Characterization of lysophospholipid metabolizing enzymes in human brain.

Abstract:

:Lysophospholipids are generated during the turnover and breakdown of membrane phospholipids. We have identified and partially characterized three enzymes involved in the metabolism of lysophospholipids in human brain, namely, lysophospholipase, lysophospholipid:acyl-CoA acyltransferase (acyltransferase), and lysophospholipid:lysophospholipid transacylase (transacylase). Each enzyme displayed comparable levels of activity in biopsied and autopsied human brain, although in all cases the activity was somewhat lower in human than that in rat brain. All three enzymes were localized predominantly in the particulate fraction, with lysophospholipase possessing the greatest activity followed by acyltransferase and transacylase. Lysophosphatidylcholine possessed a Km in the micromolar range for lysophospholipase and transacylase, and in the millimolar range for acyltransferase, whereas arachidonyl-CoA displayed a Km in the micromolar range for acyltransferase. The three enzymes differed in their pH optima, with lysophospholipase being most active at pH 8.0, transacylase at pH 7.5, and acyltransferase at pH 6.0. Both bromophenacyl bromide and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited lysophospholipase activity and, to a lesser extent, that of acyltransferase and transacylase. None of the enzyme activities were affected by the presence of dithiothreitol or EDTA, although particulate lysophospholipase was activated approximately two-fold by the addition of 5 mM MgCl2 or CaCl2 but not KCl. Transacylating activity was stimulated by CoA, the EC50 of activation being 6.8 microM. Acyltransferase displayed an approximately threefold preference for arachidonyl-CoA over palmitoyl-CoA, whereas the acylation rate of different lysophospholipids was in the order lysophosphatidylinositol > 1-palmitoyl lysophosphatidylcholine > 1-oleoyl lysophosphatidylcholine > lysophosphatidylserine > lysophosphatidylethanolamine. This, and the preference of human brain phospholipase A2 for phosphatidylinositol, suggests that this phospholipid may possess a higher turnover rate than the other phospholipid classes examined. Human brain homogenates also possessed the ability to transfer fatty acid from lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylethanolamine. In addition, we also present evidence that diacylglycerophospholipids can act as acyl donors for the transacylation of lysophospholipids. We have therefore demonstrated the presence of, and partially characterized, three enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of lysophospholipids in human brain. Our results suggest that lysophospholipase may be the major route by which lysophospholipids are removed from the cell membrane in human brain. However, all three enzymes likely play an important role in the remodeling of membrane composition and thereby contribute to the overall functioning of membrane-associated processes.

journal_name

J Neurochem

authors

Ross BM,Kish SJ

doi

10.1046/j.1471-4159.1994.63051839.x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1994-11-01 00:00:00

pages

1839-48

issue

5

eissn

0022-3042

issn

1471-4159

journal_volume

63

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Characterization of OPA1 isoforms isolated from mouse tissues.

    abstract::OPA1, a nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein causing autosomal dominant optic atrophy, is a key player in mitochondrial fusion and cristae morphology regulation. In the present study, we have compared the OPA1 transcription and translation products of different mouse tissues. Unlike in humans, we found only two exons...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05401.x

    authors: Akepati VR,Müller EC,Otto A,Strauss HM,Portwich M,Alexander C

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of substance P on the binding of agonists to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo electroplaque.

    abstract::The effect of the neuropeptide substance P on the binding of the cholinergic ligands to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo electroplaque membranes was examined at a physiological concentration of NaCl (150 mM). Substance P had no effect on the initial rate of 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding at concentrati...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1993.tb03510.x

    authors: Min CK,Weiland GA

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Differential mechanisms of tolerance induced by NMDA and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) preconditioning.

    abstract::We investigated the molecular events triggered by NMDA and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) preconditioning, that lead to neuroprotection against excitotoxic insults (AMPA or oxygen and glucose deprivation) in rat organotypic hippocampal slices, with particular attention on glutamate receptors and on cannabinoid syst...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/jnc.15033

    authors: Gerace E,Zianni E,Landucci E,Scartabelli T,Berlinguer Palmini R,Iezzi D,Moroni F,Di Luca M,Mannaioni G,Gardoni F,Pellegrini-Giampietro DE

    更新日期:2020-04-28 00:00:00

  • Functional impairment in protein kinase C by RACK1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1) deficiency in aged rat brain cortex.

    abstract::Several laboratories have reported a lack of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in response to various stimuli in the brain of aged rats. It has been suggested that changes in lipid membrane composition could be related to this functional deficit. However, recent evidence has indicated that the translocation of PKC to ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.67062471.x

    authors: Pascale A,Fortino I,Govoni S,Trabucchi M,Wetsel WC,Battaini F

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Differential proteolysis of the full-length form of the L-type calcium channel alpha 1 subunit by calpain.

    abstract::This study examines the proteolysis of the carboxy terminal domain of the full-length (alpha 1(212)) and truncated (alpha 1(190)) forms of the rabbit skeletal muscle L-type calcium channel alpha 1 subunit by calpain I and calpain II. Although both forms of the alpha 1 subunit show little sensitivity to proteolysis by ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1994.63041558.x

    authors: De Jongh KS,Colvin AA,Wang KK,Catterall WA

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolism of acetyl-L-carnitine for energy and neurotransmitter synthesis in the immature rat brain.

    abstract::Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is an endogenous metabolic intermediate that facilitates the influx and efflux of acetyl groups across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Exogenously administered ALCAR has been used as a nutritional supplement and also as an experimental drug with reported neuroprotective properties and effe...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06807.x

    authors: Scafidi S,Fiskum G,Lindauer SL,Bamford P,Shi D,Hopkins I,McKenna MC

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • The cytotoxicity of dopamine may be an artefact of cell culture.

    abstract::Administration of L-DOPA is commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease, yet controversy continues as to whether the dopamine arising from it aggravates neuronal loss. Several authors have reported cytotoxic effects of L-DOPA and dopamine on cultured cells, but others have not. In this report using the rat pheochromocy...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.00802.x

    authors: Clement MV,Long LH,Ramalingam J,Halliwell B

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Accessibility of galactosyl ceramides to probe reagents in central nervous system myelin.

    abstract::The suitability of isolated central nerve myelin preparations for probe labelling studies was assessed and the accessibility of galactosyl ceramides in myelin to galactose oxidase and sodium periodate was determined. Isolated myelin preparations present a uniform external membrane surface to added probes because lamel...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1980.tb07098.x

    authors: Linington C,Rumsby MG

    更新日期:1980-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hypoxia-induced ischemic tolerance in neonatal rat brain involves enhanced ERK1/2 signaling.

    abstract::Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) 24 h before hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury confers significant neuroprotection in neonatal rat brain. Recent studies have shown that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) intracellular signaling pathways play a role in the induction of tolerance...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02324.x

    authors: Jones NM,Bergeron M

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Monovalent cations and striatal tyrosine hydroxylase.

    abstract::The kinetic properties of soluble tyrosine hydroxylase from rat striatum and the activation of the enzyme by the polyanion heparin were assessed as a function of the monovalent cations K+, Na+, tetramethylammonium (TMA+), and Tris. Substitution of K+ or Na+ for TMA+ or Tris can alter the kinetic properties of tyrosine...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1982.tb12541.x

    authors: Kuczenski R

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for two cholesterol ester hydrolases in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    abstract::In the present study, the properties, such as pH optima, detergent requirement, and effects of various lipids, of cholesterol ester hydrolase in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were examined, and the activity levels of the enzyme in CSF from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and non-MS individuals were compared. Our da...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1982.tb12527.x

    authors: Johnson RC,Shah SN

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Glial and neuronal marker proteins in the silicone chamber model for nerve regeneration.

    abstract::In the present study, neuronal and Schwann cell marker proteins were used to biochemically characterize the spatiotemporal progress of degeneration/regeneration in the silicone chamber model for nerve regeneration. Rat sciatic nerves were transected and the proximal and distal stumps were inserted into a bridging sili...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1993.tb03260.x

    authors: Karlsson JE,Rosengren LE,Wang S,Danielsen N,Haglid KG

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of selective COX-1 and -2 inhibition on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and prostaglandin E(2) release in the spinal cord.

    abstract::Nociception evoked prostaglandin (PG) release in the spinal cord considerably contributes to the induction of hyperalgesia and allodynia. To evaluate the relative contribution of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in this process we assessed the effects of the selective COX-1 inhibitor SC560 and the selective COX-2 in...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2001.00613.x

    authors: Tegeder I,Niederberger E,Vetter G,Bräutigam L,Geisslinger G

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mild reduction in the activity of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex elevates GABA shunt and glycolysis.

    abstract::Diminished energy metabolism and reduced activity of brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) occur in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The relation between diminished KGDHC activity and altered energy metabolism is unknown. The present study tested whether a reduction in the KGDHC activity would...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05955.x

    authors: Shi Q,Risa Ø,Sonnewald U,Gibson GE

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Astrocyte activation in vivo during graded photic stimulation.

    abstract::Astrocytes have important roles in control of extracellular environment, de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters, and regulation of neurotransmission and blood flow. All of these functions require energy, suggesting that astrocytic metabolism should rise and fall with changes in neuronal activity and that brain imaging...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04859.x

    authors: Dienel GA,Schmidt KC,Cruz NF

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of alpha-synuclein expression in alcohol-preferring and -non preferring rats.

    abstract::The alpha-synuclein (Snca) gene is expressed at higher levels in alcohol-naïve, inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) rats than in alcohol-non preferring (iNP) rats. Snca modulates dopamine transmission and the dopamineregic system, which play a role in mediating the rewarding properties of alcohol consumption. Thus, underst...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04111.x

    authors: Liang T,Carr LG

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Brain microvessels produce 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    abstract::Cerebral microvessels isolated from perfused, adult murine brain produce a compound with the chromatographic properties of a monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid when incubated with arachidonic acid or stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. The formation of this arachidonic acid metabolite is not reduced in the presenc...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1989.tb07345.x

    authors: Moore SA,Figard PH,Spector AA,Hart MN

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of excitatory amino acid release from adult mouse brain glia subcellular particles by high mobility group box 1 protein.

    abstract::The multifunctional protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is expressed in hippocampus and cerebellum of adult mouse brain. Our aim was to determine whether HMGB1 affects glutamatergic transmission by monitoring neurotransmitter release from glial (gliosomes) and neuronal (synaptosomes) re-sealed subcellular partic...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04120.x

    authors: Pedrazzi M,Raiteri L,Bonanno G,Patrone M,Ledda S,Passalacqua M,Milanese M,Melloni E,Raiteri M,Pontremoli S,Sparatore B

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Elemental mapping of Neuromelanin organelles of human Substantia Nigra: correlative ultrastructural and chemical analysis by analytical transmission electron microscopy and nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    abstract::Neuromelanin (NM) is a compound which highly accumulates mainly in catecholamine neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), and is contained in organelles (NM-containing organelles) with lipid bodies and proteins. These neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease and NM can play either a protective or toxic role....

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/jnc.13648

    authors: Biesemeier A,Eibl O,Eswara S,Audinot JN,Wirtz T,Pezzoli G,Zucca FA,Zecca L,Schraermeyer U

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Increased cell-cell contact stimulates the transcription rate of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in rat pheochromocytoma PC18 cells.

    abstract::Cell aggregation is one of several environmental cues that influence the expression of neurotransmitter phenotype during development. The expression of the catecholaminergic phenotype is increased in rat pheochromocytoma cells cultured at high density. In the present study we have investigated whether this cell densit...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1994.62030844.x

    authors: Carlson CD,Tank AW

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ethanol inhibition of recombinant heteromeric NMDA channels in the presence and absence of modulators.

    abstract::The NMDA receptor/channel has been shown to be inhibited by ethanol in the clinically relevant range 25-100 mM. We studied heteromeric assemblies (NR1b/NR2) of the NMDA receptor, expressed in oocytes, to address three questions regarding this inhibition, and discovered the following: (1) The inhibition was nearly equi...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1995.65010140.x

    authors: Chu B,Anantharam V,Treistman SN

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Ca2(+)-surrogate action of Pb2+ on acetylcholine release from rat brain synaptosomes.

    abstract::The effect of lead ions on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) was investigated in intact and digitonin-permeabilized rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes that had been prelabeled with [3H]choline. Release of ACh was inferred from the release of total 3H label or by determination of [3H]ACh. Application of 1 microM Pb2+ to...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1991.tb08187.x

    authors: Shao Z,Suszkiw JB

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Oxidant injury in PC12 cells--a possible model of calcium "dysregulation" in aging: I. Selectivity of protection against oxidative stress.

    abstract::Previous research has suggested that the initial effects of cellular free radical neurotoxic insult involve large increases in intracellular Ca2+. However, the exact role of oxidative stress on the various parameters involved in these increases has not been specified. The present experiments were performed to examine ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1997.69031252.x

    authors: Joseph JA,Strain JG,Jimenez ND,Fisher D

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Parkinson's disease transgenic mitochondrial cybrids generate Lewy inclusion bodies.

    abstract::Many models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have succeeded in replicating dopaminergic neuron loss or alpha-synuclein aggregation but not the formation of classical Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of PD. Our cybrid model of sporadic PD was created by introducing the mitochondrial genes from PD patients into neurobl...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.02168.x

    authors: Trimmer PA,Borland MK,Keeney PM,Bennett JP Jr,Parker WD Jr

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of ApoE as an autocrine/paracrine factor that stimulates neural stem cell survival via MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

    abstract::Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent cells that undergo symmetric and asymmetric cell division during development of the nervous system. The behavior of NSCs is tightly regulated by intrinsic processes such as transcriptional and post-transcriptional control, as well as the stem cell niche factors th...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07227.x

    authors: Gan HT,Tham M,Hariharan S,Ramasamy S,Yu YH,Ahmed S

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • The Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 gene encodes a novel type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit.

    abstract::We have cloned Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 and demonstrated that it encodes a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit (previously designated ACR-13), which has functional roles in body wall and uterine muscles as part of a levamisole-sensitive receptor. LEV-8 is an alpha subunit and is the first to be ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02951.x

    authors: Towers PR,Edwards B,Richmond JE,Sattelle DB

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Slow and selective death of spinal motor neurons in vivo by intrathecal infusion of kainic acid: implications for AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in ALS.

    abstract::Excitotoxicity mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors has been proposed to play a major role in the selective death of motor neurons in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and motor neurons are more vulnerable to AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity than are o...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03903.x

    authors: Sun H,Kawahara Y,Ito K,Kanazawa I,Kwak S

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Up-regulation of GLT1 reverses the deficit in cortically evoked striatal ascorbate efflux in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    abstract::A corticostriatal-dependent deficit in the release of ascorbate (AA), an antioxidant vitamin and neuromodulator, occurs concurrently in striatum with dysfunctional GLT1-dependent uptake of glutamate in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant condition characterized by overt corticostri...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07691.x

    authors: Miller BR,Dorner JL,Bunner KD,Gaither TW,Klein EL,Barton SJ,Rebec GV

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Genistein, a natural phytoestrogen from soy, relieves neuropathic pain following chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury in mice: anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

    abstract::There is great interest in soy isoflavones as alternatives to endogenous estrogens not only in hormonal pathologies, but also in inflammatory, neurodegenerative diseases, and pain. We investigated the effect of the isoflavone genistein on neuropathic pain. Genistein binds estrogen receptors (ER) with higher affinity f...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05614.x

    authors: Valsecchi AE,Franchi S,Panerai AE,Sacerdote P,Trovato AE,Colleoni M

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Distinct thermodynamic parameters of serotonin 5-HT3 agonists and antagonists to displace [3H]granisetron binding.

    abstract::Specific binding of [3H]granisetron was examined to serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in synaptosomal membranes of rat cerebral cortex between 1 and 37 degrees C. Displacing potencies were determined for 5-HT3 antagonists (granisetron, ondansetron, tropisetron, and d-tubocurarine) and agonists (5-hydroxytryptamine, 2-methyl-5...

    journal_title:Journal of neurochemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.67010407.x

    authors: Maksay G

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00