A common plan for dorsoventral patterning in Bilateria.


:Functional studies seem now to confirm, as first suggested by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1822, that there was an inversion of the dorsoventral axis during animal evolution. A conserved system of extracellular signals provides positional information for the allocation of embryonic cells to specific tissue types both in Drosophila and vertebrates; the ventral region of Drosophila is homologous to the dorsal side of the vertebrate. Developmental studies are now revealing some of the characteristics of the ancestral animal that gave rise to the arthropod and mammalian lineages, for which we propose the name Urbilateria.






De Robertis EM,Sasai Y




Has Abstract


1996-03-07 00:00:00














  • Bioluminescent symbionts of flashlight fishes and deep-sea anglerfishes form unique lineages related to the genus Vibrio.

    abstract::Bioluminescent symbioses range from facultative associations to highly adapted, apparently obligate ones. The family Anomalopidae (flashlight fishes) encompasses five genera of tropical reef fishes that have large suborbital light organs. The suborder Ceratioidei (deep-sea anglerfishes) contains 11 families. In nine o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haygood MG,Distel DL

    更新日期:1993-05-13 00:00:00

  • Atomic structure of the eukaryotic intramembrane RAS methyltransferase ICMT.

    abstract::The maturation of RAS GTPases and approximately 200 other cellular CAAX proteins involves three enzymatic steps: addition of a farnesyl or geranylgeranyl prenyl lipid to the cysteine (C) in the C-terminal CAAX motif, proteolytic cleavage of the AAX residues and methylation of the exposed prenylcysteine residue at its ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Diver MM,Pedi L,Koide A,Koide S,Long SB

    更新日期:2018-01-25 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of differential control of NMDA receptor activity by NR2 subunits.

    abstract::N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NMDARs) are a major class of excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. They form glutamate-gated ion channels that are highly permeable to calcium and mediate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. NMDAR dysfunction is implicated in multiple brain diso...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gielen M,Siegler Retchless B,Mony L,Johnson JW,Paoletti P

    更新日期:2009-06-04 00:00:00

  • A soybean cyst nematode resistance gene points to a new mechanism of plant resistance to pathogens.

    abstract::Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop that provides a sustainable source of protein and oil worldwide. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a microscopic roundworm that feeds on the roots of soybean and is a major constraint to soybean production. This nematode causes more than US$1 ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu S,Kandoth PK,Warren SD,Yeckel G,Heinz R,Alden J,Yang C,Jamai A,El-Mellouki T,Juvale PS,Hill J,Baum TJ,Cianzio S,Whitham SA,Korkin D,Mitchum MG,Meksem K

    更新日期:2012-12-13 00:00:00

  • HIV-infected T cells are migratory vehicles for viral dissemination.

    abstract::After host entry through mucosal surfaces, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates to lymphoid tissues to establish a generalized infection of the immune system. The mechanisms by which this virus spreads among permissive target cells locally during the early stages of transmission and systemically during ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murooka TT,Deruaz M,Marangoni F,Vrbanac VD,Seung E,von Andrian UH,Tager AM,Luster AD,Mempel TR

    更新日期:2012-10-11 00:00:00

  • Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations.

    abstract::Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic da...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Joshi PK,Esko T,Mattsson H,Eklund N,Gandin I,Nutile T,Jackson AU,Schurmann C,Smith AV,Zhang W,Okada Y,Stančáková A,Faul JD,Zhao W,Bartz TM,Concas MP,Franceschini N,Enroth S,Vitart V,Trompet S,Guo X,Chasman DI,

    更新日期:2015-07-23 00:00:00

  • A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    abstract::The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a libra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gong S,Zheng C,Doughty ML,Losos K,Didkovsky N,Schambra UB,Nowak NJ,Joyner A,Leblanc G,Hatten ME,Heintz N

    更新日期:2003-10-30 00:00:00

  • Guard cell abscisic acid signalling and engineering drought hardiness in plants.

    abstract::Guard cells are located in the epidermis of plant leaves, and in pairs surround stomatal pores. These control both the influx of CO2 as a raw material for photosynthesis and water loss from plants through transpiration to the atmosphere. Guard cells have become a highly developed system for dissecting early signal tra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schroeder JI,Kwak JM,Allen GJ

    更新日期:2001-03-15 00:00:00

  • Bee foraging in uncertain environments using predictive hebbian learning.

    abstract::Recent work has identified a neuron with widespread projections to odour processing regions of the honeybee brain whose activity represents the reward value of gustatory stimuli. We have constructed a model of bee foraging in uncertain environments based on this type of neuron and a predictive form of hebbian synaptic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montague PR,Dayan P,Person C,Sejnowski TJ

    更新日期:1995-10-26 00:00:00

  • Publisher Correction: Programmable base editing of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA without DNA cleavage.

    abstract::In this Article, owing to an error during the production process, in Fig. 1a, the dark blue and light blue wedges were incorrectly labelled as 'G•C → T•A' and 'G•C → A•T', instead of 'C•G → T•A' and 'C•G → A•T', respectively. Fig. 1 has been corrected online. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,已发布勘误


    authors: Gaudelli NM,Komor AC,Rees HA,Packer MS,Badran AH,Bryson DI,Liu DR

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • DMRT1 prevents female reprogramming in the postnatal mammalian testis.

    abstract::Sex in mammals is determined in the fetal gonad by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome gene Sry, which controls whether bipotential precursor cells differentiate into testicular Sertoli cells or ovarian granulosa cells. This pivotal decision in a single gonadal cell type ultimately controls sexual differentiat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matson CK,Murphy MW,Sarver AL,Griswold MD,Bardwell VJ,Zarkower D

    更新日期:2011-07-20 00:00:00

  • Maintenance and propagation of a deleterious mitochondrial genome by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    abstract::Mitochondrial genomes (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) encode essential oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) components. Because hundreds of mtDNAs exist per cell, a deletion in a single mtDNA has little impact. However, if the deletion genome is enriched, OXPHOS declines, resulting in cellular dysfunction. For example, Kearn...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin YF,Schulz AM,Pellegrino MW,Lu Y,Shaham S,Haynes CM

    更新日期:2016-05-19 00:00:00

  • Possible demographic consequences of AIDS in developing countries.

    abstract::Simple mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of HIV that incorporate demographic and epidemiological processes to assess the potential impact of AIDS on human population growth and structure in developing countries suggest that AIDS is capable of changing population growth rates from positive to negative va...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Anderson RM,May RM,McLean AR

    更新日期:1988-03-17 00:00:00

  • Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia.

    abstract::Seventeen hominoid fossils recovered from Pliocene strata at Aramis, Middle Awash, Ethiopia make up a series comprising dental, cranial and postcranial specimens dated to around 4.4 million years ago. When compared with Australopithecus afarensis and with modern and fossil apes the Aramis fossil hominids are recognize...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: White TD,Suwa G,Asfaw B

    更新日期:1994-09-22 00:00:00

  • Autocrine generation and requirement of BSF-2/IL-6 for human multiple myelomas.

    abstract::Human B cell stimulatory factor 2 (BSF-2) was originally characterized and isolated as a T cell-derived factor that caused the terminal maturation of activated B cells to immunoglobulin-producing cells. Molecular cloning of the complementary DNA predicts that BSF-2 is a protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 26,000 s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawano M,Hirano T,Matsuda T,Taga T,Horii Y,Iwato K,Asaoku H,Tang B,Tanabe O,Tanaka H

    更新日期:1988-03-03 00:00:00

  • Distinct aspects of neuronal differentiation encoded by frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients.

    abstract::Stimulation of transient increases in intracellular calcium (Cai2+) activates protein kinases, regulates transcription and influences motility and morphology. Developing neurons generate spontaneous Cai2+ transients, but their role in directing neuronal differentiation and the way in which they encode information are ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gu X,Spitzer NC

    更新日期:1995-06-29 00:00:00

  • Isolation of two novel candidate hormones using a chemical method for finding naturally occurring polypeptides.

    abstract::Naturally occurring peptides with biological actions have in most cases been detected by observing their biological activities in crude extracts and their isolation has been followed using bioassays. As a complement to the classical biological detection systems, we have proposed a chemical detection system based on fr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tatemoto K,Mutt V

    更新日期:1980-06-05 00:00:00

  • Rearrangement and enhanced expression of c-myc in hepatocellular carcinoma of hepatitis virus infected woodchucks.

    abstract::Hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) that occur in woodchucks chronically infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) were screened for activation of cellular oncogenes. Enhanced expression and allelic alterations of the c-myc oncogene were found in three HCC out of nine. Variations in the size of the c-myc transcripts, ra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Möröy T,Marchio A,Etiemble J,Trépo C,Tiollais P,Buendia MA

    更新日期:1986-11-20 00:00:00

  • Processing of tumour necrosis factor-alpha precursor by metalloproteinases.

    abstract::Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis and the cachexia associated with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus infection. TNF-alpha is initially expressed...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gearing AJ,Beckett P,Christodoulou M,Churchill M,Clements J,Davidson AH,Drummond AH,Galloway WA,Gilbert R,Gordon JL

    更新日期:1994-08-18 00:00:00

  • TRPV1 structures in nanodiscs reveal mechanisms of ligand and lipid action.

    abstract::When integral membrane proteins are visualized in detergents or other artificial systems, an important layer of information is lost regarding lipid interactions and their effects on protein structure. This is especially relevant to proteins for which lipids have both structural and regulatory roles. Here we demonstrat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao Y,Cao E,Julius D,Cheng Y

    更新日期:2016-06-16 00:00:00

  • Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site in China.

    abstract::Excavations at the early Neolithic site of Jiahu in Henan Province, China have produced what may be the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated multinote musical instruments. Jiahu was occupied from 7000 BC to 5700 BC, considerably antedating the well known Peiligang culture. Here we describe six exquisitely made c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang J,Harbottle G,Wang C,Kong Z

    更新日期:1999-09-23 00:00:00

  • Developmental basis of limblessness and axial patterning in snakes.

    abstract::The evolution of snakes involved major changes in vertebrate body plan organization, but the developmental basis of those changes is unknown. The python axial skeleton consists of hundreds of similar vertebrae, forelimbs are absent and hindlimbs are severely reduced. Combined limb loss and trunk elongation is found in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohn MJ,Tickle C

    更新日期:1999-06-03 00:00:00

  • Cell type-specific activation of actin genes in the early amphibian embryo.

    abstract::Muscle actin genes are the earliest yet described to show cell type-specific activation in amphibian embryos. Gene-specific probes show that alpha-skeletal and alpha-cardiac actin genes start to be transcribed simultaneously at the end of gastrulation, but only in those regions of the mesoderm that subsequently form e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohun TJ,Brennan S,Dathan N,Fairman S,Gurdon JB

    更新日期:1984-10-25 00:00:00

  • Recent advances and emerging trends in plant hormone signalling.

    abstract::Plant growth and development is regulated by a structurally unrelated collection of small molecules called plant hormones. During the last 15 years the number of known plant hormones has grown from five to at least ten. Furthermore, many of the proteins involved in plant hormone signalling pathways have been identifie...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Santner A,Estelle M

    更新日期:2009-06-25 00:00:00

  • Reassembly of shattered chromosomes in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    abstract::Dehydration or desiccation is one of the most frequent and severe challenges to living cells. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is the best known extremophile among the few organisms that can survive extremely high exposures to desiccation and ionizing radiation, which shatter its genome into hundreds of short DNA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zahradka K,Slade D,Bailone A,Sommer S,Averbeck D,Petranovic M,Lindner AB,Radman M

    更新日期:2006-10-05 00:00:00

  • Conserved factors regulate signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root stem cell organizers.

    abstract::Throughout the lifespan of a plant, which in some cases can last more than one thousand years, the stem cell niches in the root and shoot apical meristems provide cells for the formation of complete root and shoot systems, respectively. Both niches are superficially different and it has remained unclear whether common...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarkar AK,Luijten M,Miyashima S,Lenhard M,Hashimoto T,Nakajima K,Scheres B,Heidstra R,Laux T

    更新日期:2007-04-12 00:00:00

  • Endosymbiotic sulphate-reducing and sulphide-oxidizing bacteria in an oligochaete worm.

    abstract::Stable associations of more than one species of symbiont within a single host cell or tissue are assumed to be rare in metazoans because competition for space and resources between symbionts can be detrimental to the host. In animals with multiple endosymbionts, such as mussels from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and ree...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dubilier N,Mülders C,Ferdelman T,de Beer D,Pernthaler A,Klein M,Wagner M,Erséus C,Thiermann F,Krieger J,Giere O,Amann R

    更新日期:2001-05-17 00:00:00

  • Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia.

    abstract::High-coverage whole-genome sequence studies have so far focused on a limited number of geographically restricted populations, or been targeted at specific diseases, such as cancer. Nevertheless, the availability of high-resolution genomic data has led to the development of new methodologies for inferring population hi...


    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Pagani L,Lawson DJ,Jagoda E,Mörseburg A,Eriksson A,Mitt M,Clemente F,Hudjashov G,DeGiorgio M,Saag L,Wall JD,Cardona A,Mägi R,Wilson Sayres MA,Kaewert S,Inchley C,Scheib CL,Järve M,Karmin M,Jacobs GS,Antao T,Ilie

    更新日期:2016-10-13 00:00:00

  • Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane.

    abstract::Macroscopic mechanical objects and electromagnetic degrees of freedom can couple to each other through radiation pressure. Optomechanical systems in which this coupling is sufficiently strong are predicted to show quantum effects and are a topic of considerable interest. Devices in this regime would offer new types of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thompson JD,Zwickl BM,Jayich AM,Marquardt F,Girvin SM,Harris JG

    更新日期:2008-03-06 00:00:00

  • Circulating angiotensin II and adrenal receptors after nephrectomy.

    abstract::Mineralocorticoid secretion is predominantly controlled by the octapeptide angiotensin II, which exerts trophic actions on the adrenal glomerulosa and acute regulatory effects on aldosterone biosynthesis. The trophic actions include stimulation of angiotensin II receptors and enzymes of the aldosterone biosynthetic pa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aguilera G,Schirar A,Baukal A,Catt KJ

    更新日期:1981-02-05 00:00:00