Resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

Abstract:

:Inhibitors that target the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) have played an indispensable role in the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. They can be grouped into two distinct therapeutic groups, namely the nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs), and the non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs form the backbones of most first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens formulated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. They are also used to prevent mother-to-child transmission, and as pre-exposure prophylaxis in individuals at risk of HIV-1 infection. The NNRTIs nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz and rilpivirine also used to form part of first-line ART regimens, although this is no longer recommended, while etravirine can be used in salvage ART regimens. A single-dose of NVP administered to both mother and child has routinely been used in resource-limited settings to reduce the rate of HIV-1 transmission. Unfortunately, the development of HIV-1 resistance to RT inhibitors can compromise the efficacy of these antiviral drugs in both the treatment and prevention arenas. Here, we provide an up-to-date review on drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 RT, and discuss their cross-resistance profiles, molecular mechanisms and clinical significance.

journal_name

Future Microbiol

journal_title

Future microbiology

authors

Sluis-Cremer N,Wainberg MA,Schinazi RF

doi

10.2217/fmb.15.106

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2015-01-01 00:00:00

pages

1773-82

issue

11

eissn

1746-0913

issn

1746-0921

journal_volume

10

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Protective host immune responses to Salmonella infection.

    abstract::Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi are the causative agents of human typhoid fever. Current typhoid vaccines are ineffective and are not widely used in endemic areas. Greater understanding of host-pathogen interactions during Salmonella infection should facilitate the development of improved vaccines to ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.14.98

    authors: Pham OH,McSorley SJ

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application in epidemiologic studies.

    abstract::Genotyping is used to track specific isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a community. It has been successfully used in epidemiologic research (termed 'molecular epidemiology') to study the transmission dynamics of TB. In this article, we review the genetic markers used in molecular epidemiologic studies includin...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.10.165

    authors: Kato-Maeda M,Metcalfe JZ,Flores L

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Tuberculosis drugs: new candidates and how to find more.

    abstract::The recent years have witnessed significant progress in the development of new drug candidates for the treatment of TB. While many of these are now in clinical trials, continued research is needed in order to sustain the drug discovery pipeline and meet the increasing needs of TB patients. These include shortening tre...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.11.46

    authors: Sala C,Hartkoorn RC

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Structure-enhanced methods in the development of non-nucleoside inhibitors targeting HIV reverse transcriptase variants.

    abstract::Resistance continues to emerge as a leading cause for antiretroviral treatment failure. Several mutations in HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) confer resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs), vital components of antiretroviral combination therapies. Since the majority of mutations are located in the NNRTI binding...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.15.122

    authors: Frey KM

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies in the treatment of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia.

    abstract::Community-acquired pneumonia remains an important cause of disease and death both in the developed and the developing worlds, despite the ready availability of potent antimicrobial agents to which the organisms remain susceptible. Furthermore, disease management is complicated by emerging resistance of the common path...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/17460913.1.3.271

    authors: Feldman C,Anderson R

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Accurate differentiation of novel Staphylococcus argenteus from Staphylococcus aureus using MALDI-TOF MS.

    abstract:AIM:We evaluated a Staphylococcus argenteus-specific diagnostic profile of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for accurate identification of this novel bacterium. MATERIALS & METHODS:Staphylococcus argenteus was identified based on negative crtM gene and presence of specific s...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2018-0015

    authors: Chen SY,Lee H,Teng SH,Wang XM,Lee TF,Huang YC,Liao CH,Teng LJ,Hsueh PR

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genetics of Coxiella burnetii: on the path of specialization.

    abstract::Coxiella burnetii is an extremely infectious, zoonotic agent that causes Q fever in humans. With the exception of New Zealand, the bacterium is distributed worldwide. Coxiella is classified as a select agent based on its past and potential use as a bioweapon and its threat to public health. Despite decades of research...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.11.116

    authors: Minnick MF,Raghavan R

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Myxopyronin: a punch in the jaws of bacterial RNA polymerase.

    abstract::Evaluation of: Belogurov GA, Vassylyeva MN, Sevostyanova A et al.: Transcription inactivation through local refolding of the RNA polymerase structure. Nature 457, 332-335 (2008) and, Mukhopadhyay J, Das K, Ismail S et al.: The RNA polymerase 'switch region' is a target for inhibitors. Cell 135, 295-307 (2008). Bacteri...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/17460913.4.2.145

    authors: Tupin A,Gualtieri M,Brodolin K,Leonetti JP

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Novel isoniazid derivative as promising antituberculosis agent.

    abstract::Background: A major focus of tuberculosis drug discovery is aimed at the development of novel antibiotics with activity against drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: We have synthesized ten isoniazid derivatives and investigated for antibacterial activity toward M. tuberculosis H37Rv and isoni...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2019-0085

    authors: Volynets GP,Tukalo MA,Bdzhola VG,Derkach NM,Gumeniuk MI,Tarnavskiy SS,Yarmoluk SM

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Antibiotic-associated diarrhea: epidemiology, trends and treatment.

    abstract::A common complication of antibiotic use is the development of gastrointestinal disease. This complication ranges from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. Outbreaks of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) may also occur in healthcare settings, usually caused by Clostridium difficile. AAD typically occurs in 5-35...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/17460913.3.5.563

    authors: McFarland LV

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Complementary roles of the Cek1 and Cek2 MAP kinases in Candida albicans cell-wall biogenesis.

    abstract:AIMS:To investigate whether Cek2 (as Cek1) is involved in the biogenesis of the fungal cell wall and to uncover differences and similitudes between both proteins. MATERIALS & METHODS:We used molecular genetics to characterize the role of Cek2 in MTL-heterozygous cells. RESULTS:Deletion of CEK2 (similar to CEK1) rende...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb.15.127

    authors: Correia I,Román E,Prieto D,Eisman B,Pla J

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of intestinal microbiota on weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients: a pilot study.

    abstract::Background: There is increasing evidence of the association between microbiome dysfunction and Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, some PD patients suffer from unintentional weight loss (WL) which may precede the motor manifestations of the disease. Materials & methods: Gut microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene sequen...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2019-0336

    authors: Del Chierico F,Grassini P,Quagliariello A,Torti M,Russo A,Reddel S,Stocchi F

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • The gut microbiome and the potentials of probiotics: an interview with Simon Gaisford.

    abstract::In this exclusive interview, Simon Gaisford discusses his current research into gut dysbiosis and its possible relevance to disease states, as well as the efficacy of probiotic supplementation and its possible use as treatment. This interview was conducted by Ellen Colvin, Commissioning Editor of Future Microbiology. ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 面试

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2019-0016

    authors: Gaisford S

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Asaia lannensis bacteremia in a 'needle freak' patient.

    abstract::The genus Asaia has gained much interest lately owing to constant new species discoveries and its role as a potential opportunistic pathogen to humans. Here we describe a transient bacteremia due to Asaia lannensis in a patient with a psychiatric disorder (compulsive self-injection of different substances). Common phe...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb.15.126

    authors: Carretto E,Visiello R,Bardaro M,Schivazappa S,Vailati F,Farina C,Barbarini D

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Proteomic studies of Bacillus anthracis.

    abstract::Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium representing the etiological cause of anthrax, a rare lethal disease of animals and humans. Development of anthrax countermeasures has gained increasing attention owing to the potential use of B. anthracis spores as a bioterror weapon. The various forms of...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.09.73

    authors: Chitlaru T,Shafferman A

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • 1-benzyl-1,4-diazepane reduces the efflux of resistance-nodulation-cell division pumps in Escherichia coli.

    abstract::Aim: To investigate the action mechanism of 1-benzyl-1,4-diazepane (1-BD) as efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) in Escherichia coli mutants: ΔacrAB or overexpressing AcrAB and AcrEF efflux pumps. Materials & methods: Effect of 1-BD on: antibiotic potentiation, by microdilution method; membrane functionality, by fluorimetric ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2019-0296

    authors: Casalone E,Vignolini T,Braconi L,Gardini L,Capitanio M,Pavone FS,Dei S,Teodori E

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • A novel triterpene from Astraeus hygrometricus induces reactive oxygen species leading to death in Leishmania donovani.

    abstract:AIM:The effect of astrakurkurone, a novel triterpene, isolated from Indian mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus has been investigated to elucidate the mechanisms involved in selective cell death of Leishmania donovani. MATERIALS & METHODS:The hypotheses were investigated using flow-cytometry, scanning electron microscopy a...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb.14.149

    authors: Mallick S,Dey S,Mandal S,Dutta A,Mukherjee D,Biswas G,Chatterjee S,Mallick S,Lai TK,Acharya K,Pal C

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adoptive T-cell therapy in the treatment of viral and opportunistic fungal infections.

    abstract::Viral infections and opportunistic fungal pathogens represent a major menace for immunocompromised patients. Despite the availability of antifungal and antiviral drugs, mortality in these patients remains high, underlining the need of novel therapeutic options based on completely different strategies. This review desc...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.14.122

    authors: Mancini N,Marrone L,Clementi N,Sautto GA,Clementi M,Burioni R

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of carbapenemase-producing organisms at the Kidney Center of Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and evaluation of an advanced molecular microarray-based carbapenemase assay.

    abstract:AIM:A DNA microarray-based assay for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes was used to study carbapenemase-producing organisms at the Kidney Center of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS:The evaluation of this assay was performed using 97 reference strains with confirmed AMR genes. Testing of 7857 clinical s...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2018-0082

    authors: Braun SD,Jamil B,Syed MA,Abbasi SA,Weiß D,Slickers P,Monecke S,Engelmann I,Ehricht R

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Epigenetics in the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    abstract::Amoebiasis is a serious infectious disease that is caused by the unicellular parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite is mainly found in developing countries, and are named owing to its ability to destroy tissues. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the virulence of this parasite are not well understood. In r...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.10.140

    authors: Tovy A,Ankri S

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Technologies for the development of West Nile virus vaccines.

    abstract::West Nile virus (WNV), an emerging mosquito-borne and zoonotic flavivirus, continues to spread worldwide and represents a major problem for human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, severe outbreaks were observed in the USA and Europe with neighboring countries, and the virus is considered to be endemic in an in...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.14.67

    authors: Ulbert S,Magnusson SE

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Manipulation of the bluetongue virus tubules for immunogen delivery.

    abstract::A multidisplay vaccine delivery system has been developed that is nonreplicating and has a protein-based particulate structure. The structure is composed of helical tubules comprising multiple copies of a single nonstructural (NS) protein 1 of bluetongue virus. The helical assemblies present the C terminus of the prot...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/17460913.3.3.351

    authors: Murphy A,Roy P

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • The dominance of bacterial genotypes leads to susceptibility variations under sublethal antibiotic pressure.

    abstract:AIM:To investigate the collective resistance of the bacteria population with resistant horizontal gene transfer under sublethal bactericide pressure. MATERIALS & METHODS:By employing qualitative analysis of ordinary differential equations, particularly bifurcation theory and several numerical simulations, a modified 4...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0070

    authors: Xu S,Yang J,Yin C,Zhao X

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Imaging of Chlamydia and host cell metabolism.

    abstract::Chlamydial infections cause a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Chlamydia are obligate, intracellular bacteria with a biphasic developmental cycle that ...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb.14.13

    authors: Käding N,Szaszák M,Rupp J

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility to imipenem and macrophages.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The seriousness to treat burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa led us to examine whether the effect of the carbapenem antibiotic imipenem is enhanced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). MATERIALS & METHODS:The effects of HBO (100% O2, 3 ATA, 5 h) in combination with imipenen on bacterial counts of six is...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb.14.111

    authors: Lima FL,Joazeiro PP,Lancellotti M,de Hollanda LM,de Araújo Lima B,Linares E,Augusto O,Brocchi M,Giorgio S

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Letermovir for prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus manifestations in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    abstract::Cytomegalovirus (CMV) manifestations remain important complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), even in the current era. Unfortunately, available anti-CMV agents, mainly viral polymerase inhibitors, have a substantial risk of myelosuppression and nephrotoxicity. Letermovir, a novel...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2018-0250

    authors: Hecke SV,Calcoen B,Lagrou K,Maertens J

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Emergence of two distinct subpopulations from Klebsiella pneumoniae grown in the stimulated microgravity environment.

    abstract:AIM:To isolate and characterize the two phenotypically distinct subpopulations from Klebsiella pneumoniae clonal cultures grown in the simulate microgravity environment. MATERIALS & METHODS:Here clonal culture of K. pneumoniae strain ATCC BAA-1705 was grown within a vertically rotating wall vessel bioreactor. Microsco...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0032

    authors: Wang H,Li W,Gu L,Gao X,Ni B,Deng H,Yang R,Han Y

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Variants of the bile: solubility test to differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci.

    abstract::Aim: Bile salts promote the specific autolysis of pneumococcal cells, allowing the differentiation between Streptococcus pneumoniae and other viridans group streptococci (VGS). Material & methods: One hundred clinical VGS isolates identified by amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA, groEL and sodA genes were analyz...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2019-0073

    authors: Ercibengoa M,Morales M,Alonso M,Ardanuy C,Marimón JM

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Methods for culturing anaerobes from human specimen.

    abstract::Anaerobes represent the dominating population in the human gut microbiota and play a key role in gut homeostasis. In addition, several anaerobes are now considered as probiotics and they remain essential to several processes in the field of biotechnology. With the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS in routine laboratories...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.2217/fmb-2017-0170

    authors: Guilhot E,Khelaifia S,La Scola B,Raoult D,Dubourg G

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of AFN-1252 administered as immediate release tablets in healthy subjects.

    abstract:AIMS:AFN-1252 is a novel inhibitor of FabI, an essential enzyme in Staphylococcus spp. This study was undertaken to assess the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of AFN-1252, following oral administration in an ascending dose trial. MATERIALS & METHODS:This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-cont...

    journal_title:Future microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.2217/fmb.15.101

    authors: Hafkin B,Kaplan N,Hunt TL

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00