The evolution of sex differences in spatial ability.


:It is widely believed that male mammals have better spatial ability than females. A large number of evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these differences, but few species have been tested. The authors critically review the proposed evolutionary explanations for sex differences in spatial cognition and conclude that most of the hypotheses are either logically flawed or, as yet, have no substantial support. Few of the data exclusively support or exclude any current hypotheses. The hypothesis with the strongest support proposes that range size was the selection pressure that acted to increase spatial ability. The authors suggest ways in which these hypotheses could be tested by presenting explicit predictions and suggesting suitable test species or conditions.


Behav Neurosci


Behavioral neuroscience


Jones CM,Braithwaite VA,Healy SD




Has Abstract


2003-06-01 00:00:00












  • The ontogeny of human learning in delay, long-delay, and trace eyeblink conditioning.

    abstract::The ontogeny of associative learning in delay (750-ms conditional stimulus [CS], 650-ms interstimulus interval [ISI]), long-delay (1,350-ms CS, 1,250-ms ISI), and trace (750-ms CS, 500-ms trace interval, 1,250-ms ISI) eyeblink conditioning was examined in 5-month-old human infants and adults. Infants and adults showed...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Herbert JS,Eckerman CO,Stanton ME

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Functional consequences of embryonic neocortex transplanted to rats with prefrontal cortex lesions.

    abstract::In four experiments we reexamined the recent report by Labbe, Firl, Mufson, and Stein (1983) that fetal cortical tissue transplanted to an aspirative prefrontal cortical cavity in rats can ameliorate the learning impairments induced by the aspirative lesions. Healthy surviving grafts from young (E16) embryonic donors ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dunnett SB,Ryan CN,Levin PD,Reynolds M,Bunch ST

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Dissociable properties of memory systems: differences in the flexibility of declarative and nondeclarative knowledge.

    abstract::Amnesic patients (n = 8), who have severely impaired declarative memory, learned a probabilistic classification task at the same rate as normal subjects (n = 16) but subsequently were impaired on transfer tests that required flexible use of their task knowledge. A second group of controls (n = 20) rated the questions ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reber PJ,Knowlton BJ,Squire LR

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of naltrexone and signaling inescapable electric shock on nociception and gastric lesions in rats.

    abstract::The antinociceptive effects of signaled shock and its physiological underpinnings were examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, rats were exposed to one of three shock conditions: no shock, unsignaled shock, and signaled (by a 10-s, 1000-Hz tone) shock. In each condition the rats were tested hourly in the absence...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guile MN,McCutcheon NB

    更新日期:1984-08-01 00:00:00

  • Corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist attenuates defensive-withdrawal behavior elicited by odors of stressed conspecifics.

    abstract::This study examined the hypothesis that defensive responsiveness induced by threatening stimuli of biological origin is mediated by the action of endogenous corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Rats were exposed for 15 min to a large open field containing a small chamber. Twenty-four hours later, rats received intrac...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takahashi LK,Kalin NH,Baker EW

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Response-reinforcer associations after caudate-putamen lesions in the rat: spatial discrimination and overshadowing-potentiation effects in instrumental learning.

    abstract::Experiment 1 demonstrated that rats with caudate-putamen lesions show an impairment in the acquisition and reversal of a spatial maze task when compared with unoperated control subjects. Experiment 2 examined lever-press responding supported by a variable interval schedule in three groups of subjects: a group with cau...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitchell JA,Channell S,Hall G

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Modification of the acoustic startle response in hearing-impaired C57BL/6J mice: prepulse augmentation and prolongation of prepulse inhibition.

    abstract::Modification of acoustic startle amplitude by a 10-ms tone prepulse (S1) was evaluated as a function of the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the onset of S1 and the onset of the startle-evoking stimulus (S2). Subjects were normal-hearing 1-month-old C57BL/6J (C57) mice and CBA/CaJ mice and 5-month-old C57 mice wit...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willott JF,Carlson S

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Enkephalin hydrolysis in plasma is highly correlated with escape performance in the rat.

    abstract::A very high correlation was found in rats between latency to escape on the first trial of an active avoidance task and the rate at which [leu]enkephalin is hydrolyzed in plasma. In addition, the rate of [leu]enkephalin hydrolysis is significantly altered following the first training trial. The results suggest that a r...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martinez JL Jr,Weinberger SB

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Stress and adenosine: II. Adenosine analogs mimic the effect of inescapable shock on shuttle-escape performance in rats.

    abstract::In 3 experiments, the authors examined the role of adenosine regulation in escape deficits produced by earlier exposure to inescapable shock in rats (learned helplessness). Adenosine analogs injected before escape testing mimicked the effect of earlier inescapable shock, with the magnitude of the deficit varying with ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Minor TR,Winslow JL,Chang WC

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Persistent effects of a serotonin depletor (p-chlorophenylalanine) in regenerated planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala).

    abstract::p-Chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) caused an increase in looping and locomotion speed in planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala). These effects dissipated quickly after treatment, except in animals that regenerated from worms surgically sectioned after treatment. Planaria that regenerated from head sections showed more looping 6 a...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kimmel HD,Carlyon WD

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Response characteristics of neurons in the medial component of the medial geniculate nucleus during Pavlovian differential fear conditioning in rabbits.

    abstract::Recent evidence suggests that the amygdaloid central nucleus (ACE) may contribute significantly to Pavlovian fear-conditioned bradycardic responses during the presentation of conditioned emotional stimuli. Because the medial component of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGm) is a major source of input to the region of t...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Supple WF Jr,Kapp BS

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of passive-avoidance training on sleep-wake state-specific activity in the basolateral and central nuclei of the amygdala.

    abstract::This study examined the effects of intense emotional learning on the sleep-wake state-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) activities of the basolateral (BLA) and central (CeA) nuclei of the amygdala. Rats were trained on a passive-avoidance learning (PAL) protocol that was followed by 6 hr of undisturbed polygraphi...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mavanji V,Siwek DF,Patterson EH,Spoley EE,Datta S

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Reversible lesions of the nucleus of the solitary tract attenuate the memory-modulating effects of posttraining epinephrine.

    abstract::Rats implanted with cannula tips placed above the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) were trained to obtain food pellets placed in 2 arms of a Y maze and then given a footshock in 1 arm of the maze. The rats then received bilateral injections of lidocaine or buffer into the NTS and peripheral injections of saline or ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams CL,McGaugh JL

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac startle and orienting responses in the great apes.

    abstract::Cardiac patterns of startle and orienting in response to auditory and vibrotactile stimuli were investigated in the infant chimpanzee and gorilla. Results revealed a notable cardiac acceleration in response to the initial presentations of stimuli of either modality. This acceleratory response appeared to reflect the c...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berntson GG,Boysen ST

    更新日期:1984-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fat substitutes promote weight gain in rats consuming high-fat diets.

    abstract::The use of food products designed to mimic the sensory properties of sweet and fat while providing fewer calories has been promoted as a method for reducing food intake and body weight. However, such products may interfere with a learned relationship between the sensory properties of food and the caloric consequences ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Swithers SE,Ogden SB,Davidson TL

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Adult rats stressed as neonates show exaggerated behavioral responses to both pharmacological and environmental challenges.

    abstract::Adult rats that were isolated from the mother and nest for 1 hr per day from Postnatal Day 2 to 9 were studied. Controls consisted of handled littermates as well as separate litters that were never handled. As adults, animals were given either a pharmacological challenge (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg amphetamine) or an environmen...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kehoe P,Shoemaker WJ,Triano L,Callahan M,Rappolt G

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Postnatal choline supplementation in preweanling mice: sexually dimorphic behavioral and neurochemical effects.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postnatal choline supplementation on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in preweanling BALB/cByJ mice. Mouse pups were injected daily subcutaneously with choline chloride (0.85 mM/g body weight) from Postnatal Day (PND) 1 to PND 16. Pups performed a passive ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ricceri L,Berger-Sweeney J

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Emotion-modulated startle reflex during reappraisal: Probe timing and behavioral correlates.

    abstract::Down-regulation of negative emotions has been shown to reliably inhibit the emotion-modulated startle reflex, but it remains unclear whether the timing of the startle probe influences the quantification of emotion regulation with this measure. Moreover, it is not known whether the degree of startle inhibition correspo...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaehringer J,Schmahl C,Ende G,Paret C

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Intracerebral oxytocin is important for the onset of maternal behavior in inexperienced ewes delivered under peridural anesthesia.

    abstract::Measurement of cerebrospinal concentrations of oxytocin (OT) in intact and peridural-anesthetized ewes showed that central release of OT during parturition is inhibited by this anesthesia. Also, observations of maternal behavior and attraction to amniotic fluid (AF) in inexperienced peridural-anesthetized parturient e...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lévy F,Kendrick KM,Keverne EB,Piketty V,Poindron P

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • The lasting effects of spike insoles on postural control in the elderly.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to explore the lasting effects of a tactile sensitivity enhancement induced by spike insoles on the control of stance in the elderly. Healthy elderly subjects (n = 19, mean age = 68.8) and young adults (n = 17, mean age = 24.3) were instructed to stand or to walk for 5 minutes with...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palluel E,Olivier I,Nougier V

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • A functional circuit for the retrieval of remote cued fear memory.

    abstract::Although the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is necessary for the retrieval of remotely acquired fear to a discrete auditory cue, it is not necessary for the retrieval of recently acquired cued-fear memories. Thus, the RSC's role in memory retrieval for discrete cues is time-dependent. The purpose of the current experiment...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Todd TP,Jiang MY,DeAngeli NE,Bucci DJ

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of 4-hydroxyamphetamine on in vivo brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and feeding behavior in the rat.

    abstract::The influence of 4-hydroxyamphetamine (4-OHAM) on food and water intake and in vivo brown adipose thermogenesis was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, female rats were treated with 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, or 2.00 mg/kg 4-OHAM (ip) prior to assessment of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) thermogenesi...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wellman PJ,Watkins-Freeman PA

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Habituation of the acoustic and the tactile startle responses in mice: two independent sensory processes.

    abstract::To test whether habituation is specific to the stimulus modality, the authors analyzed cross-habituation between the tactile startle response' (TSR) and the acoustic startle response (ASR). The acoustic artifacts of airpuffs used to elicit the TSR were reduced by using a silencer and were effectively masked by backgro...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pilz PK,Carl TD,Plappert CF

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Motherhood and nursing stimulate c-FOS expression in the rabbit forebrain.

    abstract::Mother rabbits nurse once daily with circadian periodicity. The authors investigated brain structures involved in regulating this activity by quantifying c-FOS-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the forebrain of: (1) mothers killed on postpartum Day 1 (PPD 1) after nursing (Group 1) or not given pups (Group 2); (2) mothers ...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González-Mariscal G,Jiménez A,Chirino R,Beyer C

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of variation of the composition of CSF in the rat upon drinking of water and hypertonic NaCl solutions.

    abstract::Infusing conscious unrestrained rats with either 0.5 M NaCl-CSF or 0.7 M sucrose-CSF into the lateral cerebral ventricle (IVT) at 38 microliters/hr for 4 hr induced drinking. Although the infusates were nearly equiosmotic, water drinking during the 0.5 M NaCl-CSF was greater than during 0.7 M sucrose-CSF. However, IVT...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osborne PG,Denton DA,Weisinger RS

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Double dissociation of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on acquisition of two water maze tasks: further evidence for multiple memory systems.

    abstract::The present study examined the effect of lesions of the caudate nucleus or fimbria-fornix on the acquisition of two water maze tasks. In both tasks, two rubber balls with different visual patterns were used as platforms (i.e., cues). The "correct" cue was attached to a submerged rectangular platform and could be mount...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Packard MG,McGaugh JL

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavior in rats.

    abstract::Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be caused by genetic or environmental factors. Among environmental factors, perinatal complications are related, such as neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether HI contributes to the development of characteristics relate...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miguel PM,Schuch CP,Rojas JJ,Carletti JV,Deckmann I,Martinato LH,Pires AV,Bizarro L,Pereira LO

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Peripeduncular nucleus lesions in the rat: I. Effects on maternal aggression, lactation, and maternal behavior during pre- and postpartum periods.

    abstract::Bilateral peripeduncular (PPN) lesions made on the seventh postpartum day (L7) with either radiofrequency (RF) current or N-methyl-d,l-aspartic acid (NMDA)/phosphate buffered saline (PBS) reduced maternal aggression (MA) and partially inhibited lactation without producing significant deficits in other items of materna...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Factor EM,Mayer AD,Rosenblatt JS

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Delayed spontaneous alternation in intact and cerebellectomized control and lurcher mutant mice: differential role of cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei.

    abstract::Lurcher mutant (+/Lc) mice exhibit a massive loss of neurons in the cerebellar cortex and in the inferior olivary nucleus while deep cerebellar nuclei are essentially intact. To discriminate the respective participation of the cerebellar cortex and deep structures in learning and memory, the authors subjected 3- to 6-...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caston J,Vasseur F,Delhaye-Bouchaud N,Mariani J

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Neural cell adhesion molecules, learning, and memory in the domestic chick.

    abstract::The intermediate and medial hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) of the chick forebrain is a site of recognition memory for the learning process of imprinting. The results reported here demonstrate that neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) play a time-dependent role in this recognition memory. Dark-reared chicks were train...

    journal_title:Behavioral neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solomonia RO,McCabe BJ,Horn G

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00