Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation.

Abstract:

:The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

journal_name

Cell

journal_title

Cell

authors

Hanahan D,Weinberg RA

doi

10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2011-03-04 00:00:00

pages

646-74

issue

5

eissn

0092-8674

issn

1097-4172

pii

S0092-8674(11)00127-9

journal_volume

144

pub_type

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