Kremen proteins are Dickkopf receptors that regulate Wnt/beta-catenin signalling.


:The Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins mediate cell cell interactions during cell growth and differentiation in both embryos and adults. Canonical Wnt signalling by way of the beta-catenin pathway is transduced by two receptor families. Frizzled proteins and lipoprotein-receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) bind Wnts and transmit their signal by stabilizing intracellular beta-catenin. Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is inhibited by the secreted protein Dickkopf1 (Dkk1), a member of a multigene family, which induces head formation in amphibian embryos. Dkk1 has been shown to inhibit Wnt signalling by binding to and antagonizing LRP5/6. Here we show that the transmembrane proteins Kremen1 and Kremen2 are high-affinity Dkk1 receptors that functionally cooperate with Dkk1 to block Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. Kremen2 forms a ternary complex with Dkk1 and LRP6, and induces rapid endocytosis and removal of the Wnt receptor LRP6 from the plasma membrane. The results indicate that Kremen1 and Kremen2 are components of a membrane complex modulating canonical Wnt signalling through LRP6 in vertebrates.






Mao B,Wu W,Davidson G,Marhold J,Li M,Mechler BM,Delius H,Hoppe D,Stannek P,Walter C,Glinka A,Niehrs C





Has Abstract


2002-06-06 00:00:00
















  • Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebrates.

    abstract::Global conservation strategies commonly assume that different taxonomic groups show congruent geographical patterns of diversity, and that the distribution of extinction-prone species in one group can therefore act as a surrogate for vulnerable species in other groups when conservation decisions are being made. The va...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grenyer R,Orme CD,Jackson SF,Thomas GH,Davies RG,Davies TJ,Jones KE,Olson VA,Ridgely RS,Rasmussen PC,Ding TS,Bennett PM,Blackburn TM,Gaston KJ,Gittleman JL,Owens IP

    更新日期:2006-11-02 00:00:00

  • Using induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate cardiac phenotypes in Timothy syndrome.

    abstract::Individuals with congenital or acquired prolongation of the QT interval, or long QT syndrome (LQTS), are at risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. LQTS is commonly genetic in origin but can also be caused or exacerbated by environmental factors. A missense mutation in the L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2 lead...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yazawa M,Hsueh B,Jia X,Pasca AM,Bernstein JA,Hallmayer J,Dolmetsch RE

    更新日期:2011-03-10 00:00:00

  • Insight into E-selectin/ligand interaction from the crystal structure and mutagenesis of the lec/EGF domains.

    abstract::The three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding region of human E-selectin has been determined at 2.0 A resolution. The structure reveals limited contact between the two domains and a coordination of Ca2+ not predicted from other C-type lectins. Structure/function analysis indicates a defined region and specific...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graves BJ,Crowther RL,Chandran C,Rumberger JM,Li S,Huang KS,Presky DH,Familletti PC,Wolitzky BA,Burns DK

    更新日期:1994-02-10 00:00:00

  • Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    abstract::Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a compl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perry JR,Day F,Elks CE,Sulem P,Thompson DJ,Ferreira T,He C,Chasman DI,Esko T,Thorleifsson G,Albrecht E,Ang WQ,Corre T,Cousminer DL,Feenstra B,Franceschini N,Ganna A,Johnson AD,Kjellqvist S,Lunetta KL,McMahon G,N

    更新日期:2014-10-02 00:00:00

  • A stable silicon-based allene analogue with a formally sp-hybridized silicon atom.

    abstract::Carbon chemistry exhibits a rich variety in bonding patterns, with homo- or heteronuclear multiple bonds involving sp-hybridized carbon atoms as found in molecules such as acetylenes, nitriles, allenes and carbon dioxide. Carbon's heavier homologues in group 14 of the periodic table--including silicon, germanium and t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishida S,Iwamoto T,Kabuto C,Kira M

    更新日期:2003-02-13 00:00:00

  • Evidence for extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization and crust formation on Mars.

    abstract::The formation of a primordial crust is a critical step in the evolution of terrestrial planets but the timing of this process is poorly understood. The mineral zircon is a powerful tool for constraining crust formation because it can be accurately dated with the uranium-to-lead (U-Pb) isotopic decay system and is resi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouvier LC,Costa MM,Connelly JN,Jensen NK,Wielandt D,Storey M,Nemchin AA,Whitehouse MJ,Snape JF,Bellucci JJ,Moynier F,Agranier A,Gueguen B,Schönbächler M,Bizzarro M

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics.

    abstract::The quantum spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond enable diverse applications in quantum computing and communications1. However, fluorescent nanodiamonds also have attractive properties for in vitro biosensing, including brightness2, low cost3 and selective manipulation of their emission4. Nanoparticl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller BS,Bezinge L,Gliddon HD,Huang D,Dold G,Gray ER,Heaney J,Dobson PJ,Nastouli E,Morton JJL,McKendry RA

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Heinrich events triggered by ocean forcing and modulated by isostatic adjustment.

    abstract::During the last glacial period, the Laurentide Ice Sheet sporadically discharged huge numbers of icebergs through the Hudson Strait into the North Atlantic Ocean, leaving behind distinct layers of ice-rafted debris in the ocean sediments. Perplexingly, these massive discharge events-Heinrich events-occurred during the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bassis JN,Petersen SV,Mac Cathles L

    更新日期:2017-02-15 00:00:00

  • Identification of angiogenic activity and the cloning and expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor.

    abstract::Cloning and sequencing of the complementary DNA for platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor indicates that it is a novel factor distinct from previously characterized proteins. The factor, a protein with a relative molecular mass of about 45,000, stimulates endothelial cell growth and chemotaxis in vitro and a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishikawa F,Miyazono K,Hellman U,Drexler H,Wernstedt C,Hagiwara K,Usuki K,Takaku F,Risau W,Heldin CH

    更新日期:1989-04-13 00:00:00

  • DNA cloning in Streptomyces: resistance genes from antibiotic-producing species.

    abstract::The biochemical and morphological differentiation of actinomycetes makes them academically and economically interesting. Their secondary metabolites provide the majority of medically and agriculturally important antibiotics (streptomycete genes may also be the primary source of clinically important antibiotic resistan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thompson CJ,Ward JM,Hopwood DA

    更新日期:1980-07-31 00:00:00

  • Glia-derived neurons are required for sex-specific learning in C. elegans.

    abstract::Sex differences in behaviour extend to cognitive-like processes such as learning, but the underlying dimorphisms in neural circuit development and organization that generate these behavioural differences are largely unknown. Here we define at the single-cell level-from development, through neural circuit connectivity,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sammut M,Cook SJ,Nguyen KCQ,Felton T,Hall DH,Emmons SW,Poole RJ,Barrios A

    更新日期:2015-10-15 00:00:00

  • Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation.

    abstract::Reorganizations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation were associated with large and abrupt climatic changes in the North Atlantic region during the last glacial period. Projections with climate models suggest that similar reorganizations may also occur in response to anthropogenic global warming. Here I ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmittner A

    更新日期:2005-03-31 00:00:00

  • Voltage-sensor activation with a tarantula toxin as cargo.

    abstract::The opening and closing of voltage-activated Na+, Ca2+ and K+ (Kv) channels underlies electrical and chemical signalling throughout biology, yet the structural basis of voltage sensing is unknown. Hanatoxin is a tarantula toxin that inhibits Kv channels by binding to voltage-sensor paddles, crucial helix-turn-helix mo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Phillips LR,Milescu M,Li-Smerin Y,Mindell JA,Kim JI,Swartz KJ

    更新日期:2005-08-11 00:00:00

  • Strain effects and phase transitions in photonic resonator crystals.

    abstract::Optical structures with periodic variations of the dielectric constant in one or more directions (photonic crystals) have been employed extensively for studying optical diffraction phenomena. Practical interest in such structures arises from the possibilities they offer for tailoring photon modes, and thereby the char...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pier H,Kapon E,Moser M

    更新日期:2000-10-19 00:00:00

  • Nitric oxide mediates network oscillations of olfactory interneurons in a terrestrial mollusc.

    abstract::The interneuronal messenger nitric oxide (NO) may play a central role in the processing of olfactory information. Several circuit elements in the mammalian olfactory bulb contain NO synthase or its functional equivalent, NADPH diaphorase. The effects of NO on cellular excitability or circuit dynamics in the olfactory ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gelperin A

    更新日期:1994-05-05 00:00:00

  • An inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme as a new approach to treat cancer.

    abstract::The clinical development of an inhibitor of cellular proteasome function suggests that compounds targeting other components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system might prove useful for the treatment of human malignancies. NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) is an essential component of the NEDD8 conjugation pathway that contro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soucy TA,Smith PG,Milhollen MA,Berger AJ,Gavin JM,Adhikari S,Brownell JE,Burke KE,Cardin DP,Critchley S,Cullis CA,Doucette A,Garnsey JJ,Gaulin JL,Gershman RE,Lublinsky AR,McDonald A,Mizutani H,Narayanan U,Olhava EJ

    更新日期:2009-04-09 00:00:00

  • Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height.

    abstract::Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marouli E,Graff M,Medina-Gomez C,Lo KS,Wood AR,Kjaer TR,Fine RS,Lu Y,Schurmann C,Highland HM,Rüeger S,Thorleifsson G,Justice AE,Lamparter D,Stirrups KE,Turcot V,Young KL,Winkler TW,Esko T,Karaderi T,Locke AE,Mas

    更新日期:2017-02-09 00:00:00

  • Correlated evolution of morphology and vocal signal structure in Darwin's finches.

    abstract::Speciation in many animal taxa is catalysed by the evolutionary diversification of mating signals. According to classical theories of speciation, mating signals diversify, in part, as an incidental byproduct of adaptation by natural selection to divergent ecologies, although empirical evidence in support of this hypot...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Podos J

    更新日期:2001-01-11 00:00:00

  • Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres.

    abstract::The most basic objection to human embryonic stem (ES) cell research is rooted in the fact that ES cell derivation deprives embryos of any further potential to develop into a complete human being. ES cell lines are conventionally isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and, in a few instances, from cleavage st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chung Y,Klimanskaya I,Becker S,Marh J,Lu SJ,Johnson J,Meisner L,Lanza R

    更新日期:2006-01-12 00:00:00

  • Removal of O6-methylguanine from DNA of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum-derived lymphoblastoid lines.

    abstract::The ability to excise (repair) UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in Escherichia coli is not related to its ability to remove N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) from DNA. It was therefore surprising that certain xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines, deficient in dimer excision, were al...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sklar R,Strauss B

    更新日期:1981-01-29 00:00:00

  • Control of grip and stick in cell adhesion through lateral relationships of membrane glycoproteins.

    abstract::Although cell adhesion to substrate must ultimately depend on 'sticking' by physical forces at the outer surface, we suggest that control is exercised through the 'grip' of the cytoskeleton. Our experiments indicate that grip can be relaxed by agents which release surface glycoproteins from some form of side-to-side o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rees DA,Lloyd CW,Thom D

    更新日期:1977-05-12 00:00:00

  • Do animal personalities emerge?

    abstract::The evolution of animal personalities is a topic of primary importance in behavioural ecology. An intriguing empirical fact is the consistency of animal responses to repeated stresses or threats. Wolf et al. propose an evolutionary model to explain the emergence of consistent personalities. They show that a population...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Massol F,Crochet PA

    更新日期:2008-02-28 00:00:00

  • Measurement of polarization with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer.

    abstract::Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation can reveal with remarkable precision the conditions of the Universe when it was approximately 400,000 years old. The three most fundamental properties of the CMB are its frequency spectrum (which determines the temperature), and the fluctuations in both t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leitch EM,Kovac JM,Pryke C,Carlstrom JE,Halverson NW,Holzapfel WL,Dragovan M,Reddall B,Sandberg ES

    更新日期:2002-12-19 00:00:00

  • Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem.

    abstract::Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs, but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus. Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic matter from the water column ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wild C,Huettel M,Klueter A,Kremb SG,Rasheed MY,Jørgensen BB

    更新日期:2004-03-04 00:00:00

  • Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    abstract::Breast cancer patients with the same stage of disease can have markedly different treatment responses and overall outcome. The strongest predictors for metastases (for example, lymph node status and histological grade) fail to classify accurately breast tumours according to their clinical behaviour. Chemotherapy or ho...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van 't Veer LJ,Dai H,van de Vijver MJ,He YD,Hart AA,Mao M,Peterse HL,van der Kooy K,Marton MJ,Witteveen AT,Schreiber GJ,Kerkhoven RM,Roberts C,Linsley PS,Bernards R,Friend SH

    更新日期:2002-01-31 00:00:00

  • Target neuron prespecification in the olfactory map of Drosophila.

    abstract::In Drosophila and mice, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same receptors have convergent axonal projections to specific glomerular targets in the antennal lobe/olfactory bulb, creating an odour map in this first olfactory structure of the central nervous system. Projection neurons of the Drosophila ante...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jefferis GS,Marin EC,Stocker RF,Luo L

    更新日期:2001-11-08 00:00:00

  • Structure of cytochrome c nitrite reductase.

    abstract::The enzyme cytochrome c nitrite reductase catalyses the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia as one of the key steps in the biological nitrogen cycle, where it participates in the anaerobic energy metabolism of dissimilatory nitrate ammonification. Here we report on the crystal structure of this enzyme from th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Einsle O,Messerschmidt A,Stach P,Bourenkov GP,Bartunik HD,Huber R,Kroneck PM

    更新日期:1999-07-29 00:00:00

  • Polarization rotation mechanism for ultrahigh electromechanical response in single-crystal piezoelectrics

    abstract::Piezoelectric materials, which convert mechanical to electrical energy (and vice versa), are crucial in medical imaging, telecommunication and ultrasonic devices. A new generation of single-crystal materials, such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), exhibit a piezoelectric effect ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fu H,Cohen RE

    更新日期:2000-01-20 00:00:00

  • Effect of remote sea surface temperature change on tropical cyclone potential intensity.

    abstract::The response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming is widely debated. It is often assumed that warmer sea surface temperatures provide a more favourable environment for the development and intensification of tropical cyclones, but cyclone genesis and intensity are also affected by the vertical thermodynamic p...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vecchi GA,Soden BJ

    更新日期:2007-12-13 00:00:00

  • Unusually dynamic sex roles in a fish.

    abstract::Sex roles are typically thought of as being fixed for a given species. In most animals males compete for females, whereas the females are more reluctant to mate. Therefore sexual selection usually acts most strongly on males. This is explained by males having a higher potential reproductive rate than females, leading ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Forsgren E,Amundsen T,Borg AA,Bjelvenmark J

    更新日期:2004-06-03 00:00:00