A few considerations in the design and analysis of experiments in neurotoxicology.


:To help minimize errors and confusion in the scientific literature, a few principles can be followed. The original intent and hypothesis of each study should be made clear, and deviations from the initial purpose should be stated. The hypothesis-testing portions of the research need to be clearly differentiated from the hypothesis generating sections. If data were selected and reanalyzed in unintended ways, the analyses should be clearly identified as hypothesis generating, and no conclusions should be drawn from such data. The data should be unassailable. The control group should be adequate. The data analysis should be consistent with the experimental design. Given that the larger the number of P-values, the greater the rate of false declarations, the total number of derived P-values should be reasonable and should be reported. The publication should unveil all details necessary to understand and replicate the research project, including the data analysis. Alternate etiologies should be seriously considered in light of potential confounding factors. It is important to be critical of the results of a study, especially when data confirm a preconceived hypothesis.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Maurissen JP




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • A direct peptide reactivity assay using a high-throughput mass spectrometry screening platform for detection of skin sensitizers.

    abstract::Chemical-peptide conjugation is the molecular initiating event in skin sensitization. The OECD test guideline uses a high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) detection method to quantify chemical-peptide conjugation in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), which measures the depletion of two sy...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei Z,Fang Y,Gosztyla ML,Li AJ,Huang W,LeClair CA,Simeonov A,Tao D,Xia M

    更新日期:2021-03-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the organs of a suspected case of cannabis poisoning.

    abstract::An unusual case of fatal poisoning by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)--a physiologically active constituent of cannabis--is reported. Methods of isolation and detection of delta-9-THC was estimated quantitatively by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and photoelectric densitometry. ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tewari SN,Sharma JD

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    abstract::We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim EM,Lee HY,Lee EH,Lee KM,Park M,Ji KY,Jang JH,Jeong YH,Lee KH,Yoon IJ,Kim SM,Jeong MJ,Kim KD,Kang HS

    更新日期:2013-11-25 00:00:00

  • Curvi-linear relation between acetone in breathing zone air and acetone in urine among workers exposed to acetone vapor.

    abstract::An occupational health study was conducted on 45 acetone-exposed male workers in combination with 343 non-exposed men to examine the quantitative relationship between the intensity of acetone vapor exposure and the concentration of acetone in urine. The time-weighted average acetone concentrations were measured by mea...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawai T,Yasugi T,Mizunuma K,Horiguchi S,Iguchi H,Ikeda M

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • The investigation of the genotoxic effects of fenarimol and propamocarb in mouse bone marrow in vivo.

    abstract::In this study, we aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of fungicides fenarimol and propamocarb which are used to protect crops from fungi. For this reason, bone-marrow micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests were carried out in Swiss albino mice. Mice were injected with four different doses of fenarimol and pr...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aydemir N,Bilaloğlu R

    更新日期:2004-02-28 00:00:00

  • Cytokine regulation of chemical sensitization.

    abstract::The skin is an immunologically active tissue. Epidermal cells, both keratinocytes and Langerhans cells (LC), produce constitutively or can be stimulated to produce a variety of cytokines, many of which play important roles in the induction and regulation of allergic responses to sensitizing chemicals. Tumor necrosis f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kimber I,Holliday MR,Dearman RJ

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison between oral and dermal bioavailability of soil-adsorbed phenanthrene in female rats.

    abstract::Phenathrene is a major coal tar component found in hazardous waste disposal sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which phenanthrene adsorption to either of 2 different soils affects the manner in which phenanthrene is subsequently handled in orally and dermally exposed adult female rats. Abso...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kadry AM,Skowronski GA,Turkall RM,Abdel-Rahman MS

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Hormones and testis development and the possible adverse effects of environmental chemicals.

    abstract::Development of a fetus into a phenotypic male depends, first, on testis formation and second, on hormone production by the fetal testis. Disorders of testicular hormone production or action can lead in severe cases to phenotypic abnormalities or can predispose towards impaired reproductive health. Evidence for deterio...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sharpe RM

    更新日期:2001-03-31 00:00:00

  • Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    abstract::The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treat...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Worek F,Thiermann H,Wille T

    更新日期:2016-02-26 00:00:00

  • Environmental contaminants and human health in the Arctic.

    abstract::Monitoring of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants POPs and heavy metals have taken place since 1994 in a circumpolar study conducted under the Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP). The study has confirmed that Arctic populations relying on marine food (Inuit) have an exposure level of POPs and...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hansen JC

    更新日期:2000-03-15 00:00:00

  • Changes in 2-aminoisobutyric acid and cycloleucine uptake produced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    abstract::The effect of dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the transport of two non-metabolizable amino acids, 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and cycloleucine (CL) was studied in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The herbicide did not exert any direct effect on the AIB transport. However, when the pesticide was in contact with the ce...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bergesse JR,Rivarola VA,Balegno HF

    更新日期:1987-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of partial hepatectomy on hepatic metallothionein and glutathione levels and cadmium distribution in different tissues.

    abstract::The changes in hepatic metallothionein (MT) and glutathione levels and cadmium distribution were investigated 72 hr after a subcutaneous administration of 1.5 mg Cd2+/kg as CdCl2H2O to normal and partially hepatectomized rats. Partial hepatectomy had no effect on native metallothionein content. Cadmium and MT content ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asokan P

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence, histopathologic and electron microscopic features of spontaneous nephroblastomas in rats.

    abstract::Primary renal neoplasms in the rats are uncommon. Nephroblastoma is the only renal embryonal tumor of the rat; all other tumors are reported in older rats. The occurrence of spontaneous nephroblastoma in rats has been reported. However, metastasis from the nephroblastoma in rat is extremely rare. Data from 2669 Spragu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chandra M,Carlton WW

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Subchronic oral toxicity of turmeric and ethanolic turmeric extract in female mice and rats.

    abstract::Subchronic oral toxicity of turmeric and ethanolic turmeric extract was studied in female Swiss mice and Wistar rats fed turmeric (0, 1 and 5%) and ethanolic turmeric extract (0, 0.05 and 0.25%) through diet for 14 and/or 90 days. The administration of a high dose of turmeric (5%) for longer duration (90 days) showed ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deshpande SS,Lalitha VS,Ingle AD,Raste AS,Gadre SG,Maru GB

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Lead given systemically to mice in experimental delay of implantation increases the oxygen consumption of delayed blastocysts.

    abstract::The metabolic activity of pre-implantation blastocysts recovered from delayed mice before and after administration of lead was estimated by measuring their oxygen consumption using a spectrophotometer technique. Normal blastocysts, activated for implantation, increased their oxygen consumption by about 50% compared wi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nilsson BO,Einarsson B,Magnusson C

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Lipoxygenase-mediated biotransformation of p-aminophenol in the presence of glutathione: possible conjugate formation.

    abstract::This study tested a hypothesis that soybean lipoxygenase (SLO), a model enzyme, may be capable of generating a glutathione (GSH) conjugate(s) from p-aminophenol (PAP). Horseradish peroxidase was employed as a positive control. GSH depletion or an increase in the absorption at 327 nm with time due to GS-PAP formation w...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang X,Kulkarni AP

    更新日期:2000-01-05 00:00:00

  • Amiodarone-induced disruption of hamster lung and liver mitochondrial function: lack of association with thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance production.

    abstract::Amiodarone (AM) is an efficacious antidysrhythmic agent that is limited clinically by numerous adverse effects. Of greatest concern is AM-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) due to the potential for mortality. Mitochondrial alterations and free radicals have been implicated in the etiology of AM-induced toxicities, incl...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Card JW,Lalonde BR,Rafeiro E,Tam AS,Racz WJ,Brien JF,Bray TM,Massey TE

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Microcystin-LR promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells through PI3-K/AKT and SMAD2.

    abstract::Increasing evidences suggest that microcystins, a kind of toxic metabolites, produced by cyanobacteria in contaminated water may contribute to the aggravation of the human colorectal carcinoma. Our previous study showed that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure caused significant invasion and migration of colorectal cancer...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ren Y,Yang M,Chen M,Zhu Q,Zhou L,Qin W,Wang T

    更新日期:2017-01-04 00:00:00

  • Alpha-tocopheryl succinate protects hepatocytes from chemical-induced toxicity under physiological calcium conditions.

    abstract::Rat and canine hepatocyte suspensions were exposed to toxic concentrations of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and ionophore A-23187 in the presence and absence of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TS). The exogenous administration of alpha-TS (25 microM) completely protected hepatocytes f...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fariss MW,Merson MH,O'Hara TM

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Saikosaponin-d-mediated downregulation of neurogenesis results in cognitive dysfunction by inhibiting Akt/Foxg-1 pathway in mice.

    abstract::Saikosaponin-d (SSd), one of the main constituents of the total saikosaponins extracted from Bupleurum falcatum L, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effect. Recently, SSd was proved to improve depressive symptoms although exhibit hepatotoxicity in animals, but the central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lixing X,Zhouye J,Liting G,Ruyi Z,Rong Q,Shiping M

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Suppressive effect of 1-nitropyrene on benzo[a]pyrene-induced CYP1A1 protein expression in HepG2 cells.

    abstract::The genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs may be influenced by the interaction of the compounds. In this study, our data showed that benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-DNA adduct levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner when the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 simultaneously treated with B...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cherng SH,Hsu SL,Yang JL,Yu CT,Lee H

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Bisphenol A and its derivatives tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A induce apelin expression and secretion in ovarian cancer cells through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent mechanism.

    abstract::Epidemiological studies have reported that humans have detectable levels of not only bisphenol A (BPA), but also its halogenated derivatives tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), in the serum. Our previous study showed that BPA promotes ovarian cancer progression by directly inducing cell p...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffmann M,Fiedor E,Ptak A

    更新日期:2017-03-05 00:00:00

  • Foetal and adult human CYP3A isoforms in the bioactivation of organophosphorothionate insecticides.

    abstract::In humans organophosphorothionate pesticides (OPT) prenatal exposure has been demonstrated. Since OPT-induced neurodevelopmental effects may be due to in situ bioactivation by foetal enzymes, the catalytic activity of the foetal CYP3A7 toward chlorpyrifos (CPF), parathion (PAR), malathion (MAL) and fenthion (FEN) has ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buratti FM,Leoni C,Testai E

    更新日期:2006-12-15 00:00:00

  • Endocrine effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a one-generation reproduction study in Wistar rats.

    abstract::The brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane was tested in a one-generation reproduction assay in Wistar rats, enhanced for endocrine parameters. A solution of the compound in corn oil was mixed in the feed, targeting at dietary exposure of 0-0.1-0.3-1-3-10-30-100 mg/kg body weight/day (mkd) in parental...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Ven LT,van de Kuil T,Leonards PE,Slob W,Lilienthal H,Litens S,Herlin M,Håkansson H,Cantón RF,van den Berg M,Visser TJ,van Loveren H,Vos JG,Piersma AH

    更新日期:2009-02-25 00:00:00

  • Correlative morphological and biochemical studies on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary alterations in rats.

    abstract::A single s.c. injection of 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline to rats induced pulmonary alterations characterized by hyaline thrombi of capillaries and arterioles, focal necrosis of alveolar walls, and medial thickening and intimal hyalinosis of arteries. Such pathological alterations became apparent 7 days after injection and...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Kokubo T,Takahashi M,Furukawa F,Otsuka H,Hashimoto K

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Alteration of saliva and serum concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead among career welders.

    abstract::Human saliva offers a unique noninvasive approach for populational study. Purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using saliva manganese (Mn) concentration as a biomarker of Mn exposure among career welders and to study the variations of Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Wang D,Du X,Zheng W

    更新日期:2008-01-04 00:00:00

  • MiR-34a/sirtuin-1/foxo3a is involved in genistein protecting against ox-LDL-induced oxidative damage in HUVECs.

    abstract::The antioxidant activity of genistein is associated with preventing atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with genistein at different concentrations (10nM, 100nM and 1000nM) for 6h and then exposed to...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang H,Zhao Z,Pang X,Yang J,Yu H,Zhang Y,Zhou H,Zhao J

    更新日期:2017-08-05 00:00:00

  • Micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo in response to trans, trans-muconaldehyde.

    abstract::Benzene is a human leukemogen, and a bone marrow toxin and carcinogen in experimental animals. The reactive intermediates involved in benzene toxicity and their mechanism(s) of action have not been clearly delineated. We have investigated the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of trans,trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reac...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oshiro Y,Balwierz PS,Witz G

    更新日期:2001-05-19 00:00:00

  • The effect of cyclohexylamine on the embryo following oral administration to mice and rats.

    abstract::The possible embryotoxic effects of cyclohexylamine hydrochloride doses (expressed as free base) of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg of body weight per day administered orally in water to mice and rats from the 6th to 15th day post-coitum were investigated. Treatment with daily doses of up to 100 mg/kg of body weight to mice and ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lorke D,Machemer L

    更新日期:1983-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the inhibition risk of shikonin on human and rat UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) through the cocktail approach.

    abstract::Shikonin, a natural red colorant, is widely used for food garnishment and cosmetic ingredient in the world. Shikonin also possesses a variety of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities. However, little is known about its effects on the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) activity...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng Y,Tang S,Chen A,Zhang Y,Liu M,Wang X

    更新日期:2019-09-15 00:00:00