A spontaneous intercostal artery hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Abstract:

:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can lead to damage to several vital organs. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), manifesting as vascular thromboembolic events and morbidities of pregnancy in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), has been described in patients with SLE. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), in contradistinction to APS, is defined as three or more organs affected by thrombotic microangiopathy in patients demonstrating aPL and can result in mortality up to 50%. We describe a unique SLE patient who was diagnosed with recurrent APS presented with axillary venous thrombosis and subsequent superficial edema and compartment syndrome. The CAPS followed and revealed thromboses over liver, spleen, and acute pancreatitis. The spontaneous hemorrhage of left fourth intercostal artery (ICA) and left axillary artery occured at the same time without vasculitis or severe trauma. Though emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of the left fourth ICA was successfully accomplished by the radiologist. The repeated computed tomography angiogram of chest demonstrated remission of ruptured ICA. Nevertheless, the patient died of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and respiratory failure and shock. Both disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and CAPS share similar characteristics encompassing thrombotic microangiopathy, bleeding, thromboembolism, and multiple organ dysfunction. It is difficult to distinguish between them, especially in cases such as our uremic SLE patient with a calamitous disease progression. The emphasis of treatment for DIC is on platelet and fresh plasma transfusion, in contrast with anti-coagulant for CAPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing ICA hemorrhage in an SLE patient without vasculitis or aneurysm. The lupus flare initiated a pathological immunological cascade and resulted in the CAPS and the vascular damage.

journal_name

Rheumatol Int

authors

Lu CC,Chen CH,Yeh SF,Lai JH,Chang DM

doi

10.1007/s00296-011-1826-x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2012-03-01 00:00:00

pages

829-31

issue

3

eissn

0172-8172

issn

1437-160X

journal_volume

32

pub_type

信件
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