Inhibition of multiple strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus by a pool of four short interfering RNAs.


:RNA interference, mediated by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), has been shown to have activity against a wide range of viruses and is a promising new antiviral therapy. Using multiple siRNAs that target conserved areas of the genome allows for increased chances of antiviral activity against different viral strains and also helps to prevent the emergence of escape mutants. In this study, four siRNAs were designed to target areas of conserved sequence between divergent strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). A pool of these siRNAs inhibited the replication of all six strains of VEEV tested. A single nucleotide mismatch at the extreme 3' end of one of the siRNA sense strands did not affect antiviral activity but other mutations were not tolerated. Two strains of VEEV were tested for their abilities to overcome the inhibitory effects of RNA interference following 10 consecutive incubations in the presence of siRNAs. One strain remained susceptible throughout the course of the experiment but the other strain became resistant to the activity of siRNAs. Sequence analysis of the siRNA target sites in this strain showed that no mutations had been generated, indicating that the virus may had become resistant in some other manner. In the absence of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines to combat VEEV infection, these siRNAs offer a potential new therapeutic approach but, as with all antimicrobial agents, caution needs to be exercised with respect to the generation of resistance.


Antiviral Res


Antiviral research


O'Brien L




Has Abstract


2007-07-01 00:00:00














  • Natural product-derived compounds in HIV suppression, remission, and eradication strategies.

    abstract::While combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has successfully converted HIV to a chronic but manageable infection in many parts of the world, HIV continues to persist within latent cellular reservoirs, which can become reactivated at any time to produce infectious virus. New therapies are therefore needed not only ...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Andersen RJ,Ntie-Kang F,Tietjen I

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • No reduction of HCV viral load in HIV patients co-infected with HCV genotype 1 during a 30 days course of nitazoxanide monotherapy.

    abstract::There are two new drugs approved and several in development for treatment of chronic HCV; among them nitazoxanide (NTZ). Twelve HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients were enrolled prospectively to receive a 30 days course of oral NTZ 500 mg bid. This therapy was well tolerated in this group of HIV patients co-infect...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laufer N,Abusamra L,Bolcic F,Gun A,Rolón MJ,Pérez H,Krolewiecki A,Salomón H,Quarleri J,Cahn P

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tumor suppressor ZHX2 restricts hepatitis B virus replication via epigenetic and non-epigenetic manners.

    abstract::Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the stable genomic form as the template for viral transcription, plays a crucial role in viral persistence which remains a major global health problem. While accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of transcription factors and epigenetic machinery...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu L,Wu Z,Tan S,Wang Z,Lin Q,Li X,Song X,Liu Y,Song Y,Zhang J,Peng J,Gao L,Gong Y,Liang X,Zuo X,Ma C

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • The use of ampligen alone and in combination with ganciclovir and coumermycin A1 for the treatment of ducks congenitally-infected with duck hepatitis B virus.

    abstract::Ampligen, a known immunomodulator and interferon inducer, was used alone and in combination with other antiviral agents to treat ducks congenitally-infected with duck hepatitis B virus. These antiviral agents included the conventional nucleoside analogue ganciclovir and the prokaryotic DNA gyrase B inhibitor coumermyc...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Niu J,Wang Y,Dixon R,Bowden S,Qiao M,Einck L,Locarnini S

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Infection of neuroblastoma cells by rabies virus is modulated by the virus titer.

    abstract::Rabies is a lethal viral infection that can affect almost all mammals, including humans. To better understand the replication of Rabies lyssavirus, we investigated if the viral load in brains naturally infected with rabies influences viral internalization and viral growth kinetics in neuroblastoma cells, and if the vi...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fuoco NL,Dos Ramos Silva S,Fernandes ER,Luiz FG,Ribeiro OG,Katz ISS

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of zidovudine and didanosine during combination therapy.

    abstract::While the combination of zidovudine and didanosine is used in HIV-infected patients with more advanced disease, the possibility of a pharmacokinetic interaction between these two drugs remains controversial. Zidovudine doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg, combined with 67, 167, and 250 mg of didanosine were evaluated in 11 a...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Morse GD,Shelton MJ,Ho M,Bartos L,DeRemer M,Ragni M

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interferon-γ influences immunity elicited by vaccines against very virulent Marek's disease virus.

    abstract::Vaccination of chickens with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) confers only partial protection against challenge with a very virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). Here, we evaluated the ability of recombinant chicken interferon-gamma (rChIFN-γ) to enhance protective efficacy of HVT against the very virulent MDV strain, RB1B...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haq K,Elawadli I,Parvizi P,Mallick AI,Behboudi S,Sharif S

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Algorithms for the interpretation of HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance information.

    abstract::Drug resistance testing has proven its use to guide treatment decisions in HIV-1 infected patients. Genotyping is the preferred technique for clinical drug resistance testing. Many factors complicate the interpretation of mutations towards therapy response, such that an interpretation system is necessary to help the c...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vercauteren J,Vandamme AM

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Intravascular distribution of zidovudine: role of plasma proteins and whole blood components.

    abstract::Knowledge of drug protein-binding and blood cell partitioning may be important for evaluating the pharmacokinetic parameters of zidovudine, particularly because of its intracellular site of action and potential to induce side effects. Equilibrium dialysis studies of zidovudine were performed over 2 h to identify the e...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luzier A,Morse GD

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the essential HCV entry factor CD81 on HCV infectivity and neutralization.

    abstract::End stage liver disease caused by chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indication for liver transplantation, yet outcomes are poor since the liver graft is rapidly re-infected by HCV. Antibodies against the essential HCV receptor CD81 have been shown to inhibit HCV cell entry in vitro and in...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deest M,Westhaus S,Steinmann E,Manns MP,von Hahn T,Ciesek S

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Deletion of the herpes simplex virus type 1 ribonucleotide reductase gene alters virulence and latency in vivo.

    abstract::The role of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-encoded ribonucleotide reductase (RR) has been investigated in mice and guinea pigs using a mutant from which 90% of the large subunit of the enzyme was deleted. The RR mutant was extremely impaired in its ability to induce external vaginal lesions or to cause death in m...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Idowu AD,Fraser-Smith EB,Poffenberger KL,Herman RC

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Using high-throughput genomics to study hepatitis C: what determines the outcome of infection?

    abstract::High-throughput genomic methods are now being used to study a wide variety of viral diseases, in an effort to understand how host responses to infection can lead either to efficient elimination of the pathogen or the development of severe disease. This article reviews how gene expression studies are addressing importa...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Walters KA,Katze MG

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Heparin octasaccharide decoy liposomes inhibit replication of multiple viruses.

    abstract::Heparan sulfate (HS) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan that serves as a cellular attachment site for a number of significant human pathogens, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV3), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Decoy receptors can target pathogens by binding to the receptor...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hendricks GL,Velazquez L,Pham S,Qaisar N,Delaney JC,Viswanathan K,Albers L,Comolli JC,Shriver Z,Knipe DM,Kurt-Jones EA,Fygenson DK,Trevejo JM,Wang JP,Finberg RW

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase activity for ganciclovir-resistant and -sensitive clinical strains.

    abstract::Previously, we found that a ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant clinical human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) isolate had an amino acid substitution at codon 501 (Leu --> Phe) in the delta-region C of the DNA polymerase gene. DNA polymerases have now been (partially) purified from both the GCV-resistant and sensitive parental strains...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kariya M,Mori S,Eizuru Y

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy and tolerance of a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a European multicenter study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus emtricitabine (FTC) is used extensively to treat HIV infection and also has potent activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerance of TDF + FTC in patients with chronic hepa...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Si-Ahmed SN,Pradat P,Zoutendijk R,Buti M,Mallet V,Cruiziat C,Deterding K,Dumortier J,Bailly F,Esteban R,Wedemeyer H,Janssen HL,Zoulim F

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of IL28-B polymorphisms in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B HBeAg-negative patients with peginterferon.

    abstract::Interleukin (IL)28-B polymorphism has been related to interferon response in the treatment of hepatitis C, but its role in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) therapy is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the effect of IL28-B polymorphisms in the treatment with pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) of patients with CHB. ...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boglione L,Cusato J,Allegra S,Esposito I,Patti F,Cariti G,Di Perri G,D'Avolio A

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Antiviral activities of lactoferrin.

    abstract::Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron binding glycoprotein that is present in several mucosal secretions. Many biological functions have been ascribed to LF. One of the functions of LF is the transport of metals, but LF is also an important component of the non-specific immune system, since LF has antimicrobial properties again...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van der Strate BW,Beljaars L,Molema G,Harmsen MC,Meijer DK

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of human parainfluenza virus type 3 infection by novel small molecules.

    abstract::Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important respiratory tract pathogen of infants and children. There are no vaccines or antivirals currently approved for prevention or treatment of HPIV3 infection. Towards developing an antiviral therapy to combat HPIV3 infection, we have established a green fluorescent ...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mao H,Thakur CS,Chattopadhyay S,Silverman RH,Gudkov A,Banerjee AK

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Novel L-lyxo and 5'-deoxy-5'-modified TSAO-T analogs: synthesis and anti-HIV-1 activity.

    abstract::Novel L-lyxo-TSAO-T analogs with an inverted configuration at the C-4'-position of the sugar moiety and 5'-deoxy-5'-modified TSAO-T derivatives have been prepared and evaluated for their inhibitory effect on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) replication in cell culture. None of the compoun...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ingate S,De Clercq E,Balzarini J,Camarasa MJ

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-pre-S(2) analysis after hepatitis B vaccination in haemodialysis patients.

    abstract::We investigated the development of anti-pre-S(2) antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and by Western blot analysis in a vaccination study in haemodialysis patients; both the Pasteur plasma vaccine retaining the pre-S(2) epitopes and the Merck, Sharp and Dohme (MSD) plasma vaccine containing only HBsAg were used. By enzyme...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heijtink RA,de Wilde GA,Kruining J,Smit-Leijs MB,Schalm SW

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Peptidomimetic furin inhibitor MI-701 in combination with oseltamivir and ribavirin efficiently blocks propagation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and delays high level oseltamivir resistance in MDCK cells.

    abstract::Antiviral medication is used for the treatment of severe influenza infections, of which the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the most effective drugs, approved so far. Here, we investigated the antiviral efficacy of the peptidomimetic furin inhibitor MI-701 in combination with oseltamivir carboxylate and ribavirin ...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu Y,Hardes K,Dahms SO,Böttcher-Friebertshäuser E,Steinmetzer T,Than ME,Klenk HD,Garten W

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Oral brivudin in comparison with acyclovir for improved therapy of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, multicentered study.

    abstract::Brivudin [(E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine] is a nucleoside analogue with a high and selective antiviral activity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The double-blind, randomized study presented here compared efficacy and safety of oral brivudin 1 x 125 mg and acyclovir 5 ...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Wassilew SW,Wutzler P,Brivddin Herpes Zoster Study Group.

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Zika, dengue and yellow fever viruses induce differential anti-viral immune responses in human monocytic and first trimester trophoblast cells.

    abstract::Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the sa...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luo H,Winkelmann ER,Fernandez-Salas I,Li L,Mayer SV,Danis-Lozano R,Sanchez-Casas RM,Vasilakis N,Tesh R,Barrett AD,Weaver SC,Wang T

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular IMPDH enzyme activity is a potential target for the inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication and virus induced apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells.

    abstract::Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes an essential step in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotide, namely, the conversion of IMP to XMP. The depletion of the intracellular GTP and dGTP pools is the major event occurring in the cells exposed to the inhibitors such as mycophenolic acid. The prese...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khan M,Dhanwani R,Patro IK,Rao PV,Parida MM

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Innate antiviral defenses in body fluids and tissues.

    abstract::Innate, non-specific, resistance mechanisms are important barriers to pathogens, particularly delaying virus multiplication at the onset of infections. These innate defense mechanisms include a series of mechanical barriers, pre-existing inhibitory molecules, and cellular responses with antimicrobial activity. The ant...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baron S,Singh I,Chopra A,Coppenhaver D,Pan J

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Global update on the susceptibilities of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir, 2017-2018.

    abstract::The global analysis of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) susceptibility of influenza viruses has been conducted since the 2012-13 period. In 2018 a novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, baloxavir, that targets polymerase acidic subunit (PA) was approved for the treatment of influenza virus infection in Japan and the...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takashita E,Daniels RS,Fujisaki S,Gregory V,Gubareva LV,Huang W,Hurt AC,Lackenby A,Nguyen HT,Pereyaslov D,Roe M,Samaan M,Subbarao K,Tse H,Wang D,Yen HL,Zhang W,Meijer A

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • HIV1 protease inhibitors selectively induce inflammatory chemokine expression in primary human osteoblasts.

    abstract::HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of decreased bone mineral density. Several studies have implicated antiretroviral therapy as a contributor to the decreased bone mineral density seen in treated HIV-1 patients. Whilst the exact molecular mechanisms underlying decreased bone density remain to be elucidated, i...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malizia AP,Vioreanu MH,Doran PP,Powderly WG

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Producing physicochemical property consensus alphavirus protein antigens for broad spectrum vaccine design.

    abstract::There is a pressing need for new vaccines against alphaviruses, which can cause fatal encephalitis (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and others) and severe arthralgia (e.g. Chikungunya virus, CHIKV). These positive-strand RNA viruses are diverse and evolve rapidly, meaning that the sequence of any vaccine s...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baker WS,Negi S,Braun W,Schein CH

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Alterations in favipiravir (T-705) pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in a hamster model of viral hemorrhagic fever.

    abstract::Favipiravir (T-705) is a new anti-influenza drug approved for human use in Japan and progressing through Phase 3 clinical trials in the U.S. In addition to its potent inhibitory effects against influenza virus infection, the compound has been shown to be broadly active against RNA viruses from 9 different families, in...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gowen BB,Sefing EJ,Westover JB,Smee DF,Hagloch J,Furuta Y,Hall JO

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • SeqHepB: a sequence analysis program and relational database system for chronic hepatitis B.

    abstract::SeqHepB is a combination of a HBV genome sequence analysis program and a relational database that houses data collected from multiple data sources. Registered users can access the sequence analysis component of SeqHepB online for rapid and detailed interrogation of HBV genomic sequences. Its main function is to determ...

    journal_title:Antiviral research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yuen LK,Ayres A,Littlejohn M,Colledge D,Edgely A,Maskill WJ,Locarnini SA,Bartholomeusz A

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00