molecular mechanisms and clinical significance.


Future Microbiol


Future microbiology


Sluis-Cremer N,Wainberg MA,Schinazi RF




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Oritavancin: a potential weapon in the battle against serious Gram-positive pathogens.

    abstract::Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria. Oritavancin separates itself from other glycopeptides through its potent in vitro activity against resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. Oritavancin possesses...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Crandon J,Nicolau DP

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Better than a pound of cure: preventing the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    abstract::Diagnostic and treatment delays contribute to increased death and disability among the 490,000 adults and children who develop multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis every year. Since the treatment of MDR tuberculosis is complex, costly and often toxic, tuberculosis control programs should prioritize strategies to pre...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Byrne AL,Fox GJ,Marais BJ

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic efficacy of ozenoxacin in animal models of dermal infection with Staphylococcus aureus.

    abstract:AIM:To assess different concentrations and formulations of topical ozenoxacin using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus dermal infection for identification of the best formulation for treating patients with impetigo. MATERIALS & METHODS:The efficacy of ozenoxacin formulations was compared with vehicle control, mupi...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarragó C,Esquirol LP,Arañó A,Lachamp L,D'Aniello F,Zsolt I

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Role of catalase overproduction in drug resistance and virulence in Candida albicans.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate the role of Cat1 overproduction in Candida albicans. MATERIALS & METHODS:Strains overproducing the CAT1 gene were constructed. RESULTS:Cells overproducing CAT1 were found to be more resistant to some oxidants and mammalian phagocytic cells. They also showed reduced intracellular reactive oxygen spe...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Román E,Prieto D,Martin R,Correia I,Mesa Arango AC,Alonso-Monge R,Zaragoza O,Pla J

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the antifungal activity in vitro of midazolam against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. isolates.

    abstract::Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of midazolam, alone and in association with azoles, against isolates of clinical Candida spp. in planktonic and biofilm form. Materials & methods: The antifungal activity was observed using the broth microdilution technique. Flow cytometry tests we...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holanda MA,da Silva CR,de A Neto JB,do Av Sá LG,do Nascimento FB,Barroso DD,da Silva LJ,Cândido TM,Leitão AC,Barbosa AD,de Moraes MO,Cc B,Júnior HVN

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • A multicenter, open-label study of posaconazole oral suspension in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients refractory to or intolerant of first-line therapy.

    abstract:AIM:Invasive fungal infections pose a severe health threat to patients. Despite recent advances in drug development, treatment of recurrent fungal infections remains difficult. Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal drug available for oral administration. Although initial studies have described its use in...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Huang X,Wang F,Chen Y,Liu T,Wang J,Hu J,Jie J,Chen F,Wang S,Shen Z,Yu L,Yu K,Liang Y

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cif type III effector protein: a smart hijacker of the host cell cycle.

    abstract::During coevolution with their hosts, bacteria have developed functions that allow them to interfere with the mechanisms controlling the proliferation of eukaryotic cells. Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of these cyclomodulins, the family of bacterial effectors that interfere with the host cell cycle. Acquired ear...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Samba-Louaka A,Taieb F,Nougayrède JP,Oswald E

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin B(12) metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    abstract::Mycobacterium tuberculosis is included among a select group of bacteria possessing the capacity for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B12, the largest and most complex natural organometallic cofactor. The bacillus is also able to scavenge B12 and related corrinoids utilizing an ATP-binding cassette-type protein that is ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gopinath K,Moosa A,Mizrahi V,Warner DF

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Delafloxacin: an improved fluoroquinolone developed through advanced molecular engineering.

    abstract::The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challeng...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Bassetti M,Righi E,Pecori D,Tillotson G

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of carbapenemase-producing organisms at the Kidney Center of Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and evaluation of an advanced molecular microarray-based carbapenemase assay.

    abstract:AIM:A DNA microarray-based assay for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes was used to study carbapenemase-producing organisms at the Kidney Center of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS:The evaluation of this assay was performed using 97 reference strains with confirmed AMR genes. Testing of 7857 clinical s...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Braun SD,Jamil B,Syed MA,Abbasi SA,Weiß D,Slickers P,Monecke S,Engelmann I,Ehricht R

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nanoscale exploration of microbial surfaces using the atomic force microscope.

    abstract::Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has recently opened a variety of novel possibilities for imaging and manipulating microbial surfaces in their native environment. While AFM imaging offers a means to visualize surface structures at high resolution and in physiological conditions, AFM force spectroscopy enables researchers...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dufrêne YF

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • The dominance of bacterial genotypes leads to susceptibility variations under sublethal antibiotic pressure.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate the collective resistance of the bacteria population with resistant horizontal gene transfer under sublethal bactericide pressure. MATERIALS & METHODS:By employing qualitative analysis of ordinary differential equations, particularly bifurcation theory and several numerical simulations, a modified 4...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu S,Yang J,Yin C,Zhao X

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pheromonicins: an ecologically sound family of bacteriocin-based antibiotics for use in the age of the microbiome.

    abstract::The time is ripe to usher in a new paradigm in infection control and to move beyond our sole reliance on broad-spectrum antibiotics whose use results in extensive collateral damage to our microbiome and, in so doing, exerts significant selective pressures for resistance to emerge. We propose to supplement the existing...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Qiu XQ,Roy SM,Riley MA

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • MAPK cell-cycle regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans.

    abstract::The cell cycle is the sequential set of events that living cells undergo in order to duplicate. This process must be tightly regulated as alterations may lead to diseases such as cancer. The molecular events that control the cell cycle are directional and involve regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-depende...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Correia I,Alonso-Monge R,Pla J

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies in the treatment of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia.

    abstract::Community-acquired pneumonia remains an important cause of disease and death both in the developed and the developing worlds, despite the ready availability of potent antimicrobial agents to which the organisms remain susceptible. Furthermore, disease management is complicated by emerging resistance of the common path...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Feldman C,Anderson R

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Accurate differentiation of novel Staphylococcus argenteus from Staphylococcus aureus using MALDI-TOF MS.

    abstract:AIM:We evaluated a Staphylococcus argenteus-specific diagnostic profile of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for accurate identification of this novel bacterium. MATERIALS & METHODS:Staphylococcus argenteus was identified based on negative crtM gene and presence of specific s...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen SY,Lee H,Teng SH,Wang XM,Lee TF,Huang YC,Liao CH,Teng LJ,Hsueh PR

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility of old and current Serratia.

    abstract:AIMS:We explored changes in antibiotic susceptibility of Serratia marcescens in the last 50 years by comparing isolates collected between 1945 and 1950, and current isolates. MATERIALS & METHODS:Isolates were divided into three groups: environmental, clinical and 'old'. Susceptibility was determined by microdilution. ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fusté E,Galisteo GJ,Jover L,Vinuesa T,Villa TG,Viñas M

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Septic patients in the intensive care unit present different nasal microbiotas.

    abstract:AIM:The primary objective of this study was to evaluate correlations among mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and airway microbiotas in septic patients. MATERIALS & METHODS:A deep-sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region was performed. RESULTS:The nasal microbiota in septic patients was dom...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan XL,Liu HY,Long J,Jiang Z,Luo Y,Zhao X,Cai S,Zhong X,Cen Z,Su J,Zhou H

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in development of gastric carcinoma.

    abstract::Helicobacter pylori plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. However, only a relatively small proportion of individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric carcinoma. Differences in the incidence of gastric carcinoma among infected individuals can be explained, at least partly, by the different...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang MY,Liu XF,Gao XZ

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Investigation of an XDR-Acinetobacter baumannii ST2 outbreak in an intensive care unit of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital.

    abstract::Aim: We sought to investigate the genetic epidemiological relatedness of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) strains of a suspected outbreak in a Lebanese tertiary care hospital to implement necessary infection prevention and control measures. Methods: Twenty-eight nonduplicate CRAB isolates detected a...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osman M,B Halimeh F,Rafei R,Mallat H,Tom JE,Raad EB,M Diene S,Jamal S,Atrouni AA,Dabboussi F,Moudani W,Madec JY,Saras E,Lupo A,Haenni M,Rolain JM,Hamze M

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Efflux pump induction by quaternary ammonium compounds and fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria.

    abstract::Biocides, primarily those containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), are heavily used in hospital environments and various industries (e.g., food, water, cosmetic). To date, little attention has been paid to potential implications of QAC use in the emergence of antibiotic resistance, especially fluoroquinolone-re...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Buffet-Bataillon S,Tattevin P,Maillard JY,Bonnaure-Mallet M,Jolivet-Gougeon A

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Report from the 4th Advances Against Aspergillosis Conference.

    abstract::Traditionally, the patients believed to be at highest risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA) are those who are neutropenic due to chemotherapy for hematological malignancy or those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, emerging data show that other patients are vulnerable to IA, even tho...

    journal_title:Future microbiology



    authors: Sheppard D,Grist LM

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Methods for culturing anaerobes from human specimen.

    abstract::Anaerobes represent the dominating population in the human gut microbiota and play a key role in gut homeostasis. In addition, several anaerobes are now considered as probiotics and they remain essential to several processes in the field of biotechnology. With the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS in routine laboratories...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guilhot E,Khelaifia S,La Scola B,Raoult D,Dubourg G

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Skin tissue exposure of once- versus twice-daily topical ozenoxacin 2% cream: a Phase I study in healthy volunteers.

    abstract::In this Phase I study, healthy volunteers (n = 24) were randomly allocated to receive either one or two 0.2-g applications per day (12 h apart) of ozenoxacin 2% cream on three different areas of the back for 3 consecutive days. Ozenoxacin concentrations were measured in tape stripping samples (from the stratum corneum...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Gropper S,Albareda N,Santos B,Febbraro S

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • TUP1-mediated filamentation in Candida albicans leads to inability to colonize the mouse gut.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate the role of Candida albicans TUP1-mediated filamentation in the colonization of the mice gut. MATERIALS & METHODS:We used molecular genetics to generate a strain where filamentation is regulated by altering the expression of the TUP1 gene with tetracyclines. RESULTS:The colonization rates reached w...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Román E,Huertas B,Prieto D,Díez-Orejas R,Pla J

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Bioguided identification of antimicrobial compounds from Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty root essential oil.

    abstract::Aim: To determine the group of compounds from Chrysopogon zizaniodes root essential oil that have antimicrobial activity. Materials & methods: Thin-layer chromatography coupled to direct bioautography was used to determinate the fraction(s) having antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aur...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramírez-Rueda RY,Marinho J,Salvador MJ

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of fluoroquinolones on human microbiota. Focus on the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

    abstract::The aggregate of microorganisms residing on the surface of the skin, in the oropharynx and in the GI tract, known as the human microbiota, play a major role as natural reservoirs for bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are among the most prescribed antibiotics and a major increase in FQ resistan...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Lastours V,Fantin B

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial triggering of inflammation by intracellular sensors.

    abstract::Recognition of bacterial infection is the first key step to the initiation of an inflammatory response and host defense. Transmembrane proteins of the Toll-like receptor family have long been recognized as key detectors of the extracellular presence of pathogens. Recently, much research has identified a variety of int...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Evans TJ

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Current status and future perspectives on molecular and serological methods in diagnostic mycology.

    abstract::Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of infectious morbidity. Nonculture-based methods are increasingly used for rapid, accurate diagnosis to improve patient outcomes. New and existing DNA amplification platforms have high sensitivity and specificity for direct detection and identification of fungi in cli...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lau A,Chen S,Sleiman S,Sorrell T

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Salmonella enterica as a vaccine carrier.

    abstract::Salmonella enterica is an invasive, facultative intracellular gastrointestinal pathogen causing human diseases such as gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence-attenuated strains of this pathogen have interesting capacities for the generation of live vaccines. Attenuated live typhoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hegazy WA,Hensel M

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00