Antisense phosphorothioates as antivirals against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV).


:For the past 10 years we have focused on the development of antisense treatments against viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We have demonstrated that phosphorothioate oligomers have in vitro anti-HIV activities and in vivo anti-HBV activity. In vitro anti-HIV activities of phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-oligo) were classified into sequence non-specific (non-antisense) and sequence specific (antisense). We found that toxicity of S-oligo could be also classified into the same 2 categories. Since some of non-specific toxicity is dependent on experimental conditions, in each experiment, we should pay attention to minimize non-specific toxicity of the oligomers.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Matsukura M,Koike K,Zon G




Has Abstract


1995-12-01 00:00:00












  • Disturbance of antioxidant capacity produced by beauvericin in CHO-K1 cells.

    abstract::Glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as antioxidant defense system were evaluated in CHO-K1 cells after beauvericin (BEA) exposure. The effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) pre-treatment was assessed. GSH levels significantly decrease 18% a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mallebrera B,Font G,Ruiz MJ

    更新日期:2014-05-02 00:00:00

  • No androgenic/anti-androgenic effects of bisphenol-A in Hershberger assay using immature castrated rats.

    abstract::Several studies have demonstrated that bisphenol A (BPA) exhibited weak estrogenic activity in the 3-day uterotrophic assay using ovariectomized (OVX) and immature rats (Toxicol. Lett. 115 (2000) 231; Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 32 (2000) 118; J. Toxicol. Sci. 26 (2001) 111) and BPA also possessed anti-androgenic activ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim HS,Han SY,Kim TS,Kwack SJ,Lee RD,Kim IY,Seok JH,Lee BM,Yoo SD,Park KL

    更新日期:2002-09-05 00:00:00

  • Mineral fiber-induced leukocyte activation: the role of intra- and extracellular calcium.

    abstract::The role of intra- and extracellular calcium in the activation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to produce reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were studied by using soluble, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), or particulate stimuli, quartz or chrysotile. A calciu...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruotsalainen M,Naarala J,Savolainen KM

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Currently available in vitro methods used in the regulatory toxicology.

    abstract::About two decades ago in vitro mutagenicity tests were adopted as the first in vitro methods in regulatory toxicology. For reasons of animal welfare and better science, many validation studies of various in vitro methods were performed between 1985 and 1995 for their potential to replace the Draize eye irritation test...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liebsch M,Spielmann H

    更新日期:2002-02-28 00:00:00

  • Methylglyoxal has injurious effects on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization, and fetal development, via apoptosis.

    abstract::Methylglyoxal (MG) is a metabolite of glucose. The serum MG level is increased in diabetic patients, and MG is implicated in diabetic complications related to embryonic development injury. We previously reported cytotoxic effects of MG on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts, and a further association with defec...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang YJ,Chan WH

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • RACK-1 overexpression protects against goniothalamin-induced cell death.

    abstract::Goniothalamin, a styryllactone, has been shown to induce cytotoxicity via apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. In this study, we have examined the potential role of several genes, which were stably transfected into T-cell lines and which regulate apoptosis in different ways, on goniothalamin-induced cell death. Over...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Inayat-Hussain SH,Wong LT,Chan KM,Rajab NF,Din LB,Harun R,Kizilors A,Saxena N,Mourtada-Maarabouni M,Farzaneh F,Williams GT

    更新日期:2009-12-15 00:00:00

  • Winter fine particulate matter from Milan induces morphological and functional alterations in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549).

    abstract::Samples of PM(2.5) were gravimetrically collected during the winter 2005/2006 in the urban area of Milan (North Italy). Samples were chemically characterized and the particles were detached from filters to determine their cytotoxic effects on the A549 cell line. Based on the potential toxicological relevance of its co...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gualtieri M,Mantecca P,Corvaja V,Longhin E,Perrone MG,Bolzacchini E,Camatini M

    更新日期:2009-07-10 00:00:00

  • Application of the kinetic of RNA synthesis on Hep 3B cells. Study of the medium-term cytotoxicity of atrazine.

    abstract::The test based on measuring the RNA synthesis rate, already described on Hela S3 in culture (Fauris et al., Les colloques de l'INSERM 106 (1981) 455-463), has been adapted to a human hepatoma cell line Hep 3B which retains a certain capacity towards metabolising. These modifications make it easier to point to the pres...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Descampiaux B,Herno V,Brice A,Erb F

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Methodological approaches to the population analysis of toxicity data.

    abstract::Toxicokinetics is the assessment of systemic exposure in toxicity studies, in which pharmacokinetic data are generated, either as an integral component in the conduct of the nonclinical toxicity studies or in specially designed supportive studies, in order to assess systemic exposure. The data may be used in the inter...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aarons L,Graham G

    更新日期:2001-03-31 00:00:00

  • Renal biomarkers predict nephrotoxicity after paraquat.

    abstract::Paraquat is a widely used herbicide which has been involved in many accidental and intentional deaths. Nephrotoxicity is common in severe acute paraquat poisoning. We examined seven renal injury biomarkers, including cystatin-C, kidney injury molecule-1, β2-microglobulin, clusterin, albumin, neutrophil gelatinase-asso...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wunnapuk K,Liu X,Peake P,Gobe G,Endre Z,Grice JE,Roberts MS,Buckley NA

    更新日期:2013-10-09 00:00:00

  • Macroscopic sites of anesthetic action: brain versus spinal cord.

    abstract::1. General anesthesia is achieved by anesthetic action in the central nervous system (CNS). 2. Whereas amnesia and unconsciousness are due to anesthetic action in the brain, recent evidence suggests that immobility in response to a noxious stimulus is achieved by anesthetic effects in the spinal cord. The putative spi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Antognini JF,Carstens E

    更新日期:1998-11-23 00:00:00

  • Reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in invertebrates: in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    abstract::In order to gain basic understanding in the ecotoxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs (including natural chemicals and some pharmaceuticals), many international research groups are currently testing these chemicals using aquatic invertebrates. This paper discusses relevant examples to address key questions...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hutchinson TH

    更新日期:2002-05-10 00:00:00

  • Comparative proteomic analysis of fluoride treated rat bone provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity.

    abstract::Long-term excessive intake of fluoride (F) could lead to chronic fluorosis. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, present study is designed to elucidate the effect of fluoride on proteome expression of bone in sodium fluoride (NaF)-treated SD rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to determine t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei Y,Zeng B,Zhang H,Chen C,Wu Y,Wang N,Wu Y,Zhao D,Zhao Y,Iqbal J,Shen L

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding the bioconjugation reaction of phenthoate with human serum albumin: New insights from experimental and computational approaches.

    abstract::Organophosphates are chemical pollutants that are existed widely in the environment, but the reactions of these agents with blood proteins are still not fully clarified. The current story was to analyze the static and dynamic interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and phenthoate and then uncover the impact of ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ding F,Peng W,Peng YK,Liu BQ

    更新日期:2019-10-10 00:00:00

  • Metabolic transformation of halogenated and other alkenes--a theoretical approach. Estimation of metabolic reactivities for in vivo conditions.

    abstract::Olefinic hydrocarbons are metabolized in vivo by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases to the corresponding epoxides. The maximum in vivo metabolic rate, which is an important toxicokinetic parameter, has been used to define the apparent rate constant (kapp) describing in vivo metabolic reactivity of alkenes. To de...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Csandy GA,Laib RJ,Filser JG

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of feeding a diet naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) on the spleen and liver of sow and fetus from day 35 to 70 of gestation.

    abstract::Pregnant sows were fed a control diet (CON, 0.15 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.0035 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg diet) or diet containing 15% of Fusarium toxin contaminated triticale (MYCO, 4.42 mg DON and 0.048 mg ZON per kg diet) during days 35-70 of gestation. All sows were fed in a restricted feeding regimen with t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tiemann U,Brüssow KP,Dannenberger D,Jonas L,Pöhland R,Jäger K,Dänicke S,Hagemann E

    更新日期:2008-07-10 00:00:00

  • Comparative acute lung inflammation induced by atmospheric PM and size-fractionated tire particles.

    abstract::A comparison of the effects produced by size-fractionated tire particles (TP10 and TP2.5) and similar-sized urban particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), collected in Milan in 2007, on the lungs of mice has been performed. The focus is on early acute lung responses following intratracheal instillation of aerosolized part...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mantecca P,Farina F,Moschini E,Gallinotti D,Gualtieri M,Rohr A,Sancini G,Palestini P,Camatini M

    更新日期:2010-10-05 00:00:00

  • Mechanistic studies on chloral toxicity: relationship to trichloroethylene carcinogenesis.

    abstract::Chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde), the major metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE), was investigated for its potential to form DNA-protein cross-links (DPX), a lesion produced by other aldehydes. Chloral did not form DPX in rat liver nuclei at concentrations up to 250 mM for 30 min at 37 degrees C, while chloroacetaldeh...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keller DA,Heck HD

    更新日期:1988-08-01 00:00:00

  • Arsenic induces pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via the oxidative stress-regulated mitochondria-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum stress-triggered signaling pathways.

    abstract::Arsenic (As), a ubiquitous toxic metal, is an important environmental and industrial pollutant throughout the world. Inorganic As (iAs) is usually more harmful than organic ones and with a high risk of diabetes incidence by exposure. However, the toxicological effects of iAs on growth and function of pancreatic β-cell...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu TH,Su CC,Chen YW,Yang CY,Wu CC,Hung DZ,Chen CH,Cheng PW,Liu SH,Huang CF

    更新日期:2011-02-25 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of hepatic azo-reductase and aromatic hydroxylase by radiopharmaceuticals containing tin.

    abstract::Mice given single i.v. doses of some radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous chloride as a reducing agent, showed significant inhibition of hepatic azo-reductase and aromatic hydroxylase activity at dose levels which contained as little as 0.2 mg/kg of stannous chloride. Cytochrome P-450 content was also reduced sign...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burba JV

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Establishment of a chick embryo shell-less culture system and its use to observe change in behavior caused by nicotine and substances from cigarette smoke.

    abstract::Early detection and removal of harmful factors are essential to the proper physical and psychological development of the fetus, presumably showing the effects during the prenatal period and after birth. As one procedure to aid in understanding such factors, we have established a shell-less culture system for video mon...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamamichi S,Nishigori H

    更新日期:2001-02-28 00:00:00

  • Screening of chiral shift reagents suitable to generically separate the enantiomers of V-agents by 31P-NMR spectroscopy.

    abstract::Fourteen amino acids protected at the N-terminal and at their side chains were screened for resolving the enantiomers of V-agents by NMR. While none of the shift reagents tested showed really effective separation in proton NMR, two of them (BOC-Gln(Xan)-OH, 16, and Z-Arg(Z)2-OH), 21, with 16 superior to 21) were found...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koller M,Thiermann H,Worek F

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Metallothionein deletion exacerbates intermittent hypoxia-induced renal injury in mice.

    abstract::As a main clinical feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), intermittent hypoxia (IH) induces oxidative stress, leading to damage to a variety of organs, including kidney. Metallothionein (MT) is a potent antioxidant that protects kidney against oxidative damage. Our previous studies demonstrated that MT prevented IH...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu H,Zhou S,Kong L,Chen J,Feng W,Cai J,Miao L,Tan Y

    更新日期:2015-01-22 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of haemolysis by chrysotile fibres.

    abstract::Haemolysis by chrysotile fibres may be related to an adsorption of the red blood cell (RBC) membranes on the fibres and not to an interaction between magnesium (Mg) from the fibres and sialic acid from RBC. This was demonstrated using neuraminidase (NANASE)-treated RBC and Mg-depleted chrysotile fibres. The mechanism ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaurand MC,Magne L,Bignon J

    更新日期:1983-02-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effect of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and zearalenone on induction of rat and human lymphocyte proliferation.

    abstract::Deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (acetylDON) and zearalenone (Ze) were examined for their in vitro effect on mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis using rat or human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). A dose-dependent reduction of lymphocyte proliferation was demonstrated for each mycotoxin. However, t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Atkinson HA,Miller K

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • The accumulation and histological effects of organometallic fungicides Propineb and Maneb in the kidneys of fetus and female rats during pregnancy.

    abstract::Dithiocarbamate propineb and maneb are organometal fungicides, which are widely used for the control of diseases in plants. Female Wistar rats were exposed orally to 200 and 400 ppm propineb and 250 ppm maneb, from the sixth day of gestation up to birth. We found that the body weights of both one-day old litters and t...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guven K,Deveci E,Akba O,Onen A,de Pomerai D

    更新日期:1998-10-15 00:00:00

  • Extremely low dose of acrylamide decreases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    abstract::The neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of industrial exposure to acrylamide have been studied in animals and humans for more than 30 years. A recent search for the cause of high background levels of acrylamide in industrially unexposed people revealed that it is formed during the frying or baking of foods ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hasegawa K,Miwa S,Tsutsumiuchi K,Taniguchi H,Miwa J

    更新日期:2004-09-10 00:00:00

  • Effects of diethylene glycol butyl ether and butoxyethoxyacetic acid on rat and human erythrocytes.

    abstract::The toxicity of diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE), and its principal metabolite, butoxyethoxyacetic acid (BEAA), were assessed in vitro for rat and human red blood cells. Rat erythrocytes showed evidence of mild hemolysis when exposed to BEAA at concentrations of 5 or 10 mM for 4 h. BEAA treated rat red blood cells...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Udden MM

    更新日期:2005-03-28 00:00:00

  • Suppressive effect of tobacco smoke extracts on oral P-glycoprotein function and its impact in smoke-induced insult to oral epidermal cells.

    abstract::P-glycoprotein (Pgp) participates in the export of numerous toxins, drugs, and physiological compounds. To examine the involvement of Pgp in smoke-induced oral cell insult, the effects of extracts of the mainstream tobacco smoke (TS) on Pgp were studied in an oral epidermal carcinoma cell line, OECM-1. TS was first ex...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pan WC,Chen RM,Shen YC,Chen CC,Ueng YF

    更新日期:2009-03-10 00:00:00

  • Effect of acute and repeated chlordimeform treatment on rat hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes.

    abstract::The effect of chlordimeform (CDM) treatment on the hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes was examined in male and female rats following either acute or repeated treatment. After acute administration of chlordimeform (100 mg/kg, i.p., 1 hour before killing) differential effects were observed in various parameter...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Budris DM,Yim GK,Carlson GP,Schnell RC

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00