The use of cholecystokinin in schizophrenia: a review.


:Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide originally isolated from the gut. It has been investigated as a candidate treatment for schizophrenia on the assumption that the illness is associated with an imbalance between CCK and dopamine in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Many of the studies to assess the efficacy of CCK used open designs and are prone to observer bias and over-optimistic reporting. Most of the studies used CCK as an adjunct to standard neuroleptic treatment and are too small to be able to demonstrate extra efficacy above that of the active compound. Only three out of ten studies using CCK or placebo as an adjunct to neuroleptics reported limited efficacy. Of the 14 placebo-controlled reports only three were in drug-free patients. These were unfortunately too small, or too brief, to draw valid conclusions of efficacy. A summary of these data suggests that although 500 patients have received CCK, its efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia has not been properly tested.


Psychol Med


Psychological medicine


Montgomery SA,Green MC




Has Abstract


1988-08-01 00:00:00












  • Longitudinal records of anxiety and depression in general practice: the Second National Morbidity Survey.

    abstract::This paper analyses patterns of episodes of anxiety and depression as recorded by 22 general practices which took part in the Second National Morbidity Survey (RCGP, 1980). The data comprise 6 years' records. Simple Markov chains are fitted to each age-group of men and women, and the inter-practice variation in the re...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dunn G

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of the economic and social environment on deliberate self-harm and suicide: an ecological and person-based study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Geographic variations in the incidence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicide have been shown to be associated with area-based measures of socio-economic deprivation and social fragmentation. Previous studies have been subject to methodological limitations. None has investigated whether ecological associa...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hawton K,Harriss L,Hodder K,Simkin S,Gunnell D

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Exclusion criteria in the diagnostic classifications of DSM-IV and ICD-10: revisiting the co-occurrence of psychiatric syndromes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Exclusion criteria are present in almost all diagnostic categories in both DSM-IV and ICD-10. These exclusion criteria state that one diagnosis is not made if it is 'due to' another disorder. However, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating that the hierarchy imposed by the exclusion criteria is mea...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slade T,Andrews G

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of discontinuation v. maintenance of antipsychotic medication on relapse rates in patients with remitted/stable first-episode psychosis: a meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Discontinuation of antipsychotics predisposes patients with remitted/stable first-episode psychosis (FEP) to a higher risk of relapse, but it remains unclear how long discontinuation increases the relapse rate in these patients compared with maintenance. METHODS:This meta-analysis of randomized controlled t...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Kishi T,Ikuta T,Matsui Y,Inada K,Matsuda Y,Mishima K,Iwata N

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of a computerized assessment (PROQSY) of minor psychological morbidity by Relative Operating Characteristic analysis using a single GP's assessments as criterion measures.

    abstract::This is a study of the criterion validity of a newly developed computerized assessment (PROQSY) of minor psychological morbidity based on the Clinical Interview Schedule, employing a single GP's assessments as criterion measures of such morbidity and Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Two-stage screenin...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkinson G,Markus AC

    更新日期:1989-02-01 00:00:00

  • Intellectual functioning and the long-term course of schizophrenia-spectrum illness.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recent neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia, together with substantial evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction among people with schizophrenia, have led to a widespread view that general cognitive deficits are a central aspect of schizophrenic pathology. However, the temporal relationships between intel...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carter JW,Parnas J,Urfer-Parnas A,Watson J,Mednick SA

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Precursors and metabolites of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of psychiatric patients.

    abstract::Tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (precursor and metabolite respectively of 5-hydroxytryptamine) were determined in ventricular CSF of psychiatric patients undergoing stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. Tyrosine and homovanillic acid (precursor and metabolite respectively of dopamine) were also determined. Res...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bridges PK,Bartlett JR,Sepping P,Kantamaneni BD,Curzon G

    更新日期:1976-08-01 00:00:00

  • Should euthanasia and assisted suicide for psychiatric disorders be permitted? A systematic review of reasons.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) based on a psychiatric disorder (psychiatric EAS) continue to pose ethical and policy challenges, even in countries where the practice has been allowed for years. We conducted a systematic review of reasons, a specific type of review for bioethical questions designed to ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nicolini ME,Kim SYH,Churchill ME,Gastmans C

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Physical activity and prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although positive effects of physical activity on mental health indicators have been reported, the relationship between physical activity and the development of specific mental disorders is unclear. METHOD:A cross-sectional (12-month) and prospective-longitudinal epidemiological study over 4 years in a comm...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ströhle A,Höfler M,Pfister H,Müller AG,Hoyer J,Wittchen HU,Lieb R

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Life events and depression in women: a structural equation model.

    abstract::A non-recursive structural equation model designed to examine the reciprocal relationship between life event reports and depressive symptoms in women is presented. The model was fitted to data from a 2-year longitudinal study of life events and depression in a sample of women with 5-year-old children. The findings sug...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fergusson DM,Horwood LJ

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Platelet monoamine oxidase activity during the course of a schizophreniform psychosis.

    abstract::A case is reported in which platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity fluctuated in the course of a schizophreniform psychosis in a way which suggests a direct relationship between low levels of MAO activity and the psychosis. ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cookson IB,Owen F,Ridges AP

    更新日期:1975-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prospective study of risk factors for suicidal behavior in individuals with anxiety disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Anxiety disorders are very common and increase risk for suicide attempts. Little is known about predictors of increased risk specifically among individuals with anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific anxiety disorders and other co-morbid psychiatric disorders, physic...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uebelacker LA,Weisberg R,Millman M,Yen S,Keller M

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing relatives' needs for psychosocial interventions in schizophrenia: a relatives' version of the Cardinal Needs Schedule (RCNS).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The methodology for measuring the needs of patients with severe mental illness is now well established through the MRC Needs for Care Assessment Schedule and its modification in the form of the Cardinal Needs Assessment. This paper reports the rationale and construction of a relatives' version of the Cardina...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barrowclough C,Marshall M,Lockwood A,Quinn J,Sellwood W

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Associations between mood instability and emotional processing in a large cohort of bipolar patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Aberrant emotional biases have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD), but results are inconsistent. Despite the clinical relevance of chronic mood variability in BD, there is no previous research investigating how the extent of symptom fluctuations in bipolar disorder might relate to emotional biases. This ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bilderbeck AC,Reed ZE,McMahon HC,Atkinson LZ,Price J,Geddes JR,Goodwin GM,Harmer CJ

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Equivalency of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We ...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu Y,Levis B,Riehm KE,Saadat N,Levis AW,Azar M,Rice DB,Boruff J,Cuijpers P,Gilbody S,Ioannidis JPA,Kloda LA,McMillan D,Patten SB,Shrier I,Ziegelstein RC,Akena DH,Arroll B,Ayalon L,Baradaran HR,Baron M,Bombardier

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive performance of medicated schizophrenics with tardive dyskinesia.

    abstract::Twenty schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia and an equal number of matched controls were tested on a novel cognitive task. The task had two components: cued response and spatial memory. Relative to controls, the dyskinetic subjects showed a superior cued response performance but an equal spatial memory abili...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collerton D,Fairbairn A,Britton P

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Prospective study of family adversity and maladaptive parenting in childhood and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical population at 11 years.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Retrospective studies have consistently indicated an association between maladaptive parenting and borderline personality disorder (BPD). This requires corroboration with prospective, longitudinal designs. We investigated the association between suboptimal parenting and parent conflict in childhood and BPD s...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winsper C,Zanarini M,Wolke D

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • A Swedish national twin study of criminal behavior and its violent, white-collar and property subtypes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We sought to clarify the etiological contribution of genetic and environmental factors to total criminal behavior (CB) measured as criminal convictions in men and women, and to violent (VCB), white-collar (WCCB) and property criminal behavior (PCB) in men only. METHOD:In 21 603 twin pairs from the Swedish T...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kendler KS,Maes HH,Lönn SL,Morris NA,Lichtenstein P,Sundquist J,Sundquist K

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Emotion regulation before and after transcranial magnetic stimulation in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Impaired emotion regulation may underlie exaggerated emotional reactivity in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet instructed emotion regulation has never been studied in the disorder. METHOD:This study aimed to assess the neural correlates of emotion processing and regulation in 43 medicat...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Wit SJ,van der Werf YD,Mataix-Cols D,Trujillo JP,van Oppen P,Veltman DJ,van den Heuvel OA

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Does cognitive-behavioural therapy influence the long-term outcome of generalized anxiety disorder? An 8-14 year follow-up of two clinical trials.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Generalized anxiety disorder is a common condition of excessive worry and tension which tends to run a chronic course associated with significant psychiatric and medical problems. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be of clinical value in about 50% of cases with treatment gains maintained ov...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Durham RC,Chambers JA,MacDonald RR,Power KG,Major K

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Nitric Oxide Synthase activity in major depressive episodes before and after antidepressant treatment: Results of a large case-control treatment study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, an enzyme potentially involved in the major depressive episodes (MDE), could be indirectly measured by the L-Citrulline/L-Arginine ratio (L-Cit/L-Arg). The aim of this study was: (1) to compare the NOS activity of patients with a MDE to that of healthy controls (HC); (2)...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loeb E,El Asmar K,Trabado S,Gressier F,Colle R,Rigal A,Martin S,Verstuyft C,Fève B,Chanson P,Becquemont L,Corruble E

    更新日期:2020-06-11 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory deficits for negative information in persons with major depressive disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Within Beck's cognitive model of depression, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which activated self-schemas result in the production of negative thoughts. Recent research has demonstrated that inhibitory dysfunction is present in depression, and this deficit is likely valence-specific. However, wheth...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lau MA,Christensen BK,Hawley LL,Gemar MS,Segal ZV

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Impaired cortisol awakening response in eating disorder women with childhood trauma exposure: evidence for a dose-dependent effect of the traumatic load.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Childhood trauma is a non specific risk factor for adult eating disorders (ED), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis seems to mediate such a risk. Here we explored the impact of different types of childhood trauma and of traumatic load on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) of women with anore...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monteleone AM,Monteleone P,Volpe U,De Riso F,Fico G,Giugliano R,Nigro M,Maj M

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Treating severe and enduring anorexia nervosa: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There are no evidence-based treatments for severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN). This study evaluated the relative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-AN) and specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM) for adults with SE-AN. METHOD:Sixty-three participants with a diagnosis of AN, who...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Touyz S,Le Grange D,Lacey H,Hay P,Smith R,Maguire S,Bamford B,Pike KM,Crosby RD

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Do subthreshold psychotic experiences predict clinical outcomes in unselected non-help-seeking population-based samples? A systematic review and meta-analysis, enriched with new results.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The base rate of transition from subthreshold psychotic experiences (the exposure) to clinical psychotic disorder (the outcome) in unselected, representative and non-help-seeking population-based samples is unknown. METHOD:A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of representative, longitudinal p...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kaymaz N,Drukker M,Lieb R,Wittchen HU,Werbeloff N,Weiser M,Lataster T,van Os J

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • The association of sexual and physical abuse with somatization: characteristics of patients presenting with irritable bowel syndrome and non-epileptic attack disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Physical symptoms are commonly presented for treatment in the absence of physical pathology. This study tests predictions arising from the theory that childhood sexual abuse leads to emotional distress, illness orientation and social dysfunction as adults and that one or more of these effects, in turn, leads...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reilly J,Baker GA,Rhodes J,Salmon P

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of alternative models for personality disorders.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The categorical classification system for personality disorder (PD) has been frequently criticized and several alternative dimensional models have been proposed. METHOD:Antecedent, concurrent and predictive markers of construct validity were examined for three models of PDs: the Five-Factor Model (FFM), the...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morey LC,Hopwood CJ,Gunderson JG,Skodol AE,Shea MT,Yen S,Stout RL,Zanarini MC,Grilo CM,Sanislow CA,McGlashan TH

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • An international risk prediction algorithm for the onset of generalized anxiety and panic syndromes in general practice attendees: predictA.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There are no risk models for the prediction of anxiety that may help in prevention. We aimed to develop a risk algorithm for the onset of generalized anxiety and panic syndromes. METHOD:Family practice attendees were recruited between April 2003 and February 2005 and followed over 24 months in the UK, Spain...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: King M,Bottomley C,Bellón-Saameño JA,Torres-Gonzalez F,Švab I,Rifel J,Maaroos HI,Aluoja A,Geerlings MI,Xavier M,Carraça I,Vicente B,Saldivia S,Nazareth I

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Analysing the contributions of genes and parent-child interaction to childhood behavioural and emotional problems: a model for the children of twins.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite the demonstrable influence of both genes and the family environment on children's behavioural and emotional development, the mechanisms by which these factors are transmitted from parents to their children are not known. Numerous aspects of the family have long been associated with behavioural and em...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silberg JL,Eaves LJ

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Psychiatric symptoms during l-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease and their relationship to physical disability.

    abstract::Fifty patients attending a neurological outpatient clinic for Parkinson's disease were assessed by standardized methods for both physical and psychiatric symptoms. The patients then received treatment with L-dopa with carbidopa or anticholinergic drugs and/or amantadine. During the following six-month period the subje...

    journal_title:Psychological medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Mindham RH,Marsden CD,Parkes JD

    更新日期:1976-02-01 00:00:00