Identifying the Misshapen Head: Craniosynostosis and Related Disorders.


:Pediatric care providers, pediatricians, pediatric subspecialty physicians, and other health care providers should be able to recognize children with abnormal head shapes that occur as a result of both synostotic and deformational processes. The purpose of this clinical report is to review the characteristic head shape changes, as well as secondary craniofacial characteristics, that occur in the setting of the various primary craniosynostoses and deformations. As an introduction, the physiology and genetics of skull growth as well as the pathophysiology underlying craniosynostosis are reviewed. This is followed by a description of each type of primary craniosynostosis (metopic, unicoronal, bicoronal, sagittal, lambdoid, and frontosphenoidal) and their resultant head shape changes, with an emphasis on differentiating conditions that require surgical correction from those (bathrocephaly, deformational plagiocephaly/brachycephaly, and neonatal intensive care unit-associated skill deformation, known as NICUcephaly) that do not. The report ends with a brief discussion of microcephaly as it relates to craniosynostosis as well as fontanelle closure. The intent is to improve pediatric care providers' recognition and timely referral for craniosynostosis and their differentiation of synostotic from deformational and other nonoperative head shape changes.










Has Abstract


2020-09-01 00:00:00












  • Consequences of the delayed diagnosis of ataxia-telangiectasia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder in which the diagnosis is obvious when ataxia and telangiectasia are both present. However, the diagnosis can be made upon the onset of ataxia and before the appearance of telangiectasia if confirmed by laboratory tests. Ear...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cabana MD,Crawford TO,Winkelstein JA,Christensen JR,Lederman HM

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Girls with attention deficit disorder: a silent minority? A report on behavioral and cognitive characteristics.

    abstract::A sample of girls and boys with attention deficit disorder (ADD) were examined for within-group sex differences and compared with control boys and girls on historical, behavioral, and cognitive characteristics. Profiles of essential and secondary features of ADD support the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Berry CA,Shaywitz SE,Shaywitz BA

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Subacute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome in Girls With SHANK3 Mutations Responds to Immunomodulation.

    abstract::Phenotypic and biological characterization of rare monogenic disorders represents 1 of the most important avenues toward understanding the mechanisms of human disease. Among patients with SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) mutations, a subset will manifest neurologic regression, psychosis, and mood dis...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bey AL,Gorman MP,Gallentine W,Kohlenberg TM,Frankovich J,Jiang YH,Van Haren K

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Motivational Interviewing to Treat Overweight Children: 24-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pediatrician-led motivational interviewing can be an effective way of controlling BMI in overweight children in the short term. Its long-term efficacy is unknown. The primary aim was to determine whether the short-term (12-month) impact of family pediatrician-led motivational interviews on the BMI of overwei...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Broccoli S,Davoli AM,Bonvicini L,Fabbri A,Ferrari E,Montagna G,Panza C,Pinotti M,Storani S,Tamelli M,Candela S,Bellocchio E,Giorgi Rossi P

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pepsin, a marker of gastric contents, is increased in tracheal aspirates from preterm infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to study the association between pepsin in tracheal aspirate samples and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. METHODS:Serial tracheal aspirate samples were collected during the first 28 days from mechanically ventilated preterm neonates. Bronchopul...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farhath S,He Z,Nakhla T,Saslow J,Soundar S,Camacho J,Stahl G,Shaffer S,Mehta DI,Aghai ZH

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Recurrent abdominal pain in children: lactose and sucrose intolerance, a prospective study.

    abstract::Thirty-eight consecutive children with recurrent abdominal pain underwent lactose tolerance tests; 28 of these were also given sucrose tolerance tests. Abdominal pain and abnormal lactose tolerance tests were noted in 11 of 38, while none of the 28 had an abnormal sucrose tolerance test; however, 1 had abdominal pain....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liebman WM

    更新日期:1979-07-01 00:00:00

  • Unilateral hearing impairment in children.

    abstract::An overview and update are offered on difficulties experienced by children with monaural sensorineural deafness. It is the general consensus that children with unilateral hearing loss experience few, if any, communication and/or educational problems. The medical and educational status of a group (N = 60) of children w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bess FH,Tharpe AM

    更新日期:1984-08-01 00:00:00

  • Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    abstract::Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marke...


    pub_type: 指南,杂志文章



    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Four patterns of response to inhaled nitric oxide for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the clinical role of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). STUDY DESIGN:Prospective open observational clinical study. SETTING:A regional cardiac and pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS:Twenty-five consecutive near-term neona...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Goldman AP,Tasker RC,Haworth SG,Sigston PE,Macrae DJ

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Athletic participation by children and adolescents who have systemic hypertension. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness.

    abstract::Children and adolescents who have systemic hypertension may be at risk for complications when exercise causes their blood pressures to rise even higher. The purpose of this statement is to make recommendations concerning the athletic participation of individuals with hypertension using the 26th Bethesda Conference on ...


    pub_type: 指南,杂志文章,实务指引



    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of failure of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in term infants with severe respiratory failure.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To identify clinical factors in term neonates with severe respiratory failure that predict which neonates are unlikely to respond to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). DESIGN:This was a retrospective review of patient charts and medical records. PATIENTS:We studied 190 newborns treated with HFOV...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paranka MS,Clark RH,Yoder BA,Null DM Jr

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Assent observed: children's involvement in leukemia treatment and research discussions.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Assent is a critical issue in pediatric ethics that has not been well-studied. We examined the role of older children in discussing a recent diagnosis of acute leukemia and treatment options, including participation in a randomized, clinical trial (RCT). DESIGN:Our sample was drawn from data collected as par...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Olechnowicz JQ,Eder M,Simon C,Zyzanski S,Kodish E

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Risk Stratification to Decrease Unnecessary Diagnostic Imaging for Acute Appendicitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There has been an increase in the use of imaging modalities to diagnose appendicitis despite evidence that can help identify children at especially high or low risk of appendicitis who may not benefit. We hypothesized that the passive diffusion of a standardized care pathway (including diagnostic imaging rec...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Depinet H,von Allmen D,Towbin A,Hornung R,Ho M,Alessandrini E

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective multicenter study of cervical spine injury in children.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Pediatric victims of blunt trauma have developmental and anatomic characteristics that can make it difficult to assess their risk of cervical spine injury (CSI). Previous reports, all retrospective in nature, have not identified any cases of CSI in either children or adults in the absence of neck pain, neurol...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Viccellio P,Simon H,Pressman BD,Shah MN,Mower WR,Hoffman JR,NEXUS Group.

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of donor-specific transfusions on renal transplantation in children.

    abstract::Most family members who are evaluated as kidney donors for children have high reactivity in a mixed lymphocyte culture test and are thus excluded from donation. Fifty children, most of whom had highly reactive mixed lymphocyte cultures with their donors, were challenged with three blood transfusions from their donors ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Potter D,Garovoy M,Hopper S,Terasaki P,Salvatierra O Jr

    更新日期:1985-09-01 00:00:00

  • Involving Youth With a Chronic Illness in Decision-making: Highlighting the Role of Providers.

    abstract::Decision-making is important in the context of pediatric chronic illness because children and families need to make decisions about burdensome and complex treatments on a regular basis, and children must eventually learn how to make such decisions independently. Research related to children's decision-making in medica...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller VA

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Concurrent child health status and maternal recall of events in infancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Obtaining information on children's health and health events is heavily dependent on maternal report. Experience as to what factors influence accuracy of reporting varies, and few studies have examined the influence of current child health status on recall. METHODS:A prospective cohort study involving 1833 ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCormick MC,Brooks-Gunn J

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Physical fitness and C-reactive protein level in children and young adults: the Columbia University BioMarkers Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the association of physical fitness with C-reactive protein (CRP) level in children and young adults. METHODS:Subjects (N = 205) aged 6 to 24 years were enrolled in the Columbia University BioMarkers Study (1994-1998). Physical fitness was assessed using a non-effort-dependent treadmill testing pr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Isasi CR,Deckelbaum RJ,Tracy RP,Starc TJ,Berglund L,Shea S

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Practice of feeding premasticated food to infants: a potential risk factor for HIV transmission.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Although some caregivers are known to premasticate food for infants, usually during the weaning period, HIV transmission has not been linked to this practice. We describe 3 cases of HIV transmission in the United States possibly related to this practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Three cases of HIV infection wer...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaur AH,Dominguez KL,Kalish ML,Rivera-Hernandez D,Donohoe M,Brooks JT,Mitchell CD

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Attitudes toward neonatal intensive care treatment of preterm infants with a high risk of developing long-term disabilities.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess (1) the differences in attitudes toward disabilities of 3 groups of subjects involved in neonatal care decision-making: health care workers, mothers of term infants, and parents of preterm infants, and (2) the impact of subject characteristics on these attitudes including parental education level, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lam HS,Wong SP,Liu FY,Wong HL,Fok TF,Ng PC

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive Outcomes and Positional Plagiocephaly.

    abstract::: media-1vid110.1542/5972296741001PEDS-VA_2018-2373Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed an association between positional plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (PPB) and development, although little is known about long-term outcomes. We examined cognition and academic achievement in children with and without ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collett BR,Wallace ER,Kartin D,Cunningham ML,Speltz ML

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cocaine use during pregnancy: prevalence and correlates.

    abstract::Cocaine use during pregnancy was assessed by interviews and urine assays obtained prenatally and immediately postpartum from 679 urban women enrolled in prenatal care. Of these, 17% were found to have used cocaine at least once during pregnancy. Eight percent had urine assays positive for cocaine metabolites using the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frank DA,Zuckerman BS,Amaro H,Aboagye K,Bauchner H,Cabral H,Fried L,Hingson R,Kayne H,Levenson SM

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Gabapentin successfully manages chronic unexplained irritability in children with severe neurologic impairment.

    abstract::Neurologically impaired children have an increased frequency of recurrent pain and irritability that persist in some despite comprehensive evaluation and management of possible pain sources. We hypothesized that visceral hyperalgesia was a source of chronic unexplained irritability and report the outcome of gabapentin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hauer JM,Wical BS,Charnas L

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Conceptions of illness in young adolescents.

    abstract::This study examined conceptions of illness in young adolescents. A group of 77 urban junior high school students aged 11 to 15 years were asked for their definitions of illness. Themes occurring in definitions of illness were identified and coded according to a previously developed coding scheme. Evidence in support o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Millstein SG,Adler NE,Irwin CE Jr

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric Considerations Before, During, and After Radiological or Nuclear Emergencies.

    abstract::Infants, children, and adolescents can be exposed unexpectedly to ionizing radiation from nuclear power plant events, improvised nuclear or radiologic dispersal device explosions, or inappropriate disposal of radiotherapy equipment. Children are likely to experience higher external and internal radiation exposure leve...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审



    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation and management of the infant exposed to HIV-1 in the United States.

    abstract::The pediatrician plays a key role in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection. For infants born to women with HIV-1 infection identified during pregnancy, the pediatrician ensures that antiretroviral prophylaxis is provided to the infant to decrease the risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection and pr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Havens PL,Mofenson LM,American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric AIDS.

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Risk for PHACE syndrome in infants with large facial hemangiomas.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of posterior fossae of the brain, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, and eye anomalies (PHACE) in infants with large facial hemangiomas. The extracutaneous manifestations of PHACE may be associated with significant morbidity, and the prevalence of PHAC...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haggstrom AN,Garzon MC,Baselga E,Chamlin SL,Frieden IJ,Holland K,Maguiness S,Mancini AJ,McCuaig C,Metry DW,Morel K,Powell J,Perkins SM,Siegel D,Drolet BA

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Tobacco counseling at well-child and tobacco-influenced illness visits: opportunities for improvement.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the frequency of clinician-reported delivery of counseling for avoidance of child environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and tobacco use at periodic well-child visits and at illness visits for asthma and otitis media (OM). METHODS:Combined data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanski SE,Klein JD,Winickoff JP,Auinger P,Weitzman M

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Milk intolerance in children with persistent sleeplessness: a prospective double-blind crossover evaluation.

    abstract::From July 1986 to July 1988, 146 children less than 5 years of age were referred by their physicians to our university sleep clinic for continual waking and crying during sleep hours. For 85 children (58.2%), the sleeplessness was attributed to inappropriate sleep habits. For 17 children (11.6%), no explanation was fo...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kahn A,Mozin MJ,Rebuffat E,Sottiaux M,Muller MF

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Body image and dieting behavior in cystic fibrosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between pulmonary function, nutritional status, body image, and eating attitudes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared with healthy controls. METHOD:Seventy-six children with CF (39 girls) and 153 healthy control children (82 girls) were recruited. All children were betwe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Truby H,Paxton AS

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00