The changes in immune cell concentration during the progression of pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-induced pre-diabetic rat model.

Abstract:

:Pre-diabetes is a long-lasting condition that precedes type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D has been shown to suppress the immune response. However, it remains unclear if immune activation occurs before the onset of T2D during the progression of the pre-diabetic state. This study sought to characterize the changes in general immunity occurring during the progression from pre-diabetes to T2D. Male rats were fed a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet for 20 weeks (pre-diabetes induction period) and kept on the same diet being monitored for a further 12 weeks (experimental period). Blood was collected for haemocytometer analysis on week 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the experimental period after which the animals were sacrificed. Plasma was collected from centrifuged blood for ELISA (TNF-α, CRP, P-selectin, CD40 L, fibrinogen, and IL-6). Blood neutrophils percentage significantly decreased at week 12 possibly due to recruited neutrophils migrating to an inflamed area such as visceral adipose tissue as further observed. Due to hyperglycaemia, there was significant increase in blood lymphocytes percentage at week 12. Blood monocytes percentage significantly increased at week 12. Monocytes recruited and circulated in blood due to hyperglycaemia for glucose uptake to decrease it from circulation. Blood eosinophils percentage significantly decreased at week 12. Eosinophils migrated to inflamed areas such as visceral adipose tissue as further observed. Blood basophils percentage significantly increased due to their recruitment and activation. TNF-α, CRP, and IL-6 increased significantly after 12 weeks. There was also upregulation of fibrinogen, P-selectin, and CD40L. The results of this study show that there are changes in immune cells concentration and that immune cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils migrate to inflamed areas such as adipose tissue. There is also upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines. Based on these findings, immune activation begins during the pre-diabetic state as there is upregulation of inflammatory markers.

journal_name

Autoimmunity

journal_title

Autoimmunity

authors

Mzimela NC,Ngubane PS,Khathi A

doi

10.1080/08916934.2019.1575820

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-02-01 00:00:00

pages

27-36

issue

1

eissn

0891-6934

issn

1607-842X

journal_volume

52

pub_type

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