Acute exposure to cobalt induces transient methemoglobinuria in rats.


:We observed transient excretion of dark-brown urine after acute exposure to cobalt in rats and investigated the mechanism of it. We injected cobalt into rats s.c. at a dose of 15 mg/kg and collected urine, peripheral blood, and organ samples at the indicated times after injection. Biochemical and histopathological examinations of these samples were conducted. Obvious macroscopic and biochemical methemoglobinuria was observed just after injection of cobalt, but the level of urinary methemoglobin decreased gradually, almost disappearing by 24 h. The levels of cobalt in peripheral blood and urine showed a very similar pattern to that of methemoglobinuria. Neither anemia nor bilirubinemia was observed, indicating no extrarenal intravascular hemolysis. Pathological examination of the kidneys revealed that the glomerular capillaries were filled with red blood cells at 1 h after injection. Electron microscopy showed deformed red blood cells in the glomerular capillaries and condensed hemoglobin in Bowman's capsule that passed through the basement membrane. There were no trends toward increases in plasma levels of creatinine or blood urea nitrogen. These results indicate that exposure to cobalt induces transient methemoglobinuria through the lysis of red blood cells and oxidation of iron in hemoglobin at the glomerular capillaries without causing renal dysfunction.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Horiguchi H,Oguma E,Nomoto S,Arao Y,Ikeda K,Kayama F





Has Abstract


2004-08-01 00:00:00














  • Inhibition of human and rat CYP1A1 enzyme by grapefruit juice compounds.

    abstract::Cytochrome P4501A1 is involved in the metabolism of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; therefore, its inhibition interferes with the carcinogenesis process induced by these compounds in rats. The human and rat CYP1A1 differ by 21% in amino acid sequence, including the active site of the enzyme; this differ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santes-Palacios R,Romo-Mancillas A,Camacho-Carranza R,Espinosa-Aguirre JJ

    更新日期:2016-09-06 00:00:00

  • Effects of cyclopiazonic acid on the ultrastructure of rat liver.

    abstract::Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed per os for 4 consecutive days with 0.0, 0.2, 2.0 or 4.0 mg cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)/kg body weight/day, and killed on the fifth day. Sections of liver were prepared for electron microscopic examination. Dilatation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in all hepatocyt...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hinton DM,Morrissey RE,Norred WP,Cole RJ,Dorner J

    更新日期:1985-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor deficiency and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on fetal development in mice.

    abstract::Dioxins are persistent environmental contaminants that cause multiple disorders in laboratory animals, including teratogenesis. In mice, the most important teratogenic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are hydronephrosis and cleft palate. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates most of the TCDD-in...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miettinen HM,Huuskonen H,Partanen AM,Miettinen P,Tuomisto JT,Pohjanvirta R,Tuomisto J

    更新日期:2004-05-02 00:00:00

  • Hepatotoxicity of dimethylnitrosamine in cats and lizards.

    abstract::The hepatotoxic effects of the oral administration of a single dose of 50 mg dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)/kg and daily doses of 5 mg and 1 mg/kg, respectively, to cats and lizards were studied by light microscopy. Centrilobular necrosis was the main alteration detected in the liver of cats as in other animal species stud...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maduagwu EN,Anosa VO

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Modulatory effect of calcium on the influx and binding of cadmium in primary cultures of neonatal rat hepatocytes.

    abstract::Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were exposed to 3 or 30 microM stable cadmium (Cd) in the presence or absence of 1.8 or 3.6 mM calcium (Ca). The presence of Ca significantly reduced the efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from cells regardless of Cd concentration or exposure time. During a 3-h time interval, the...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sorensen EM

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Saikosaponin-d-mediated downregulation of neurogenesis results in cognitive dysfunction by inhibiting Akt/Foxg-1 pathway in mice.

    abstract::Saikosaponin-d (SSd), one of the main constituents of the total saikosaponins extracted from Bupleurum falcatum L, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effect. Recently, SSd was proved to improve depressive symptoms although exhibit hepatotoxicity in animals, but the central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lixing X,Zhouye J,Liting G,Ruyi Z,Rong Q,Shiping M

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Delphinidin protects colon carcinoma cells against the genotoxic effects of the mycotoxin altertoxin II.

    abstract::Alternaria spp. are ubiquitous molds that are able to produce toxic secondary metabolites which may contaminate food globally. One of those is the mycotoxin altertoxin II (ATX-II), a genotoxic and mutagenic compound. In recent years, different flavonoids that may co-occur with mycotoxins in food were demonstrated to t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aichinger G,Puntscher H,Beisl J,Kütt ML,Warth B,Marko D

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    abstract::Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Winder C

    更新日期:2002-03-10 00:00:00

  • Toxic effect of nickel in an in vitro model of human oral epithelium.

    abstract::Nickel is a metal widely employed in dental alloys, and due to peculiar properties of certain nickel-based materials, it cannot be substituted with other metals in some applications. The release of nickel ions from dental alloys placed into long-term contact with mouth soft tissues is alarming because of the toxic, im...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trombetta D,Mondello MR,Cimino F,Cristani M,Pergolizzi S,Saija A

    更新日期:2005-12-15 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of DNA synthesis after a single administration of cadmium nitrate.

    abstract::The effect of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of cadmium nitrate was investigated in livers of male Wistar rats. A significant increase in liver weight, accompanied by an elevation of total hepatic DNA content was observed. DNA synthesis as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine, was found to be 6 times ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ledda-Columbano GM,Columbano A,Coni PP,Vargiu M,Liguori C,Pani P

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cadmium and calcium-dependent c-fos expression in mesangial cells.

    abstract::Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal known to increase the expression of several protooncogenes in a variety of cells. although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Renal mesangial cells are smooth muscle cells in which Ca2+ signaling pathways regulate the induction of c-fos through both cAMP-dependent and mitogen-activa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Templeton DM,Wang Z,Miralem T

    更新日期:1998-03-16 00:00:00

  • Promoting effect of testosterone propionate on experimental exocrine pancreatic tumors by 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in rats.

    abstract::A single intravenous injection of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in a dose of 9 mg/kg induced exocrine adenomas of the pancreas in a significantly higher rate in male than in female rats. Castration following HAQO administration diminished the incidence of the pancreatic tumors in male rats. A combined treatment with...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Katayama H

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Formaldehyde induces micronuclei in mouse erythropoietic cells and suppresses the expansion of human erythroid progenitor cells.

    abstract::Although formaldehyde (FA) has been classified as a human leukemogen, the mechanisms of leukemogenesis remain elusive. Previously, using colony-forming assays in semi-solid media, we showed that FA exposure in vivo and in vitro was toxic to human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In the present study, we have appli...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ji Z,Li X,Fromowitz M,Mutter-Rottmayer E,Tung J,Smith MT,Zhang L

    更新日期:2014-01-13 00:00:00

  • Potential new targets involved in 1,3-dinitrobenzene induced testicular toxicity.

    abstract::1,3-Dinitrobenzene (DNB) causes testicular injury, particularly to Sertoli cells, and induces apoptosis in the surrounding germinal cells in rodents; however, the mechanisms causing this toxicity are poorly understood. Our studies, using standard and molecular tools, were conducted to better understand the pathogenesi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ludwig S,Tinwell H,Rouquié D,Schorsch F,Pallardy M,Bars R

    更新日期:2012-09-03 00:00:00

  • Cytogenetic and teratogenic evaluation of letimide.

    abstract::Letimide is a new efficient analgesic salicylate derivative. In this study we evaluated its cytogenetic and teratogenic potential. For chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange analysis we tested 250, 375, 500 and 625 micrograms/ml of letimide in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro, and for the in vivo cyto...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Díaz Barriga-Arceo S,Madrigal-Bujaidar E,Salazar M,Chamorro G

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of cyclohexylamine on the embryo following oral administration to mice and rats.

    abstract::The possible embryotoxic effects of cyclohexylamine hydrochloride doses (expressed as free base) of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg of body weight per day administered orally in water to mice and rats from the 6th to 15th day post-coitum were investigated. Treatment with daily doses of up to 100 mg/kg of body weight to mice and ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lorke D,Machemer L

    更新日期:1983-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pleural plaques in asbestosis: effect of Candida albicans.

    abstract::Effect of chrysotile dust alone or together with Candida albicans administered intratracheally in guinea pigs was studied in the genesis of pleural plaques over a period of 12 months. A significant increase of mucopolysaccharides, phosphorus, calcium and -SH content was detected in pleural fluid of animals treated wit...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saxena KC,Srivastava L,Ali S,Dogra RK

    更新日期:1982-10-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of clobazam-induced thyroidal oncogenesis in male rats.

    abstract::In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which long-term treatment with clobazam (CLB), 1,5-benzodiazepine, induces thyroid follicular cell tumors in male rats, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally with 400 mg/kg of CLB for up to 4 weeks, and the contribution of feedback through elevated thyroid stimulatin...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyawaki I,Moriyasu M,Funabashi H,Yasuba M,Matsuoka N

    更新日期:2003-12-10 00:00:00

  • A physiologically based model of skeletal growth in the rat.

    abstract::A model of the growing small animal skeleton has been developed. The model accurately reproduces a variety of different kinds of measurements made at different ages in different species, as well as reproducing a precise and detailed series of measurements in the growing guinea pig. Of the multiple mechanisms responsib...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Flaherty EJ

    更新日期:1988-10-01 00:00:00

  • In utero and lactational exposure to Aroclor 1254 affects bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties of rat offspring.

    abstract::Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a broad spectrum of toxic effects in various organs including bone. The most susceptible age-groups to the toxic effects of PCBs are foetuses and infants. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomec...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elabbas LE,Herlin M,Finnilä MA,Rendel F,Stern N,Trossvik C,Bowers WJ,Nakai J,Tuukkanen J,Viluksela M,Heimeier RA,Akesson A,Håkansson H

    更新日期:2011-11-10 00:00:00

  • Embryonic toxicity of sanguinarine through apoptotic processes in mouse blastocysts.

    abstract::In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of sanguinarine, a phytoalexin with antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic effects, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treat...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan WH

    更新日期:2011-09-10 00:00:00

  • Developmental exposure to cuprizone reduces intermediate-stage progenitor cells and cholinergic signals in the hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring.

    abstract::The exposure to cuprizone (CPZ) leads to demyelination in the central nervous system in rodents. To examine the developmental effects of CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis, pregnant rats were treated with 0, 0.1 or 0.4% CPZ in the diet from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day 21, male of...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abe H,Tanaka T,Kimura M,Mizukami S,Imatanaka N,Akahori Y,Yoshida T,Shibutani M

    更新日期:2015-05-05 00:00:00

  • Urinary mutagenicity after controlled exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

    abstract::20 non-smokers on a defined diet low in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in an unventilated room for 8 h. The urinary mutagenicity in the 24-h urine samples as tested with the Salmonella (TA98) microsome assay did not significantly increase after exposure to eith...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scherer G,Westphal K,Biber A,Hoepfner I,Adlkofer F

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of partial hepatectomy on hepatic metallothionein and glutathione levels and cadmium distribution in different tissues.

    abstract::The changes in hepatic metallothionein (MT) and glutathione levels and cadmium distribution were investigated 72 hr after a subcutaneous administration of 1.5 mg Cd2+/kg as CdCl2H2O to normal and partially hepatectomized rats. Partial hepatectomy had no effect on native metallothionein content. Cadmium and MT content ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asokan P

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of tail nerve function in rats chronically exposed to vinyltoluene.

    abstract::In male Sprague-Dawley rats, motor and sensory conduction velocities (MNCV and SNCV) of the tail nerve decreased significantly as a result of oral administration of 400 and 200 mg/kg of 2,5 hexanedione (2,5-HD) once daily, 5 days a week for up to 7 and 15 weeks, respectively; and of whole-body exposure to 300 ppm of v...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gagnaire F,Nicot T,Zissu D,Bonnet P,de Ceaurriz J

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • The seleno-organic compound ebselen impairs mitochondrial physiology and induces cell death in AR42J cells.

    abstract::Ebselen is a seleno-organic compound that causes cell death in several cancer cell types. The mechanisms underlying its deleterious effects have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of ebselen (1 μM-40 μM) on AR42J tumor cells have been examined. Cell viability was studied using AlamarBlue(®) test. Ce...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santofimia-Castaño P,Garcia-Sanchez L,Ruy DC,Fernandez-Bermejo M,Salido GM,Gonzalez A

    更新日期:2014-09-17 00:00:00

  • alpha-Zearalanol attenuates oxLDL-induced ET-1 gene expression, ET-1 secretion and redox-sensitive intracellular signaling activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    abstract::alpha-Zearalanol (alpha-ZAL), a phytochemical with both antioxidant and estrogen-like properties, has been shown to retard progression of atherosclerosis and regulate cardiovascular function in part through suppression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion. However, the precise nature behind alpha-ZAL-elicited inhibition o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu H,Duan J,Dai S,Wu Y,Sun R,Ren J

    更新日期:2008-07-10 00:00:00

  • Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity.

    abstract::One of the major side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics (AG) is ototoxicity. The authors review the literature revealing many controversies on every aspect of this side-effect. Although epidemiological studies have to face the problem of reliable evaluation techniques, the incidence of cochleo- and vestibulotoxic ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Govaerts PJ,Claes J,van de Heyning PH,Jorens PG,Marquet J,De Broe ME

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Human 3D multicellular microtissues: An upgraded model for the in vitro mechanistic investigation of inflammation-associated drug toxicity.

    abstract::Inflammation is one of the factors that may increase the sensitivity of hepatic cells to acetaminophen (APAP) induced toxicity. To investigate the mechanisms, we exposed 3-dimensional (3D) Human Liver Microtissues, a co-culture of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and Kupffer cells (KCs), to 0, 0.5 (low), 5 (median) and...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang J,Messner S,Kelm JM,van Herwijnen M,Jennen DGJ,Kleinjans JC,de Kok TM

    更新日期:2019-09-15 00:00:00

  • In vivo effect of 7,8-benzoflavone on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of mouse liver microsomes.

    abstract::In vivo administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produced much higher hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction than 7,8-benzoflavone (7,8-BF) in both aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah)-responsive and nonresponsive strains of mice. Simultaneous treatment o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kiyohara C,Hirohata T

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00