Low-level lead exposure triggers neuronal apoptosis in the developing mouse brain.


:While the toxic effects of lead have been recognized for millennia, it has remained a significant public health concern due to its continued use and toxicological potential. Of particular interest is the increased susceptibility of young children to the toxic effects of lead. Although the exact mechanism(s) for lead toxicity is currently not well understood, research has established that it can be a potent NMDA antagonist. Previous research has established that exposure to NMDA antagonists during the brain growth spurt period (first 2 weeks of life in mice) can produce apoptotic neurodegeneration throughout the brain. Based on this information, the ability of lead exposure (two injections of 350 mg/kg lead 4h apart) to produce apoptosis in the neonatal mouse brain was assessed histologically 8-24h after treatment using activated caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, De Olmos silver technique, Nissl staining, and electron microscopy. Lead exposure produced significant neurodegeneration in the caudate/putamen, hippocampus, subiculum, and superficial and deep cortical layers of the frontal cortical regions. Further ultrastructural examination revealed cellular profiles consistent with apoptotic cell death. Statistical results showed that lead exposure significantly increased apoptotic neurodegeneration above that seen in normal controls in animals treated at postnatal day 7, but not on day 14. The results of this study may provide a basis for further elucidation of mechanisms through which the immature nervous system may be particularly susceptible to lead exposure.


Neurotoxicol Teratol


Dribben WH,Creeley CE,Farber N




Has Abstract


2011-07-01 00:00:00














  • Involvement of p53 in 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced rat fetal brain lesions.

    abstract::1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C), a cytidine analogue cytotoxic to proliferating cells, has a teratogenic effect in the brain of experimental animals and causes neural cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, pregnant rats were injected with Ara-C on Day 13 of gestation and the fetal brain w...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamauchi H,Katayama K,Ueno M,Uetsuka K,Nakayama H,Doi K

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Co-consumption of selenium and vitamin E altered the reproductive and developmental toxicity of methylmercury in rats.

    abstract::Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental contaminant primarily found in fish and seafood, may pose long-term health risks to pregnant women and their developing children. The objective of this study was to determine whether co-consumption of nutritional supplements would alter the effects of MeHg on reproductive and dev...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beyrouty P,Chan HM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Repeated measures designs in behavioral toxicology: application to chronic marijuana smoke exposure.

    abstract::This paper discusses the application of repeated measures methods in the statistical analysis of an experiment in behavioral toxicology. The chronic marijuana smoke exposure study conducted at the National Center for Toxicological Research is used for an example of the types of problems that one encounters in analyzin...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen RR,Slikker W Jr,Paule MG

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • ROS formation and antioxidant status in brain areas of rats exposed to sodium metavanadate.

    abstract::In the present work, in vivo ROS formation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampus and the cerebellum of sodium metavanadate (NaVO₃) treated rats were studied. Rats were i.p. injected with 3 mg/kg bw/day (V₁ group) or with 7.2 mg/kg bw/day of NaVO₃ (V₂ group) for 5 consecutive days. Results show tha...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cuesta S,Francés D,García GB

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Development of neurons and synapses in ochratoxin A-induced microcephalic mice: a quantitative assessment of somatosensory cortex.

    abstract::Ochratoxin A (a mycotoxin) is known to cause cell death in the developing brain of embryos 1-2 days after treatment. Microcephaly was observed with high frequency in mice by prenatal treatment with ochratoxin A. Using a stereological method, the numerical densities of neurons and synapses were investigated in the soma...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukui Y,Hayasaka S,Itoh M,Takeuchi Y

    更新日期:1992-05-01 00:00:00

  • Glucose and corticosterone changes in developing and adult rats following exposure to (+/-)-3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine or 5-methoxydiisopropyltryptamine.

    abstract::The use of the club drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 5-methoxy-n,n-diisopropyltryptamine (Foxy) is of growing concern, especially as many of the effects, particularly during development, are unknown. The effects of these drugs upon homeostasis may be important since both are known to stimulate the hy...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graham DL,Herring NR,Schaefer TL,Vorhees CV,Williams MT

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • A new look at quantifying tobacco exposure during pregnancy using fuzzy clustering.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prenatal tobacco exposure is a risk factor for the development of externalizing behaviors and is associated with several adverse health outcomes. Because pregnancy smoking is a complex behavior with both daily fluctuations and changes over the course of pregnancy, quantifying tobacco exposure is a significan...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fang H,Johnson C,Stopp C,Espy KA

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of performance on an automated visual recognition memory task in 7.5-month-old infants.

    abstract::Infant looking behaviors measured during visual assessment paradigms may be more reliable predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes than standard measures such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development typically used in environmental epidemiology. Infrared eye tracking technology offers an innovative approach to aut...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dzwilewski KLC,Merced-Nieves FM,Aguiar A,Korrick SA,Schantz SL

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal cocaine and/or nicotine exposure in rats: preliminary findings on long-term cognitive outcome and genital development at birth.

    abstract::Prenatal cocaine or nicotine exposure is associated with a variety of teratogenic effects. The current study was conducted to determine their effects alone and in combination on cognitive function and sexual differentiation. Pregnant Long-Evans rats (N = 19) were exposed to either cocaine (15 mg/kg/dose b.i.d. SC on G...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cutler AR,Wilkerson AE,Gingras JL,Levin ED

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Interpreting epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicity: conceptual and analytic issues.

    abstract::This paper discusses issues pertaining to the validity, precision, and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of neurotoxicity. With regard to validity, the critical issues pertain to the appropriate strategy for confounder adjustment, particularly when confounders are complex, multi-faceted constructs, and to the ne...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bellinger DC

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Preweaning experience as a modifier of prenatal drug effects in rats and mice--a review.

    abstract::The effects of preweaning experience in rats and mice on neuroendocrine and behavioral end points and their implications for prenatal drug effects are reviewed. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the dopaminergic system were shown to be affected. Behavior related to hippocampal, adrenocortical functions and to...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clausing P,Mothes HK,Opitz B

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal ethanol exposure decreases hippocampal 3H-vinylidene kainic acid binding in 45-day-old rats.

    abstract::The effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the kainate-sensitive subtype of glutamate receptor binding sites was studied using in vitro 3H-vinylidene kainic acid (VKA) autoradiography. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either 3.35% or 6.7% ethanol throughout gestation. Pair-fed dams receiv...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farr KL,Montano CY,Paxton LL,Savage DD

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • The development of a neurobehavioral test battery for use in hazard evaluations in occupational settings.

    abstract::The interest in, and number of, neurobehavioral test batteries for use in occupational settings has increased markedly over the last decade. While this is a welcome development in furthering the cause for greater acceptance of these methods in hazard evaluation and toxicity testing, there are a number of issues that a...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williamson AM

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term effects of acute perinatal asphyxia on rat maternal behavior.

    abstract::In this study we used a rat model of graded perinatal asphyxia to study the long-term consequences of this manipulation on rat maternal behavior at adulthood. Rats were delivered by cesarean (C) section and the pups, still in the uterus horns, were placed into a water bath at 37 degrees C for periods of 0 (controls) o...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cirulli F,Bonsignore LT,Venerosi A,Valanzano A,Chiarotti F,Alleva E

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal marijuana exposure impacts executive functioning into young adulthood: An fMRI study.

    abstract::Understanding the potentially harmful long term consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure is important given the increase in number of pregnant women smoking marijuana to relieve morning sickness. Altered executive functioning is one area of research that has suggested negative consequences of prenatal marijuana exp...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Smith AM,Mioduszewski O,Hatchard T,Byron-Alhassan A,Fall C,Fried PA

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen J,Chen Y,Liu W,Bai C,Liu X,Liu K,Li R,Zhu JH,Huang C

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Minimally invasive biomarkers of general anesthetic-induced developmental neurotoxicity.

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    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhang X,Liu F,Slikker W Jr,Wang C,Paule MG

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal urinary tract infection alters water maze performance in the offspring.

    abstract::The effects of maternal urinary tract infection (UTI) or endotoxin exposure on fetal outcome in rats were investigated. Prior to conception, dams of the UTI group were water-deprived and anesthetized. The urinary tract was then catheterized and injected with 0.2 of 1 x 10(9) Escherichia coli. The endotoxin group was i...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cronise K,Kelly SJ

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of acute treatment with dopaminergic drugs on open field behavior of adult monkeys treated with lead during the first year postpartum.

    abstract::A pharmacological challenge of nonhuman primate open field behavior, similar to that which previously assessed the cholinergic system (10), was used here to measure potential lead-induced alterations in the dopaminergic system. Monkeys that had been treated with lead during the first year postpartum were assessed at 7...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferguson SA,Felipa HN,Bowman RE

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sociodemographic factors modifying the effect of environmental lead on neuropsychological development in early childhood.

    abstract::A long-term prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental lead and childhood neuropsychological development. The possible interactive effects of blood lead and some covariates on early development were explored in this study. Our data suggest...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McMichael AJ,Baghurst PA,Vimpani GV,Robertson EF,Wigg NR,Tong SL

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Aluminum produces age related behavioral toxicity in the rabbit.

    abstract::Two- to 3.4-year-old, retired breeder, rabbits received repeated aluminum (Al) lactate or sodium (Na) lactate injections. All six rabbits receiving twenty 400 mumol Al/kg SC injections died, demonstrating much higher mortality than previously seen in younger rabbits. Subsequent rabbits receiving Al were dosed with 200...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yokel RA

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Heart rate variability in neonatal rats after perinatal cocaine exposure.

    abstract::Pregnant rats received saline once daily (Control QD) or twice daily (Control BID), cocaine 2 mg/kg IV daily (COC QD) or twice daily (COC BID) throughout gestation beginning on gestational day 4. The treatment was continued in nursing mothers until postnatal day 7. All studies were performed in their offsprings on pos...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hseu SS,Yien HW,Du F,Sun LS

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Sensory-evoked potentials in rats chronically exposed to trichloroethylene: predominant auditory dysfunction.

    abstract::Sensory-evoked potentials (EPs) were studied in male Long-Evans and Fischer-344 rats in order to characterize the electrophysiological consequences of chronic inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). Groups of ten Long-Evans rats were exposed to air or 1600 ppm or 3200 ppm TCE for twelve weeks and evaluated per...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rebert CS,Day VL,Matteucci MJ,Pryor GT

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • d-Methionine protects against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in cortical networks.

    abstract::Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent widely used for the treatment of various types of cancer. Patients undergoing cisplatin treatment often suffer from a condition known as "chemobrain", ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, nephrotoxicity, seizures, hearing loss and tinni...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gopal KV,Wu C,Shrestha B,Campbell KC,Moore EJ,Gross GW

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Low-level prenatal exposure to nicotine and infant neurobehavior.

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    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yolton K,Khoury J,Xu Y,Succop P,Lanphear B,Bernert JT,Lester B

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental neurotoxicity evaluation of the avermectin pesticide, emamectin benzoate, in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    abstract::The potential of emamectin benzoate (EB) to cause developmental neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats was assessed using a study design by the US EPA. Dosages of 0 (deionized water), 0.1, 0.6, or 3.6 mg/kg/day were administered at 5 ml/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 to lactational day (LD) 20 to groups o...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wise LD,Allen HL,Hoe CM,Verbeke DR,Gerson RJ

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Preliminary findings of a reduction of otoconia in the inner ear of adult rats prenatally exposed to phenytoin.

    abstract::Pregnant Sprague-Dawley CD rats were administered phenytoin by gavage on days 7-18 of gestation in doses of 0 or 200 mg/kg. Following completion of a series of behavioral tests (20), progeny (18 months of age) were examined for otoconia in the vestibular labyrinth of the inner ear. None of the controls (N = 22) had re...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Minck DR,Erway LC,Vorhees CV

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Thermoregulatory effects of chlorpyrifos in the rat: long-term changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic sensitivity.

    abstract::Subcutaneous injection of a sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CHLP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, causes long-term inhibition in cholinesterase activity (ChE) of brain, blood, and other tissues. Such prolonged inhibition in ChE should lead to marked behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory patterns, especially in...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gordon CJ

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Repeated low-dose exposures to sarin, soman, or VX affect acoustic startle in guinea pigs.

    abstract::Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are known to cause behavioral abnormalities in cases of human exposures and in animal models. The behavioral consequences of single exposures to CWNAs that cause observable toxic signs are particularly well characterized in animals; however, less is known regarding repeated smalle...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith CD,Lee RB,Moran AV,Sipos ML

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Central auditory processing in school-age children prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke.

    abstract::One hundred and ten, 6- to 11-year-old children from a low-risk, predominantly middle class sample who are participants in an ongoing longitudinal drug study were assessed using a central auditory processing task (SCAN) that made perceptual rather than linguistic demands. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was linearly...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: McCartney JS,Fried PA,Watkinson B

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00