Memory stages and brain asymmetry in chick learning.


:Stages of formation of memory and the roles of different forebrain structures in memory formation were investigated by injecting various agents into the brains of chicks close to the time of peck-avoidance training. With L-glutamate injected bilaterally into the hyperstriatum 5 min pretraining, retention was good 1 min posttraining but significantly impaired at 5 min and each subsequent time point from 10 min to 24 hr. With ouabain, retention declined more slowly, showing significant impairment at 15 min and thereafter. With any of three protein synthesis inhibitors (anisomycin, cycloheximide, or emetine), retention was still good 60 min posttraining but significantly impaired at 90 min. The three time courses of decline of retention are consistent with hypotheses of three sequentially dependent stages of memory formation. Glutamate, ouabain, and emetine were found to affect only a restricted volume of tissue. Any of these three agents induced amnesia when injected into the left (but not the right) medial hyperstriatum ventrale or into the right (but not the left) lateral neostriatum; so it appears that both structures are required for formation of memory. Agents that are specific for a presumed stage of memory formation and whose action is restricted spatially should help reveal the roles of different brain structures in different stages of memory formation.


Behav Neurosci


Behavioral neuroscience


Patterson TA,Alvarado MC,Warner IT,Bennett EL,Rosenzweig MR




Has Abstract


1986-12-01 00:00:00












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    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Puhl MD,Cason AM,Wojnicki FH,Corwin RL,Grigson PS

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postnatal choline supplementation on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in preweanling BALB/cByJ mice. Mouse pups were injected daily subcutaneously with choline chloride (0.85 mM/g body weight) from Postnatal Day (PND) 1 to PND 16. Pups performed a passive ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

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    authors: Ricceri L,Berger-Sweeney J

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in the relationship between activity and weight loss in the rat.

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    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

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    authors: Boakes RA,Mills KJ,Single JP

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Lesions of the medial preoptic area and/or the ventromedial hypothalamus resulted in an abrupt and immediate decline in courtship behavior in adult male Canadian red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Lesions of the more anterior portions of the preoptic area resulted in a more gradual, delayed decl...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedman D,Crews D

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    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

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    authors: Zelikowsky M,Fanselow MS

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    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

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    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boulis NM,Davis M

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    authors: Buchanan TW,Tranel D,Adolphs R

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaplan JM,Seeley RJ,Grill HJ

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00