Update on etiopathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.

Abstract:

:Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiology, triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Its varied clinical expression results from the complex physiopathogenic interaction of three main elements: proliferative vasculopathy, immune dysregulation and abnormal deposition and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), of which the characteristic disease fibrosis is the result. Early physiopathogenic events appear to be endothelial injury and imbalance in vascular repair with the activation of endothelial cells, the immune system and platelets, with the release of multiple mediators such as TH2 proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, triggering a sequence of simultaneous or cascading events that involve several intracellular signaling pathways. The most important result of these events is the hyperactivation of fibroblasts, the main effector cells of fibrosis, which will then produce large amounts of ECM constituents and secrete multiple growth factors and cytokines that perpetuate the process. In this article we review the main factors potentially involved in the etiology of SSc and reexamine the current knowledge about the most important mechanisms involved in the development of lesions that are characteristic of the disease. A better understanding of these physiopathogenic mechanisms will help identify potential therapeutic targets, which may result in advances in the management of this complex and debilitating disease.

journal_name

Rev Bras Reumatol

authors

Zimmermann AF,Pizzichini MM

doi

10.1016/j.rbr.2013.01.001

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2013-11-01 00:00:00

pages

516-24

issue

6

eissn

0482-5004

issn

1809-4570

pii

S0482-5004(13)00010-7

journal_volume

53

pub_type

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