Antisense phosphorothioates as antivirals against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV).


:For the past 10 years we have focused on the development of antisense treatments against viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We have demonstrated that phosphorothioate oligomers have in vitro anti-HIV activities and in vivo anti-HBV activity. In vitro anti-HIV activities of phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-oligo) were classified into sequence non-specific (non-antisense) and sequence specific (antisense). We found that toxicity of S-oligo could be also classified into the same 2 categories. Since some of non-specific toxicity is dependent on experimental conditions, in each experiment, we should pay attention to minimize non-specific toxicity of the oligomers.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Matsukura M,Koike K,Zon G




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Promoting effect of testosterone propionate on experimental exocrine pancreatic tumors by 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in rats.

    abstract::A single intravenous injection of 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide in a dose of 9 mg/kg induced exocrine adenomas of the pancreas in a significantly higher rate in male than in female rats. Castration following HAQO administration diminished the incidence of the pancreatic tumors in male rats. A combined treatment with...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi Y,Katayama H

    更新日期:1981-12-01 00:00:00

  • Adductomics: characterizing exposures to reactive electrophiles.

    abstract::To understand environmental causes of disease, unbiased methods are needed to characterize the human exposome, which represents all toxicants to which people are exposed from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Because they directly modify DNA and important proteins, reactive electrophiles are probably the most imp...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rappaport SM,Li H,Grigoryan H,Funk WE,Williams ER

    更新日期:2012-08-13 00:00:00

  • Fluoride promotes osteoblastic differentiation through canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    abstract::Although fluoride is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. Our earlier studies highlighted a probable role of canonical Wnt pathway in bone formation of chronic fluori...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan L,Shi X,Liu S,Guo X,Zhao M,Cai R,Sun G

    更新日期:2014-02-10 00:00:00

  • Redistribution of accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin during coxsackievirus B3 infection in the mouse.

    abstract::The tissue redistribution of accumulated 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during infection was studied in adult male A/J mice using a common human virus coxsackievirus B3. Before infection (day 1), all mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 microCi 3H-TCDD, corresponding to 0.5 microg TCDD kg(-1...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Funseth E,Wicklund-Glynn A,Friman G,Ilbäck N

    更新日期:2000-07-27 00:00:00

  • Adduct levels from benzo[a]pyrenediol epoxide: Relative formation to histidine in serum albumin and to deoxyguanosine in DNA in vitro and in vivo in mice measured by LC/MS-MS methods.

    abstract::Stable and specific biomacromolecular adducts can be used to measure in vivo doses of reactive compounds. An LC/MS-MS method to measure adducts from the benzo[a]pyrene (BP) metabolite (±)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((±)-anti-BPDE) to His(146) in serum albumin (SA), earlier evaluated on in vitro alkylated human SA, ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Westberg EA,Singh R,Hedebrant U,Koukouves G,Souliotis VL,Farmer PB,Segerbäck D,Kyrtopoulos S,Törnqvist MÅ

    更新日期:2015-01-05 00:00:00

  • Biological monitoring of bidi industry workers occupationally exposed to tobacco.

    abstract::Ambient and biological monitoring was undertaken among tobacco processors who are chronically exposed to tobacco particulates via nasopharyngeal and cutaneous routes. Ambient monitoring revealed that the inspirable dust concentration was 150-fold higher in the tobacco factory than in the control environment, and was a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bhisey RA,Bagwe AN,Mahimkar MB,Buch SC

    更新日期:1999-09-05 00:00:00

  • Application of the kinetic of RNA synthesis on Hep 3B cells. Study of the medium-term cytotoxicity of atrazine.

    abstract::The test based on measuring the RNA synthesis rate, already described on Hela S3 in culture (Fauris et al., Les colloques de l'INSERM 106 (1981) 455-463), has been adapted to a human hepatoma cell line Hep 3B which retains a certain capacity towards metabolising. These modifications make it easier to point to the pres...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Descampiaux B,Herno V,Brice A,Erb F

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrolysis and hepatotoxicity of retronecine diesters.

    abstract::Rates of alkaline hydrolysis of 18 natural or semisynthetic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, all retronecine diesters, have been compared. Steric hindrance around the ester groups was the major factor inhibiting hydrolysis. Relative rates of hydrolysis by esterases in a rat liver homogenate were also dependent on steric hindr...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mattocks AR

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Role of neutrophils in acrylonitrile-induced gastric mucosal damage.

    abstract::Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used intermediate in the manufacture of plastics, acrylic fibers, synthetic rubbers and resins that are used in a variety of products including food containers and medical devices. ACN is a possible human carcinogen and a documented animal carcinogen, with the stomach being an important ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamdy NM,Al-Abbasi FA,Alghamdi HA,Tolba MF,Esmat A,Abdel-Naim AB

    更新日期:2012-01-25 00:00:00

  • Transfer of developmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) via milk to nursed offspring: Studies by mass spectrometry and image analysis.

    abstract::The cyanobacterial non-proteinogenic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is proposed to be involved in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex. When administered as single doses to neonatal rats, BMAA gives rise to cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments in the adult ani...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andersson M,Karlsson O,Banack SA,Brandt I

    更新日期:2016-09-06 00:00:00

  • Effect of cisplatin and cobalt chloride on antioxidant enzymes in the livers of Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice: protective role of heme oxygenase.

    abstract::Changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and heme oxygenase (HO) and changes in lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured in the livers of control and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice 24 h after a single injection o...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christova TY,Gorneva GA,Taxirov SI,Duridanova DB,Setchenska MS

    更新日期:2003-03-03 00:00:00

  • Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment.

    abstract::In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites/mechanisms of action and the...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Andersen ME

    更新日期:2003-02-18 00:00:00

  • Methemoglobinogenic potential of primaquine and its mutagenicity in the Ames test.

    abstract::Single doses of primaquine did not produce methemoglobinemia in beagle bitches. Repeated daily administration for 12 days produced a gradually rising level of methemoglobin over that time period, unaccompanied by depletion of erythrocytic reduced glutathione. Primaquine was mutagenic in the Ames test in Salmonella typ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marrs TC,Bright JE,Morris BC

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • A novel approach to the search for in vitro alternatives to in vivo eye irritancy testing.

    abstract::Cytotoxicity in terms of haemolytic potency in vitro of eight surfactants failed to correlate with in vivo rabbit eye irritancy. Ability of the same surfactants to block spontaneous contractions of mouse and rabbit isolated ileum (especially the latter), correlated better with in vivo findings in rabbit eyes. Effectiv...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muir CK,Flower C,Van Abbé NJ

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • Acute behavioral toxicity of sulfolane: influence of hypothermia.

    abstract::Sulfolane is a solvent which produces hypothermia and decreased oxygen consumption following acute exposure. In the present experiment, we investigated effects of sulfolane on a behavioral measure of toxicity at ambient temperatures which would either prevent or facilitate the development of hypothermia. Adult male Lo...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruppert PH,Dyer RS

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • Spontaneous tumors in control F344 and charles river-CD rats and Charles River CD-1 and B6C3HF1 mice.

    abstract::The incidence of spontaneous neoplasms in outbred, inbred and F1 hybrid strains was compared using the Charles River-CD rat and mouse, the F344 rat, and B6C3HF1 mouse. These strains are commonly used in carcinogenic studies. Each strain has a consistent pattern of tumor occurrence; testicular, pituitary and lymphoreti...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sher SP,Jensen RD,Bokelman DL

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • A field study conducted at Kidston Gold Mine, to evaluate the impact of arsenic and zinc from mine tailing to grazing cattle.

    abstract::The grazing trial at Kidston Gold Mine, North Queensland, was aimed specifically to assess the uptake of metals from the tailing and the potential for unacceptable contamination of saleable meat. Further aims included estimating metal dose rates and identifying potential exposure pathways including plant uptake of hea...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruce SL,Noller BN,Grigg AH,Mullen BF,Mulligan DR,Ritchie PJ,Currey N,Ng JC

    更新日期:2003-01-31 00:00:00

  • Sister-chromatid exchanges in the lymphocytes of people exposed to environmental cadmium.

    abstract::Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were analyzed from peripheral lymphocyte cultures of 8 men and 16 women who had been exposed to environmental cadmium (Cd), and 6 controls. Average Cd concentrations in blood of the Cd-polluted group were 8.9 micrograms/l for men and 10.0 micrograms/l for women. These were no signific...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nogawa K,Tsuritani I,Yamada Y,Kido T,Honda R,Ishizaki M,Kurihara T

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Promutagen activation in partially hepatectomized mice.

    abstract::Mutagenic activity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was followed in the Ames Salmonella/microsome test using liver S-9 from control and partially hepatectomized (PH) mice. The S-9 preparations from the PH mice were capable of inducing significantly greater AFB1 mutagenic activity to strain TA100 than S-9 preparations from eithe...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vandewaa EA,Barney CC,Gentile JM

    更新日期:1982-12-01 00:00:00

  • New psychoactive substances: Studies on the metabolism of XLR-11, AB-PINACA, FUB-PB-22, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, 25-I-NBOMe, and meclonazepam using human liver preparations in comparison to primary human hepatocytes, and human urine.

    abstract::New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies s...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter LHJ,Maurer HH,Meyer MR

    更新日期:2017-10-05 00:00:00

  • Cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of phenol, a benzene metabolite.

    abstract::Benzene is an occupational and environmental toxicant. The major health concern for humans is acute myelogenous leukemia. To exert its toxic effects, benzene must be metabolized by cytochrome P450 to phenol and subsequently to catechol and hydroquinone. Previous research has implicated CYP2E1 in the metabolism of phen...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Powley MW,Carlson GP

    更新日期:2001-12-15 00:00:00

  • Influence of polyaminocarboxylic acids on the removal of manganese-54 from the body organs of sham-operated and partially hepatectomized rats.

    abstract::EDTA, 1,2-cyclohexylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (CDTA), hexamethylene 1,6-diamine N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid (HDTA), diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for the removal of manganese-54(54Mn) from some organs of sham-operated and partially hepatectomized rats in e...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaur G,Srivastava UC,Dwivedi RS,Srivastava RC

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Glutathione S-transferase cytosolic isoforms as biomarkers of polychlorinated biphenyl (Arochlor-1254) experimental contamination in rainbow trout.

    abstract::At the present work, different groups of rainbow trouts have been intraperitoneally treated with a polychlorinated biphenyls commercial mixture (Arochlor-1254) at three doses (5, 20 and 70 mg PCBs/ kg body weight) and they have been sampled at 0 (injection moment), 3, 6 and 9 weeks after xenobiotic exposure. Purificat...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pérez-López M,Nóvoa-Valiñas MC,Melgar-Riol MJ

    更新日期:2002-12-15 00:00:00

  • Comparison between oral and dermal bioavailability of soil-adsorbed phenanthrene in female rats.

    abstract::Phenathrene is a major coal tar component found in hazardous waste disposal sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which phenanthrene adsorption to either of 2 different soils affects the manner in which phenanthrene is subsequently handled in orally and dermally exposed adult female rats. Abso...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kadry AM,Skowronski GA,Turkall RM,Abdel-Rahman MS

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of pretreatment with SKF-525A on triphenyltin metabolism and toxicity in mice.

    abstract::The effects of cytochrome P-450 inhibition by alpha-phenyl-alpha-propylbenzeneacetic acid 2-[diethylamino]-ethyl ester hydrochloride (SKF-525A), which inhibits the activity of a number of cytochrome P-450s, on triphenyltin metabolism and toxicity in mice were studied. At 24 h after triphenyltin administration, the tri...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohhira S,Matsui H,Watanabe K

    更新日期:2000-11-20 00:00:00

  • Effects of acute in vitro exposure of murine precision-cut lung slices to gaseous nitrogen dioxide and ozone in an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to establish an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) for direct exposure of lung cells to gaseous contaminants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) were selected as model gas compounds. Acute pro-inflammatory and toxic effects of NO(2) and O(3) on live ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Switalla S,Knebel J,Ritter D,Krug N,Braun A,Sewald K

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Ethane formation of isolated rat hepatocytes due to carbon tetrachloride.

    abstract::Isolated rat hepatocytes incubated aerobically formed measurable amounts of ethane, a parameter for lipid peroxidation. This ethane formation increased several-fold due to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) depending on its concentration. Cell damage as measured by trypan blue uptake and lactate dehydrogenase release poorly ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Ruiter N,Ottenwälder H,Muliawan H,Kappus H

    更新日期:1981-06-01 00:00:00

  • Reduction of phosphoinositides and diacylglycerol levels in repeatedly dibutyltin-dilaurate-treated rat brain.

    abstract::Oral administration of a single dose of dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL, 80 mg/kg body wt.), 2 or 24 h after treatment, caused no significant change in the levels of diacylglycerol and phosphoinositides in rat cerebrum (forebrain), whereas daily administration of DBTL (40 or 80 mg/kg body wt.) for 3 days (24 h after the fi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Subramoniam A,Husain R,Seth PK

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Quantitative structure-activity relationships and ecological risk assessment: an overview of predictive aquatic toxicology research.

    abstract::In the field of aquatic toxicology, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have developed as scientifically credible tools for predicting the toxicity of chemicals when little or no empirical data are available. A fundamental understanding of toxicological principles has been considered an important com...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bradbury SP

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation and partial purification of Lantana (Lantana camara L.) toxins.

    abstract::A partially purified toxin fraction and lantadene A were obtained from Lantana camara L. leaves by batch extraction, column chromatography and fractional crystallization. Toxicity was tested in guinea pigs. The total number of chemical entities in the partially purified toxin preparation was 7, the 2 major ones being ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma OP,Dawra RK,Makkar HP

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00