A few considerations in the design and analysis of experiments in neurotoxicology.


:To help minimize errors and confusion in the scientific literature, a few principles can be followed. The original intent and hypothesis of each study should be made clear, and deviations from the initial purpose should be stated. The hypothesis-testing portions of the research need to be clearly differentiated from the hypothesis generating sections. If data were selected and reanalyzed in unintended ways, the analyses should be clearly identified as hypothesis generating, and no conclusions should be drawn from such data. The data should be unassailable. The control group should be adequate. The data analysis should be consistent with the experimental design. Given that the larger the number of P-values, the greater the rate of false declarations, the total number of derived P-values should be reasonable and should be reported. The publication should unveil all details necessary to understand and replicate the research project, including the data analysis. Alternate etiologies should be seriously considered in light of potential confounding factors. It is important to be critical of the results of a study, especially when data confirm a preconceived hypothesis.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Maurissen JP




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Correlation between in vitro and in vivo models of proconvulsive activity with the carbapenem antibiotics, biapenem, imipenem/cilastatin and meropenem.

    abstract::The present study evaluated the proconvulsant liability of biapenem, a novel carbapenem antibiotic, in in vitro and in vivo experiments, in comparison with the carbapenems, imipenem/cilastatin and meropenem. Imipenem/cilastatin is a carbapenem antibiotic with known proconvulsive liability in man and in animal experime...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Day IP,Goudie J,Nishiki K,Williams PD

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • Elimination pattern and biodistribution of [14C]chlorferron in rats.

    abstract::Administration of [14C]chlorferron in a single oral dose of 0.5 and 20 mg/kg body weight to female rats resulted in a urinary excretion of greater than 74% of the given dose during the first 24 h. Approx. 8% of the dose was eliminated in faeces within 7 days. 7 days after dosing, very low levels of [14C]chlorferron-de...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malik JK,Lay JP,Klein W,Korte F

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Scoring multiple toxicological endpoints using a toxicogenomic database.

    abstract::As information regarding microarray data sets and toxicogenomic biomarkers grows rapidly, the process of analyzing data and interpreting the results is increasingly complicated. To facilitate data analysis, a simple expression ratio-based scoring method called the TGP1 score was previously proposed [Kiyosawa, N., Shiw...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kiyosawa N,Ando Y,Watanabe K,Niino N,Manabe S,Yamoto T

    更新日期:2009-07-24 00:00:00

  • Transfer of developmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) via milk to nursed offspring: Studies by mass spectrometry and image analysis.

    abstract::The cyanobacterial non-proteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is proposed to be involved in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex. When administered as single doses to neonatal rats, BMAA gives rise to cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments in the adult ani...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersson M,Karlsson O,Banack SA,Brandt I

    更新日期:2016-09-06 00:00:00

  • Real-time concurrent monitoring of apoptosis, cytosolic calcium, and mitochondria permeability transition for hypermulticolor high-content screening of drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated hepatotoxicity.

    abstract::A quantitative high-content screening (HCS) was suggested for the real-time monitoring of drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated hepatotoxicity. This HCS is very advantageous in that it allows simultaneous observation of drug-induced activations of hepatotoxic pathways using hypermulticolor cellular imaging. ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim JA,Han E,Eun CJ,Tak YK,Song JM

    更新日期:2012-10-17 00:00:00

  • The effect of natural antioxidants, NAO and apocynin, on oxidative stress in the rat heart following LPS challenge.

    abstract::Oxidative damage plays a key role in septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is known to enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, biochemical parameters indicative of oxidative stress were tested in the rat heart following LPS challenge, with and without pretreatment with t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ben-Shaul V,Lomnitski L,Nyska A,Zurovsky Y,Bergman M,Grossman S

    更新日期:2001-08-06 00:00:00

  • A new method to evaluate toxicological data reliability in risk assessments.

    abstract::Toxicological data used for risk assessments must undergo an evaluation of reliability. Nevertheless, a reliability evaluation scheme for such data has yet to be established in China. A method termed TRAM (Toxicological data Reliability Assessment Method) was developed to evaluate toxicological data reliability. A que...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 共识发展会议,杂志文章


    authors: Bian Q,Ping Y,Jun W,Lyu Z,Song Y,Zhang L,Liu Z

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in rat liver and lung.

    abstract::Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, presents in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00+/-1.53, 28.00+/-2.12 and 56.00+/-4.28 mg/m3 SO2 for 6 h/day for 7 ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Qin G,Meng Z

    更新日期:2005-12-30 00:00:00

  • Effects of triphenyltin acetate on pregnancy in rats by oral administration.

    abstract::A teratological test was carried out on triphenyltin acetate (TPTA) used as a fungicide and antifouling agent. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated orally with TPTA at dose levels of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.0 mg/kg/d during days 7-17 of gestation. Cesarean sections were performed on day 20 of gestation. In the pregn...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Noda T,Morita S,Yamano T,Shimizu M,Yamada A

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of lithium and rubidium on immune responses of rats.

    abstract::Rats were treated with LiCl or RbCl in drinking water for 65 days. Spleen cells from both treated groups exhibited significantly greater proliferative responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than those from untreated controls. Responses to concanavalin A (Con A) were not affected. Cytotoxic activities of natural killer ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones JM,Yeralan O,Hines G,Maher M,Roberts DW,Benson RW

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental exposure to pesticides and risk of thyroid diseases.

    abstract::Occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides has been associated with thyroid dysfunction, particularly changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This study assessed the association between environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of developing thyr...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Requena M,López-Villén A,Hernández AF,Parrón T,Navarro Á,Alarcón R

    更新日期:2019-10-15 00:00:00

  • Effects of diethylene glycol butyl ether and butoxyethoxyacetic acid on rat and human erythrocytes.

    abstract::The toxicity of diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE), and its principal metabolite, butoxyethoxyacetic acid (BEAA), were assessed in vitro for rat and human red blood cells. Rat erythrocytes showed evidence of mild hemolysis when exposed to BEAA at concentrations of 5 or 10 mM for 4 h. BEAA treated rat red blood cells...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Udden MM

    更新日期:2005-03-28 00:00:00

  • SEMV cell cultures: a model for studies of prostaglandin-H synthase-mediated metabolism and genotoxicity of xenobiotics.

    abstract::Many xenobiotics and carcinogens are oxidized in vitro by prostaglandin-H synthase (PHS) in the presence of arachidonic acid or lipid peroxides. PHS has been suggested to serve as an alternative metabolic activation enzyme to the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes, particularly in tissues low in monooxygenase activity. This ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Degen GH

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Lithocholic acid feeding results in direct hepato-toxicity independent of neutrophil function in mice.

    abstract::Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechani...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woolbright BL,Li F,Xie Y,Farhood A,Fickert P,Trauner M,Jaeschke H

    更新日期:2014-07-03 00:00:00

  • Effects of chlordimeform on heart rate and body temperature of unanesthetized, unrestrained rats.

    abstract::Heart rate (HR) and body core temperature (Tco) were monitored in unanesthetized, unrestrained adult Sprague-Dawley rats following intraperitoneal administration of 0, 10, 30, or 60 mg/kg of the pesticide chlordimeform (CDM). Significant non-dose-related decreases were observed in both HR and Tco in all treated groups...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watkinson WP,Gordon CJ

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of monoesters of O-phthalic acid on serum lipid composition of rats.

    abstract::Male rats were administered diets containing monobutyl (MBP), mono-iso-butyl (MIBP), monooctyl (MOP) or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) for 1 week, and serum lipid compositions were determined. Non-esterified fatty acid was increased and triglycerides and total cholesterol were decreased in all monoester-treated gr...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oishi S,Hiraga K

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pattern of urinary 63Ni excretion in rats.

    abstract::The elution profile of urine from rats given 63Ni i.p. using a Sephadex G-25 column was studied to investigate the chemical form and pattern of nickel (Ni) excretion. Ni was excreted probably as a mixture of complexes with chemical constituents of urine (molecular weight 200-250) within 24 h after 63Ni injection. 63Ni...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verma HS,Behari JR,Tandon SK

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of saccharin on the induction of chromosomal translocations in male mice and their F1 offspring.

    abstract::The dose-dependent effects of sodium saccharin on the fertility and the induction of chromosomal translocations in treated mice and their F1 males were examined. C3H X 101 mice were treated with saccharin for 2 successive weeks at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg of body wt. Data from the fertility study showed that sacchar...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pecevski J,Vuksanović L,Savković N,Alavantić D,Radivojević D

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Extrapolating the future: research trends in modeling.

    abstract::The proceedings in this volume suggest several important future research needs. Research is needed to validate modeling in toxicology in order to support the use of the general approach of modeling, either for structure-activity relationships (SAR) or physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK), by regulators. Resea...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Menzel DB

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Increase of adrenal weight in rats by the repeated administration of fenitrothion.

    abstract::Adrenal weight and the concentration of corticosterone and glucose in plasma of male Wistar rats, dosed orally with fenitrothion (7.25 or 14.5 mg/kg/day) for 28 days were investigated. A significant increase in the relative weight of adrenals was observed 2 weeks after treatment commenced, but was preceded by an incre...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto T,Egashira T,Yoshida T,Kuroiwa Y

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • α-asarone induces cardiac defects and QT prolongation through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in zebrafish.

    abstract::α-asarone is a natural phenylpropene found in several plants, which are widely used for flavoring foods and treating diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that α-asarone has many pharmacological functions, while some reports indicated its toxicity. However, little is known about its cardiovascular effects. This...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shang X,Ji X,Dang J,Wang L,Sun C,Liu K,Sik A,Jin M

    更新日期:2020-05-15 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the effects of pyridine and its metabolites on rat liver and kidney.

    abstract::In order to evaluate the possibility that the metabolism of pyridine may be important for its toxic actions, pyridine was compared with pyridine N-oxide, 2-hydroxypyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, 4-hydroxypyridine and pyridinium methyliodide in rats given equal molar doses of the chemicals i.p. Hepatoxicity was assessed b...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carlson GP

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 2: personal care product ingredients.

    abstract::An intensive study was conducted to provide data on intra- and inter-individual variation in urinary excretion of a series of ingredients in personal care products (parabens, triclosan, benzophenones) and bisphenol A (BPA, not expected to be an ingredient) in 8 volunteers over 6 days. Exposure diaries recorded use of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koch HM,Aylward LL,Hays SM,Smolders R,Moos RK,Cocker J,Jones K,Warren N,Levy L,Bevan R

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Acid hydrolases in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerves of acrylamide-intoxicated rats.

    abstract::Activity of beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin-D were studied in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerves of rats at 24 h or 10 days after daily i.p. administration of 50 mg/kg acrylamide. The activities of beta-glucuronidase and cathepsin-D in brain, spinal cord and sciatic nerves remained unaffected on single exposure bu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Srivastava SP,Srivastava SP,Seth PK

    更新日期:1984-08-01 00:00:00

  • Quinolone antibacterial-agent-induced cutaneous phototoxicity: ear swelling reactions in Balb/c mice.

    abstract::The phototoxic potentials of quinolone derivatives and the possibility of free radical contribution to their phototoxicity were investigated by measuring increments in ear thickness. Balb/c mice, fasted overnight, were orally administered ofloxacin (OFLX), lomefloxacin (LMFX), enoxacin (ENX), ciprofloxacin (CPFX) and ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wagai N,Tawara K

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Ambient PM2.5 chronic exposure leads to cognitive decline in mice: From pulmonary to neuronal inflammation.

    abstract::Fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5), one of the main components of air pollutants, seriously threatens human health. Possible neuronal dysfunction induced by PM2.5 has received extensive attention. However, there is little evidence for the specific biochemical mechanism of neuronal injury induced by PM2.5. Moreover, t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shou Y,Zhu X,Zhu D,Yin H,Shi Y,Chen M,Lu L,Qian Q,Zhao D,Hu Y,Wang H

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Rat liver plasma membrane damage in hexachlorobenzene intoxication and its potentiation by ethanol.

    abstract::Chronic feeding of male Wistar rats with food containing hexachlorobenzene (HCB) at 17.5 mmol/kg induced elevation of serum amino-transferases and bilirubin content, increase of microsomal cytochrome P-450 concentration, and decrease of 5'-nucleotidase, K+,Na+- and Mg2+-adenosine triphosphatase activities in liver pla...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nikolaev V,Naydenova E,Kerimova M,Dimov S,Ivanov E

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cadmium and calcium-dependent c-fos expression in mesangial cells.

    abstract::Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal known to increase the expression of several protooncogenes in a variety of cells. although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Renal mesangial cells are smooth muscle cells in which Ca2+ signaling pathways regulate the induction of c-fos through both cAMP-dependent and mitogen-activa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Templeton DM,Wang Z,Miralem T

    更新日期:1998-03-16 00:00:00

  • The enemy at the gates? DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to exogenous and endogenous genotoxic agents.

    abstract::Genomic DNA is under continuous assault by various chemical species produced by normal cellular metabolism. In addition, exposure to exogenous agents adds further insult. Modification of DNA by chemical carcinogens has long been recognized as an early event in carcinogenesis and many DNA adducts have been characterize...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shuker DE

    更新日期:2002-08-05 00:00:00

  • Combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures on human T cell function.

    abstract::Combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures are of major concern due to the widespread occurrence of human exposure to mixtures. Owing to the lack of sufficient mixture data regarding the human immune function, the aim of this study was to specify, evaluate and predict the combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures upon the fu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tammer B,Lehmann I,Nieber K,Altenburger R

    更新日期:2007-04-25 00:00:00