Antialarmin effect of tick saliva during the transmission of Lyme disease.


:Tick saliva has potent immunomodulatory properties. In arthropod-borne diseases, this effect is largely used by microorganisms to increase their pathogenicity and to evade host immune responses. We show that in Lyme borreliosis, tick salivary gland extract and a tick saliva protein, Salp15, inhibit in vitro keratinocyte inflammation induced by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto or by the major outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia, OspC. Chemokines (interleukin-8 [IL-8] and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]) and several antimicrobial peptides (defensins, cathelicidin, psoriasin, and RNase 7) were downregulated. Interestingly, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) transiently inhibited bacterial motility but did not kill the organisms when tested in vitro. We conclude that tick saliva affects the chemotactic properties of chemokines and AMPs on immune cells and has an antialarmin effect on human primary keratinocytes. Alarmins are mediators that mobilize and activate antigen-presenting cells. Inhibition of cutaneous innate immunity and of the migration of immune cells to the site of the tick bite ensures a favorable environment for Borrelia. The bacterium can then multiply locally and, subsequently, disseminate to the target organs, including joints, heart, and the central nervous system.


Infect Immun


Infection and immunity


Marchal C,Schramm F,Kern A,Luft BJ,Yang X,Schuijt TJ,Hovius JW,Jaulhac B,Boulanger N




Has Abstract


2011-02-01 00:00:00














  • Affinity of the C9 molecule for the C5b-8 complex compared with that for the complex containing C9 molecules.

    abstract::Gram-negative bacterial cells exposed to a complement source may carry membrane attack complexes containing variable numbers of C9 molecules per C5b-8 site. In order to investigate the assembly of this complex, the ability of C9 molecules to bind to C5b-8 complexes was compared with the binding characteristics of C9 f...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacKay SL,Dankert JR

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Murine malaria: immune complexes inhibit Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    abstract::Immune complexes have been partially purified from the serum of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice by ultracentrifugation on 10 to 40% linear sucrose gradients, by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, and by gel filtration through Sephacryl S-300. The complexes contain gamma 1, gamma 2a, gamma 2b, and gamma 3 subclas...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shear HL

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of candidacidal and candidastatic activities of human neutrophils.

    abstract::Disruption of neutrophils causes the release of a cytoplasmic protein which can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans without killing the organisms. The present study was undertaken with a combined system in which candidacidal and candidastatic activities of human neutrophils could be compared. In this system it was ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sohnle PG,Collins-Lech C

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clindamycin-induced enterocolitis in hamsters as a model of pseudomembranous colitis in patients.

    abstract::Stools from a patient with antibiotic-associated colitis and cecal contents from a hamster with clindamycin-induced enterocolitis were compared in a cytotoxicity assay to determine common properties. Both specimens produced actinomorphic changes in human amnion cells at 10(-7) dilutions. The toxin was acid labile, hea...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang TW,Bartlett JG,Gorbach SL,Onderdonk AB

    更新日期:1978-05-01 00:00:00

  • Examination of Streptococcus mutans for immunoglobulin G Fc reactivity.

    abstract::Representative strains of oral streptococci were tested for Fc immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivity by two different techniques, agglutination of rabbit-IgG sensitized sheep erythrocytes and uptake of human and rabbit 125I-radiolabeled IgG. None of the S. mutans serotypes a through e reacted with the Fc region of either ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shea C,Ferretti JJ

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    abstract::By screening a genomic lambda library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, we have cloned and sequenced a gene, termed fnz, encoding a fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein called FNZ. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence of FNZ, the mature protein has a molecular mass of approximately 61 kDa. Analysis of...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lindmark H,Jacobsson K,Frykberg L,Guss B

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines: length stabilization of opsonophagocytic conformational polysaccharide epitopes.

    abstract::A simple and convenient method was developed for the preparation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 polysaccharide (Pn14PS)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccines, using terminally linked Pn14PS fragments of different lengths. Native Pn14PS was simultaneously depolymerized and activated for conjugation by partial N-d...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laferriere CA,Sood RK,de Muys JM,Michon F,Jennings HJ

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Immune responses in infections with coccidia: macrophage activity.

    abstract::Peritoneal exudate cells from chickens immunized with two species of coccidia, Eimeria tenella or Eimeria maxima, were examined for their capacity to phagocytose stages of the parasite in vitro. True phagocytosis of the sporozoite stage is difficult to estimate because of its ability to invade cells, but may be evalua...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rose ME

    更新日期:1974-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructural changes in cells of the mouse footpad infected with Mycobacterium leprae.

    abstract::Ultrastructural changes in cells of the mouse footpad are described which occurred during the log phase of multiplication, the plateau, and the stationary phase of growth of Mycobacterium leprae.BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right hind footpad with 5 x 10(3) organisms and sacrificed in pairs at 86 to 173 days aft...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Evans MJ,Levy L

    更新日期:1972-02-01 00:00:00

  • Assimilation of xylose, mannose, and mannitol for synthesis of glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    abstract::Cryptococcus neoformans NIH 409 was cultured in a defined medium containing D-[1-13C]xylose (Xyl), D-[1-13C]mannose (Man), or D-[1-13C]mannitol as the sole carbon source. The distribution of 13C in the Man, Xyl, glucuronic acid (GlcA), and O-acetyl constituents of native and de-O-acetylated glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) w...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cherniak R,O'Neill EB,Sheng S

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Circulating promyelocytes and low levels of CD16 expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes accompany early-onset periodontitis.

    abstract::Early-onset periodontitis (EOP) is characterized by rapidly progressive alveolar bone loss, chemotactic defects of neutrophils, and significant familial aggregation. We found immature myeloid lineage cells, defined as promyelocytes, in the peripheral blood in patients with EOP. A hematological examination of periphera...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nemoto E,Nakamura M,Shoji S,Horiuchi H

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cell-mediated immunoprotection in blastomycosis.

    abstract::Delayed hypersensitivity can be induced in C57BL/6J mice by two subcutaneous injections of Merthiolate-killed Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Development of delayed hypersensitivity peaked at the day 18 post-primary antigen-emulsion injection, as determined by footpad sensitivity te...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cozad GC,Chang CT

    更新日期:1980-05-01 00:00:00

  • Local and systemic antibody responses in mice immunized intranasally with native and detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles from Neisseria meningitidis.

    abstract::The mouse humoral immune response toward native or detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles (NOMVs and DOMVs, respectively) from Neisseria meningitidis was determined after intranasal immunization. Both preparations elicited high frequencies of NOMV-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) locally in the nasal associ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guthrie T,Wong SY,Liang B,Hyland L,Hou S,Høiby EA,Andersen SR

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Outer membrane proteins induced under conditions of iron limitation in the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775.

    abstract::Cells of the marine fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum 775 harboring a plasmid associated with virulence can grow unaffected in the presence of iron-binding compounds such as transferrin. In contrast, the growth of isogenic plasmidless derivatives is inhibited by the presence of iron chelators. Radioactive from (55Fe3+)...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crosa JH,Hodges LL

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Disruption of an internal membrane-spanning region in Shiga toxin 1 reduces cytotoxicity.

    abstract::Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) belongs to the Shiga family of bipartite AB toxins that inactivate eukaryotic 60S ribosomes. The A subunit of Stxs are N-glycosidases that share structural and functional features in their catalytic center and in an internal hydrophobic region that shows strong transmembrane propensity. Both ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suhan ML,Hovde CJ

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Selective adherence as a determinant of the host tropisms of certain indigenous and pathogenic bacteria.

    abstract::The relationship between the selective abilities of bacteria to adhere and their predilections for colonizing different mammalian hosts was investigated by using bacteria indigenous to the tongue dorsum of humans and rats as models. Streptococcus salivarius and S. sanguis averaged 22.6 and 2.8%, respectively, of the c...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibbons RJ,Spinell DM,Skobe Z

    更新日期:1976-01-01 00:00:00

  • Immunoelectrophoretic analysis, toxicity, and kinetics of in vitro production of the protective antigen and lethal factor components of Bacillus anthracis toxin.

    abstract::The kinetics of Bacillus anthracis toxin production in culture and its lethal activity in rats, mice, and guinea pigs were investigated. Lethal toxin activity was produced in vitro throughout exponential growth at essentially identical rates in both encapsulated virulent and nonencapsulated avirulent strains. The two ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ezzell JW,Ivins BE,Leppla SH

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Peri-implant tissue is an important niche for Staphylococcus epidermidis in experimental biomaterial-associated infection in mice.

    abstract::Biomaterial-associated infections (BAI), which are predominantly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, are a significant problem in modern medicine. Biofilm formation is considered the pivotal element in the pathogenesis, but in previous mouse studies we retrieved S. epidermidis from peri-implant tissue. To assess the...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Broekhuizen CA,de Boer L,Schipper K,Jones CD,Quadir S,Feldman RG,Dankert J,Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM,Weening JJ,Zaat SA

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972: the taming of a pathogen.

    abstract::Escherichia coli 83972 is a clinical asymptomatia bacteriuric isolate that is able to colonize the human urinary bladder without inducing an immune response. Here we demonstrate that one of the mechanisms by which this strain has become attenuated is through the mutation of its genes encoding type 1 and P fimbriae. ...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klemm P,Roos V,Ulett GC,Svanborg C,Schembri MA

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Expression, Purification, and Biological Characterization of Babesia microti Apical Membrane Antigen 1.

    abstract::The intraerythrocytic apicomplexan Babesia microti, the primary causative agent of human babesiosis, is a major public health concern in the United States and elsewhere. Apicomplexans utilize a multiprotein complex that includes a type I membrane protein called apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) to invade host cells. We...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moitra P,Zheng H,Anantharaman V,Banerjee R,Takeda K,Kozakai Y,Lepore T,Krause PJ,Aravind L,Kumar S

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis to protegrins and defensins.

    abstract::We compared the susceptibilities of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) to human defensin HNP-2 and porcine protegrin PG-1, cysteine-rich beta-sheet antimicrobial peptides produced by mammalian leukocytes. Although both peptides protected McCoy cell monolayers from infection by chlamydial EBs, protegrins wer...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yasin B,Harwig SS,Lehrer RI,Wagar EA

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Infection with Mycobacterium avium induces production of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and administration of anti-IL-10 antibody is associated with enhanced resistance to infection in mice.

    abstract::Organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex are associated with disseminated infection in patients with AIDS. The mechanisms that account for the survival of the intracellular bacteria are unknown. We document here that infection of C57BL/6 black mice with M. avium 101 triggered interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. The...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bermudez LE,Champsi J

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of antibodies to lipopolysaccharide in natural and vaccine-induced serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria meningitidis group B.

    abstract::Analysis of the specificity of bactericidal antibodies in normal, convalescent, and postvaccination human sera is important in understanding human immunity to meningococcal infections and can aid in the design of an effective group B vaccine. A collection of human sera, including group C and group B convalescent-phase...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmiel DH,Moran EE,Keiser PB,Brandt BL,Zollinger WD

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Biofilm formation enhances fomite survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    abstract::Both Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae are widely thought to rapidly die outside the human host, losing infectivity following desiccation in the environment. However, to date, all literature investigating the infectivity of desiccated streptococci has used broth-grown, planktonic populations. In this...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marks LR,Reddinger RM,Hakansson AP

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Diversity of the P2 protein among nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates.

    abstract::The genes for outer membrane protein P2 of four nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strains were cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences were compared with the outer membrane protein P2 sequence from H. influenzae type b MinnA and the sequences of P2 from three additional nontypeable H. influenzae strain...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bell J,Grass S,Jeanteur D,Munson RS Jr

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ferredoxin is involved in secretion of cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 across the cytoplasmic membrane in Escherichia coli K1.

    abstract::We previously showed that cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) contributes to Escherichia coli K1 invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and interacts with the receptor on the surface of HBMEC. CNF1 is the cytoplasmic protein, and it remains incompletely understood how CNF1 is secreted across...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu H,Kim KS

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Legionella pneumophila type II protein secretion promotes virulence in the A/J mouse model of Legionnaires' disease pneumonia.

    abstract::Legionella pneumophila, the gram-negative agent of Legionnaires' disease, possesses type IV pili and a type II protein secretion (Lsp) system, both of which are dependent upon the PilD prepilin peptidase. By analyzing multiple pilD mutants and various types of Lsp mutants as well as performing trans-complementation of...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rossier O,Starkenburg SR,Cianciotto NP

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • A role for natural antibody in the pathogenesis of leprosy: antibody in nonimmune serum mediates C3 fixation to the Mycobacterium leprae surface and hence phagocytosis by human mononuclear phagocytes.

    abstract::We have previously determined that complement receptors on human mononuclear phagocytes and complement component C3 in nonimmune serum mediate phagocytosis of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium leprae, the agent of leprosy. We have also determined that C3 fixes selectively to the major surface glycolip...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schlesinger LS,Horwitz MA

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Immune responses of systemic and mucosal lymphoid organs to Pnu-Imune vaccine as a function of age and the efficacy of monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant.

    abstract::A murine model system was established to study immune responses to the Pnu-Imune vaccine, which is made up of 23 different pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. In this animal model, antibody-forming cell responses to 21 of 23 individual polysaccharides in the vaccine were detected. The Pnu-Imune vaccine elicited goo...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garg M,Subbarao B

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Heterologous expression of an immunogenic pneumococcal type 3 capsular polysaccharide in Lactococcus lactis.

    abstract::In order to develop a new system for the analysis of capsular biosynthetic pathways we have explored the possibility of expressing type 3 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) from the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in Lactococcus lactis, an unencapsulated lactic acid bacterium being developed as a vaccine delivery vehicle...

    journal_title:Infection and immunity

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gilbert C,Robinson K,Le Page RW,Wells JM

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00