Complete genome analysis and molecular characterization of Usutu virus that emerged in Austria in 2001: comparison with the South African strain SAAR-1776 and other flaviviruses.


:Here we describe the complete genome sequences of two strains of Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne member of the genus Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serogroup. USUV was detected in Austria in 2001 causing a high mortality rate in blackbirds; the reference strain (SAAR-1776) was isolated in 1958 from mosquitoes in South Africa and has never been associated with avian mortality. The Austrian and South African isolates exhibited 97% nucleotide and 99% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic trees were constructed displaying the genetic relationships of USUV with other members of the genus Flavivirus. When comparing USUV with other JEV serogroup viruses, the closest lineage was Murray Valley encephalitis virus (nt: 73%, aa: 82%) followed by JEV (nt: 71%, aa: 81%) and West Nile virus (nt: 68%, aa: 75%). Comparison of the genomes showed that the conserved structural elements and putative enzyme motifs were homologous in the two USUV strains and the JEV serogroup. The factors that determine the severe clinical symptoms caused by the Austrian USUV strain in Eurasian blackbirds are discussed. We also offer a possible explanation for the origins and dispersal of USUV, JEV, and MVEV out of Africa.






Bakonyi T,Gould EA,Kolodziejek J,Weissenböck H,Nowotny N




Has Abstract


2004-10-25 00:00:00
















  • Interferon-inducible MyD88 protein inhibits hepatitis B virus replication.

    abstract::Myeloid differential primary response protein (MyD88) is a critical component in the signaling cascade through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is induced by alpha interferon (IFN-alpha). To examine the role of MyD88 in the antiviral activity of IFN-alpha against hepatitis B virus (HBV), we established MyD88 stably expr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiong W,Wang X,Liu X,Xiang L,Zheng L,Yuan Z

    更新日期:2004-02-20 00:00:00

  • Assessment of antibody responses against gp41 in HIV-1-infected patients using soluble gp41 fusion proteins and peptides derived from M group consensus envelope.

    abstract::Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, making it an attractive target for vaccine development. To better assess immunogenic properties of gp41, we generated five soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Penn-Nicholson A,Han DP,Kim SJ,Park H,Ansari R,Montefiori DC,Cho MW

    更新日期:2008-03-15 00:00:00

  • Endogenous D-type (HERV-K) related sequences are packaged into retroviral particles in the placenta and possess open reading frames for reverse transcriptase.

    abstract::All primates studied to date produce retroviral-like particles in their placentae. We have purified these particles from two primate species, one Old World (human) and one New World (marmoset), and have identified the retroviral sequences which are packaged into these particles. Three families of sequences have been d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpson GR,Patience C,Löwer R,Tönjes RR,Moore HD,Weiss RA,Boyd MT

    更新日期:1996-08-15 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of Rb and p53 is insufficient for SV40 T-antigen transformation.

    abstract::The SV40 large T-antigen (TAg) has proven useful in studying pathways involved with cell division and tissue homeostasis. TAg disrupts the normal action of tumor suppressors pRb and p53. It is unclear whether T-antigen inhibition of p53 and pRb is sufficient for oncogenic transformation or if additional T-antigen acti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sachsenmeier KF,Pipas JM

    更新日期:2001-04-25 00:00:00

  • The internal polyadenylate tract of yeast killer virus M1 double-stranded RNA is variable in length.

    abstract::The 1.8-kbp M1 double-stranded (ds) RNA from type 1 killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains an internal 200-bp adenine- and uracil-rich region. We have previously demonstrated that this region consists primarily of adenine residues on the plus strand of M1 dsRNA and on the full-length, in vitro synthesized...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hannig EM,Williams TL,Leibowitz MJ

    更新日期:1986-07-15 00:00:00

  • Regulation of a geminivirus coat protein promoter by AL2 protein (TrAP): evidence for activation and derepression mechanisms.

    abstract::Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) is a bipartite member of the subgroup III Geminiviridae. Like all geminiviruses, TGMV replicates in the nucleus of susceptible cells by rolling circle replication (RCR). Double-stranded replicative form DNA generated during RCR serves as template for the transcription of viral genes b...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sunter G,Bisaro DM

    更新日期:1997-06-09 00:00:00

  • Persistent coinfection of T lymphocytes with HTLV-II and HIV and the role of syncytium formation in HIV-induced cytopathic effect.

    abstract::We previously demonstrated a high permissiveness of HTLV-II-transformed T lymphocytes (C3) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro, and that this infection results in the lysis of cells (D.C. Montefiori and W.M. Mitchell (1986) Virology 155, 726-731). We now show that a small percentage of HIV-infecte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montefiori DC,Mitchell WM

    更新日期:1987-10-01 00:00:00

  • Waiting times for the appearance of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutants in chronic HIV-1 infection.

    abstract::The failure of HIV-1 to escape at some cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes has generally been explained in terms of viral fitness costs or ineffective or attenuated CTL responses. Relatively little attention has been paid to the evolutionary time required for escape mutants to be detected. This time is significantly...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu Y,Mullins JI,Mittler JE

    更新日期:2006-03-30 00:00:00

  • Baculovirus-expressed glycoprotein E (gE) of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) protects mice against lethal intraperitoneal and lethal ocular HSV-1 challenge.

    abstract::We have constructed a recombinant baculovirus expressing high levels of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein E (gE) in Sf9 cells. The expressed gE migrated on gels as a double band with apparent molecular weights of 68 and 70 kDa. The recombinant gE was glycosylated based on its susceptibility to tunic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghiasi H,Kaiwar R,Nesburn AB,Slanina S,Wechsler SL

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Mapping of 5' ends of virion-derived HBV DNA.

    abstract::Mapping of the 5' ends of virion-derived hepatitis B virus DNA molecules was carried out after cloning and sequencing linearized genomes made fully double stranded. Of five clones obtained, three of four minus strand termini mapped to the G in position 1826 and one to the T in position 1827. Plus strand 5' ends were m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saldanha JA,Qiu H,Thomas HC,Monjardino J

    更新日期:1992-05-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of p53 gene expression by a poxviral transcription factor.

    abstract::Identification of regulators of p53 expression is a crucial step in understanding the diverse functions of p53 and its role in cellular homeostasis and responsiveness to insult. Several viral proteins inactivate p53 as a modulator of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Here, we report that a unique leporipoxviral tr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wali A,Strayer DS

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Each of the eight simian hemorrhagic fever virus minor structural proteins is functionally important.

    abstract::The simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) genome differs from those of other members of the family Arterivirus in encoding two adjacent sets of four minor structural protein open reading frames (ORFs). A stable, full-length, infectious SHFV-LVR cDNA clone was constructed. Virus produced from this clone had replication...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vatter HA,Di H,Donaldson EF,Baric RS,Brinton MA

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Memory T cells protect chicks from acute infectious bronchitis virus infection.

    abstract::Infectious bronchitis has remained one of the most difficult to control diseases in poultry since it was first described in 1931. Previous studies demonstrated that primary CD8(+) T lymphocytes collected at 10 days post-infection (p.i.) are important in controlling acute infection. To further investigate the role of m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pei J,Briles WE,Collisson EW

    更新日期:2003-02-15 00:00:00

  • Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein.

    abstract::The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potenc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bates JT,Keefer CJ,Slaughter JC,Kulp DW,Schief WR,Crowe JE Jr

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    abstract::Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) protein is a viroporin involved in virulence. E protein ion channel (IC) activity is specifically correlated with enhanced pulmonary damage, edema accumulation and death. IL-1β driven proinflammation is associated with those pathological signatures,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nieto-Torres JL,Verdiá-Báguena C,Jimenez-Guardeño JM,Regla-Nava JA,Castaño-Rodriguez C,Fernandez-Delgado R,Torres J,Aguilella VM,Enjuanes L

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ex vivo detection of adenovirus specific CD4+ T-cell responses to HLA-DR-epitopes of the Hexon protein show a contracted specificity of T(HELPER) cells following stem cell transplantation.

    abstract::Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, especially after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Viral clearance has been attributed to CD4(+) T-cell responses against the Hexon-protein, but the frequency of specific T(HELPER) cells is extremely low or not dete...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Serangeli C,Bicanic O,Scheible MH,Wernet D,Lang P,Rammensee HG,Stevanovic S,Handgretinger R,Feuchtinger T

    更新日期:2010-02-20 00:00:00

  • A PB1 T296R substitution enhance polymerase activity and confer a virulent phenotype to a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice.

    abstract::While the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus has become established in the human population as a seasonal influenza virus, continued adaptation may alter viral virulence. Here, we passaged a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (A/Changchun/01/2009) in mice. Serial passage in mice generated viral variants with increased virulence. Adapted ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu Z,Cheng K,Sun W,Zhang X,Li Y,Wang T,Wang H,Zhang Q,Xin Y,Xue L,Zhang K,Huang J,Yang S,Qin C,Wilker PR,Yue D,Chen H,Gao Y,Xia X

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of the polypeptides and determination of genome coding assignments of an aquareovirus.

    abstract::Proteins of an aquareovirus isolated from striped bass (SBR strain) were examined. Twelve viral-specific proteins ranging in molecular weight from approximately 130 to 15 kDa were identified in infected cells. Purified virions and infected cell lysates were used to characterize the structural and nonstructural protein...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subramanian K,McPhillips TH,Samal SK

    更新日期:1994-11-15 00:00:00

  • Normal replication of vesicular stomatitis virus without C proteins.

    abstract::The expression of two small basic proteins (C and C') encoded by a second open reading frame of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) P gene was reported previously (Spiropoulou and Nichol, J. Virol., 67, 3103-3110, 1993). Here we found that the Indiana serotype virus also expressed C and C' prot...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kretzschmar E,Peluso R,Schnell MJ,Whitt MA,Rose JK

    更新日期:1996-02-15 00:00:00

  • Interferon-beta and interferon-gamma synergistically inhibit the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

    abstract::Recent studies have shown that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) synergizes with IFN-alpha/beta to inhibit the replication of both RNA and DNA viruses. We investigated the effects of IFNs on the replication of two strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). While treatment of Vero E6 cel...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sainz B Jr,Mossel EC,Peters CJ,Garry RF

    更新日期:2004-11-10 00:00:00

  • Polymorphisms of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3F have different HIV-1 restriction efficiencies.

    abstract::The APOBEC3 enzyme family are host restriction factors that induce mutagenesis of HIV-1 proviral genomes through the deamination of cytosine to form uracil in nascent single-stranded (-)DNA. HIV-1 suppresses APOBEC3 activity through the HIV-1 protein Vif that induces APOBEC3 degradation. Here we compared two common po...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohammadzadeh N,Follack TB,Love RP,Stewart K,Sanche S,Chelico L

    更新日期:2019-01-15 00:00:00

  • HIV-1 integration is inhibited by stimulation of the VPAC2 neuroendocrine receptor.

    abstract::Successful HIV-1 infection requires a number of specific stages leading to integration of the provirus. We previously suggested that members of the VPAC neuroendocrine receptor family may play a role in HIV-1 infection. We now show that stimulation of the VPAC2 receptor with specific agonists provides strong resistanc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bokaei PB,Ma XZ,Sakac D,Branch DR

    更新日期:2007-05-25 00:00:00

  • Restriction of a Sindbis virus mutant in BHK cells and relief of the restriction by the addition of adenosine.

    abstract::SV(PZF) is a mutant of Sindbis virus (SV) which we selected on the basis of its ability to replicate in mosquito cells treated with pyrazofurin (PZF), a drug which inhibits pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis (Lin et al., 2000, Virology 272, 61-71). Three mutations, A6627U, A7543U, and C7593A, were identified in the ns...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin YH,Simmonds HA,Stollar V

    更新日期:2002-01-05 00:00:00

  • High throughput sequence analysis reveals hitherto unreported recombination in the genus Norovirus.

    abstract::Viruses of the Norovirus genus (Caliciviridae family) are a major cause of human gastroenteritis. In some viruses, recombination is an important evolutionary process and therefore we should try to discover the quantity and characteristics of such events in Noroviruses. In order to identify recombination events, multip...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Etherington GJ,Dicks J,Roberts IN

    更新日期:2006-02-05 00:00:00

  • Sequence and analysis of the capsid protein of Nudaurelia capensis omega virus, an insect virus with T = 4 icosahedral symmetry.

    abstract::We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the RNA2 segment of the Nudaurelia capensis omega virus genome. It was found to consist of 2448 nucleotides and contained one long open reading frame (ORF) encoding the 644 residue capsid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein reveals a positively charged...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agrawal DK,Johnson JE

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Grapevine viroid 1B, a new member of the apple scar skin viroid group contains the left terminal region of tomato planta macho viroid.

    abstract::GV1B is one of five viroids that have recently been purified from grapevines. GV1B has now been sequenced and its 363 nucleotide residues can potentially form the typical rod-like structure of viroids with 67% of nucleotides base-paired. GV1B has highest sequence similarity with grapevine yellow speckle viroid (GYSV; ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koltunow AM,Rezaian MA

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus.

    abstract::Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a pandemic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hidajat R,Nickols B,Forrester N,Tretyakova I,Weaver S,Pushko P

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • The equine herpesvirus 1 UL34 gene product is involved in an early step in virus egress and can be efficiently replaced by a UL34-GFP fusion protein.

    abstract::The structure and function of the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) UL34 homologous protein were characterized. A UL34 protein-specific antiserum reacted with an M(r)28,000 protein that could not be detected in purified extracellular virions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that UL34 reactivity mainly ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neubauer A,Rudolph J,Brandmüller C,Just FT,Osterrieder N

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • A conserved internal hydrophobic domain mediates the stable membrane integration of the dengue virus capsid protein.

    abstract::The mature flavivirus capsid protein (virion C) is commonly thought to be free in the cytoplasm of infected cells and to form a nucleocapsid-like complex with genomic RNA in mature virus particles. There is little sequence conservation among flavivirus virion C proteins, but they are similar in size (e.g., 99 amino ac...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Markoff L,Falgout B,Chang A

    更新日期:1997-06-23 00:00:00

  • Characterization of an antigenic site that contains a dominant, type-specific neutralization determinant on the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue 2 virus.

    abstract::The surface of the mature dengue virus (DENV) particle consists of 90 envelope (E) protein dimers that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. The E protein ectodomain can be divided into three structural domains designated ED1, ED2, and ED3, of which ED3 contains the critical and dominant virus-specific neutralizat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gromowski GD,Barrett AD

    更新日期:2007-09-30 00:00:00