A common plan for dorsoventral patterning in Bilateria.


:Functional studies seem now to confirm, as first suggested by E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1822, that there was an inversion of the dorsoventral axis during animal evolution. A conserved system of extracellular signals provides positional information for the allocation of embryonic cells to specific tissue types both in Drosophila and vertebrates; the ventral region of Drosophila is homologous to the dorsal side of the vertebrate. Developmental studies are now revealing some of the characteristics of the ancestral animal that gave rise to the arthropod and mammalian lineages, for which we propose the name Urbilateria.






De Robertis EM,Sasai Y




Has Abstract


1996-03-07 00:00:00














  • A new type of glutamate receptor linked to inositol phospholipid metabolism.

    abstract::Receptors for excitatory amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system are classified into three major subtypes, ones which prefer N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), quisqualate (QA), or kainate (KA) as type agonists respectively. These receptors are considered to mediate fast postsynaptic potentials by activating ion...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sugiyama H,Ito I,Hirono C

    更新日期:1987-02-05 00:00:00

  • Phosphorylation of WAVE1 regulates actin polymerization and dendritic spine morphology.

    abstract::WAVE1--the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)--family verprolin homologous protein 1--is a key regulator of actin-dependent morphological processes in mammals, through its ability to activate the actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex. Here we show that WAVE1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites by cyclin-dependen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim Y,Sung JY,Ceglia I,Lee KW,Ahn JH,Halford JM,Kim AM,Kwak SP,Park JB,Ho Ryu S,Schenck A,Bardoni B,Scott JD,Nairn AC,Greengard P

    更新日期:2006-08-17 00:00:00

  • The tuatara genome reveals ancient features of amniote evolution.

    abstract::The tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus)-the only living member of the reptilian order Rhynchocephalia (Sphenodontia), once widespread across Gondwana1,2-is an iconic species that is endemic to New Zealand2,3. A key link to the now-extinct stem reptiles (from which dinosaurs, modern reptiles, birds and mammals evolved), the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gemmell NJ,Rutherford K,Prost S,Tollis M,Winter D,Macey JR,Adelson DL,Suh A,Bertozzi T,Grau JH,Organ C,Gardner PP,Muffato M,Patricio M,Billis K,Martin FJ,Flicek P,Petersen B,Kang L,Michalak P,Buckley TR,Wilson M

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Mastering Atari, Go, chess and shogi by planning with a learned model.

    abstract::Constructing agents with planning capabilities has long been one of the main challenges in the pursuit of artificial intelligence. Tree-based planning methods have enjoyed huge success in challenging domains, such as chess1 and Go2, where a perfect simulator is available. However, in real-world problems, the dynamics ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schrittwieser J,Antonoglou I,Hubert T,Simonyan K,Sifre L,Schmitt S,Guez A,Lockhart E,Hassabis D,Graepel T,Lillicrap T,Silver D

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet.

    abstract::The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Axelsson E,Ratnakumar A,Arendt ML,Maqbool K,Webster MT,Perloski M,Liberg O,Arnemo JM,Hedhammar A,Lindblad-Toh K

    更新日期:2013-03-21 00:00:00

  • Primary structure of the precursor to the three major surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites.

    abstract::Recently, a class of protein antigens of high relative molecular mass (Mt) which can induce protective immunity against blood-stage malaria has been identified. In Plasmodium falciparum the protein has a Mr of approximately 195,000 (P195). It is the precursor of three proteins of Mr 83,000 (83K), 42K and 19K which are...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holder AA,Lockyer MJ,Odink KG,Sandhu JS,Riveros-Moreno V,Nicholls SC,Hillman Y,Davey LS,Tizard ML,Schwarz RT

    更新日期:1985-09-19 00:00:00

  • Learning of action through adaptive combination of motor primitives.

    abstract::Understanding how the brain constructs movements remains a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. The brain may control complex movements through flexible combination of motor primitives, where each primitive is an element of computation in the sensorimotor map that transforms desired limb trajectories into motor comm...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thoroughman KA,Shadmehr R

    更新日期:2000-10-12 00:00:00

  • A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar.

    abstract::Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of the Universe by assisting the formation of molecules, by triggering the formation of the first low-mass stars, and by absorbing stellar ultraviolet-optical light and subsequently re-emitting it at infrared/millimetre wavelengths. Dust is thought to be produced...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maiolino R,Schneider R,Oliva E,Bianchi S,Ferrara A,Mannucci F,Pedani M,Sogorb MR

    更新日期:2004-09-30 00:00:00

  • Cloning and expression of human and rat D1 dopamine receptors.

    abstract::The importance of the dopaminergic system in brain function has been emphasized by its association with neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. On the basis of their biochemical and pharmacological characteristics, dopamine receptors are classified into D1 and D2 subtypes....


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou QY,Grandy DK,Thambi L,Kushner JA,Van Tol HH,Cone R,Pribnow D,Salon J,Bunzow JR,Civelli O

    更新日期:1990-09-06 00:00:00

  • An early extrasolar planetary system revealed by planetesimal belts in beta Pictoris.

    abstract::beta Pictoris (beta Pic) is a main-sequence star with an edge-on dust disk that might represent a state of the early Solar System. The dust does not seem to be a remnant from the original protoplanetary disk, but rather is thought to have been generated from large bodies like planetesimals and/or comets. The history a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okamoto YK,Kataza H,Honda M,Yamashita T,Onaka T,Watanabe J,Miyata T,Sako S,Fujiyoshi T,Sakon I

    更新日期:2004-10-07 00:00:00

  • Hierarchically structured diamond composite with exceptional toughness.

    abstract::The well known trade-off between hardness and toughness (resistance to fracture) makes simultaneous improvement of both properties challenging, especially in diamond. The hardness of diamond can be increased through nanostructuring strategies1,2, among which the formation of high-density nanoscale twins - crystalline ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yue Y,Gao Y,Hu W,Xu B,Wang J,Zhang X,Zhang Q,Wang Y,Ge B,Yang Z,Li Z,Ying P,Liu X,Yu D,Wei B,Wang Z,Zhou XF,Guo L,Tian Y

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • A molecular timescale for vertebrate evolution.

    abstract::A timescale is necessary for estimating rates of molecular and morphological change in organisms and for interpreting patterns of macroevolution and biogeography. Traditionally, these times have been obtained from the fossil record, where the earliest representatives of two lineages establish a minimum time of diverge...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumar S,Hedges SB

    更新日期:1998-04-30 00:00:00

  • Conformation of sister chromatids in the replicated human genome.

    abstract::The three-dimensional organization of the genome supports regulated gene expression, recombination, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)1,2 analysis has revealed a complex genomic landscape of internal chromosomal structures in vertebrate cells3-7, but the ident...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitter M,Gasser C,Takacs Z,Langer CCH,Tang W,Jessberger G,Beales CT,Neuner E,Ameres SL,Peters JM,Goloborodko A,Micura R,Gerlich DW

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Retinoblastoma-protein-dependent cell-cycle inhibition by the tumour suppressor p16.

    abstract::D-type cyclins, in association with the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4 or Cdk6, promote progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle by phosphorylating the retinoblastoma protein (RB). The activities of Cdk4 and Cdk6 are constrained by inhibitors such as p16, the product of the CDKN2 gene on human chromosome 9p21...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lukas J,Parry D,Aagaard L,Mann DJ,Bartkova J,Strauss M,Peters G,Bartek J

    更新日期:1995-06-08 00:00:00

  • Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem.

    abstract::Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs, but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus. Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic matter from the water column ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wild C,Huettel M,Klueter A,Kremb SG,Rasheed MY,Jørgensen BB

    更新日期:2004-03-04 00:00:00

  • Nitrogen isotope abundances in the recent solar wind.

    abstract::Although lunar crystalline rocks are essentially devoid of nitrogen, the same is not true of the lunar regolith. The nitrogen contents of individual regolith samples (which can be as high as 0.012% by mass) correlate strongly with abundances of noble gases known to be implanted in the lunar surface by solar radiation,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim JS,Kim Y,Marti K,Kerridge JF

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn.

    abstract::Planetary aurorae are formed by energetic charged particles streaming along the planet's magnetic field lines into the upper atmosphere from the surrounding space environment. Earth's main auroral oval is formed through interactions with the solar wind, whereas that at Jupiter is formed through interactions with plasm...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stallard T,Miller S,Melin H,Lystrup M,Cowley SW,Bunce EJ,Achilleos N,Dougherty M

    更新日期:2008-06-19 00:00:00

  • Multiple modes of engrailed regulation in the progression towards cell fate determination.

    abstract::The engrailed gene product of Drosophila specifies the fate of a subset of cells in each segment. Our studies of engrailed regulation suggest that fate determination is an elaborate, multistep process. At the time in embryogenesis when the engrailed-dependent cell fate is probably determined, four modes of control act...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heemskerk J,DiNardo S,Kostriken R,O'Farrell PH

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA.

    abstract::The primary structure of the poliovirus genome has been determined. The RNA molecule is 7,433 nucleotides long, polyadenylated at the 3' terminus, and covalently linked to a small protein (VPg) at the 5' terminus. An open reading frame of 2,207 consecutive triplets spans over 89% of the nucleotide sequence and codes f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kitamura N,Semler BL,Rothberg PG,Larsen GR,Adler CJ,Dorner AJ,Emini EA,Hanecak R,Lee JJ,van der Werf S,Anderson CW,Wimmer E

    更新日期:1981-06-18 00:00:00

  • Policies designed for drugs won't work for AI.

    abstract:: ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smallman M

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Paramutation in Drosophila linked to emergence of a piRNA-producing locus.

    abstract::A paramutation is an epigenetic interaction between two alleles of a locus, through which one allele induces a heritable modification in the other allele without modifying the DNA sequence. The paramutated allele itself becomes paramutagenic, that is, capable of epigenetically converting a new paramutable allele. Here...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Vanssay A,Bougé AL,Boivin A,Hermant C,Teysset L,Delmarre V,Antoniewski C,Ronsseray S

    更新日期:2012-10-04 00:00:00

  • Two dynamically distinct circuits drive inhibition in the sensory thalamus.

    abstract::Most sensory information destined for the neocortex is relayed through the thalamus, where considerable transformation occurs1,2. One means of transformation involves interactions between excitatory thalamocortical neurons that carry data to the cortex and inhibitory neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) tha...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martinez-Garcia RI,Voelcker B,Zaltsman JB,Patrick SL,Stevens TR,Connors BW,Cruikshank SJ

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Evolutionary genetics: Ambiguous role of CCR5 in Y. pestis infection.

    abstract::Mecsas and colleagues suggest that a deficiency in the chemokine receptor CCR5 in humans is unlikely to confer protection against plague, based on their study of Yersinia pestis infection in Ccr5-deficient mice. They were testing the hypothesis that a mutation in the CCR5 gene, frequently found in Caucasians, may have...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Elvin SJ,Williamson ED,Scott JC,Smith JN,Pérez De Lema G,Chilla S,Clapham P,Pfeffer K,Schlöndorff D,Luckow B

    更新日期:2004-07-22 00:00:00

  • Palaeovegetation. Diversity of temperate plants in east Asia.

    abstract::The exceptionally broad species diversity of vascular plant genera in east Asian temperate forests, compared with their sister taxa in North America, has been attributed to the greater climatic diversity of east Asia, combined with opportunities for allopatric speciation afforded by repeated fragmentation and coalesce...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrison SP,Yu G,Takahara H,Prentice IC

    更新日期:2001-09-13 00:00:00

  • Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface.

    abstract::Metamaterials are artificial optical media composed of sub-wavelength metallic and dielectric building blocks that feature optical phenomena not present in naturally occurring materials. Although they can serve as the basis for unique optical devices that mould the flow of light in unconventional ways, three-dimension...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: High AA,Devlin RC,Dibos A,Polking M,Wild DS,Perczel J,de Leon NP,Lukin MD,Park H

    更新日期:2015-06-11 00:00:00

  • A transgenic mouse model of sickle cell disorder.

    abstract::A single base-pair mutation (beta s) in codon 6 of the human beta-globin gene, causing a single amino-acid substitution, is the cause of sickle cell anaemia. The mutant haemoglobin molecule, HbS, polymerizes when deoxygenated and causes deformation of the erythrocytes to a characteristic 'sickled' shape. Sickling of c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greaves DR,Fraser P,Vidal MA,Hedges MJ,Ropers D,Luzzatto L,Grosveld F

    更新日期:1990-01-11 00:00:00

  • Structural analysis of murine genes containing homoeo box sequences and their expression in embryonal carcinoma cells.

    abstract::The presence of homoeo box sequences in the genomes of vertebrates has suggested that these metazoans possess the equivalent of the homoeotic genes that have a key role in regulating the development of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. We report here that a novel murine homoeo box-containing gene is expressed in e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colberg-Poley AM,Voss SD,Chowdhury K,Gruss P

    更新日期:1985-04-25 00:00:00

  • The t(8; 14) chromosomal translocation occurring in B-cell malignancies results from mistakes in V-D-J joining.

    abstract::The reciprocal chromosome translocation, t(8;14), involving the heavy chain locus on chromosome 14 and the c-myc oncogene on chromosome 8 is a characteristic of the B-cell malignancies Burkitt's lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We have cloned and sequenced the t(8; 14) breakpoints of an African Burkit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haluska FG,Finver S,Tsujimoto Y,Croce CM

    更新日期:1986-11-13 00:00:00

  • The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene lin-14 encodes a nuclear protein that forms a temporal developmental switch.

    abstract::During wild-type development, a protein product of the Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene lin-14 is localized to nuclei of specific somatic cells in embryos and early larvae, but is absent in late larvae and adult soma. Gain-of-function lin-14 mutations cause the level of lin-14 protein to remain high throughou...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruvkun G,Giusto J

    更新日期:1989-03-23 00:00:00

  • V-J joining of immunoglobulin kappa genes only occurs on one homologous chromosome.

    abstract::In general, heterozygous animal cells express both alleles at a particular locus. The only exceptions are cells of XX genotype after inactivation of one X chromosome, and immunoglobulin-producing cells; in each case only one of the two alleles is expressed in differentiated cells and their progeny. This phenomenon, te...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joho R,Weissman IL

    更新日期:1980-03-13 00:00:00