Predominant use of a V alpha gene segment in mouse T-cell receptors for cytochrome c.


:The T-cell receptor is a cell surface heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta chain that binds foreign antigen in the context of a cell surface molecule encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), thus restricting the T-cell response to the surface of antigen presenting cells. The variable (V) domain of the receptor binds antigen and MHC molecules and is composed of distinct regions encoded by separate gene elements--variable (V alpha and V beta), diversity (D beta) and joining (J alpha and J beta)--rearranged and joined during T-cell differentiation to generate contiguous V alpha and V beta genes. T-helper cells, which facilitate T and B cell responses, bind antigen in the context of a class II MHC molecule. The helper T-cell response to cytochrome c in mice is a well-defined model for studying the T-cell response to restricted antigen and MHC determinants. Only mice expressing certain class II molecules can respond to this antigen (Ek alpha Ek beta, Ek alpha Eb beta, Ev alpha Ev beta and Ek alpha Es beta). Most T cells appear to recognize the C-terminal peptide of cytochrome c (residues 81-104 in pigeon cytochrome c). We have raised helper T cells to pigeon cytochrome c or its C-terminal peptide analogues in four different MHC congenic strains of mice encoding each of the four responding class II molecules. We have isolated and sequenced seven V alpha genes and six V beta genes and analysed seven additional helper T cells by Northern blot to compare the structure of the V alpha and V beta gene segments with their antigen and MHC specificities. We have added five examples taken from the literature. These data show that a single V alpha gene segment is responsible for a large part of the response of mice to cytochrome c but there is no simple correlation of MHC restriction with gene segment use.






Winoto A,Urban JL,Lan NC,Goverman J,Hood L,Hansburg D




Has Abstract


1986-12-18 00:00:00














  • GABAA receptor signalling mechanisms revealed by structural pharmacology.

    abstract::Type-A γ-aminobutyric (GABAA) receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels with a very rich pharmacology. Some of their modulators, including benzodiazepines and general anaesthetics, are among the most successful drugs in clinical use and are common substances of abuse. Without reliable structural data, the mechanist...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Masiulis S,Desai R,Uchański T,Serna Martin I,Laverty D,Karia D,Malinauskas T,Zivanov J,Pardon E,Kotecha A,Steyaert J,Miller KW,Aricescu AR

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Do 'lipidic particles' represent intermembrane attachment sites?

    abstract::Although freeze-fracture electron microscopy is normally analysed with the presumption that particles represent proteins embedded within the membrane, particles which appeared to represent inverted lipid micelles within membranes have been reported. I have now confirmed the occurrence of particles in protein-free lipo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller RG

    更新日期:1980-09-11 00:00:00

  • Functional dissection of the yeast Cyc8-Tup1 transcriptional co-repressor complex.

    abstract::DNA-binding repressor proteins mediate regulation of yeast genes by cell type (Mcm1/alpha 2 and a1/alpha 2), glucose (Mig1) and oxygen (Rox1) (refs 1-4 respectively). An unusual feature of all these regulatory pathways is that transcriptional repression requires two physically associated proteins that do not bind DNA ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tzamarias D,Struhl K

    更新日期:1994-06-30 00:00:00

  • Bird song: superfast muscles control dove's trill.

    abstract::Bird songs frequently contain trilling sounds that demand extremely fast vocalization control. Here we show that doves control their syrinx, a vocal organ that is unique to birds, by using superfast muscles. These muscles, which are similar to those that operate highly specialist acoustic organs such as the rattle of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elemans CP,Spierts IL,Müller UK,Van Leeuwen JL,Goller F

    更新日期:2004-09-09 00:00:00

  • v-Src and EJ Ras alleviate repression of c-Jun by a cell-specific inhibitor.

    abstract::The AP-1 family of transcription factors, which includes the proto-oncogene products c-Jun and c-Fos, controls the stimulation of cellular genes by growth factors and the expression of oncogenes, including src and ras. Transcriptional activation by c-Jun is regulated by a cell-type-specific inhibitor that represses th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baichwal VR,Park A,Tjian R

    更新日期:1991-07-11 00:00:00

  • A cryo-electron microscopic study of ribosome-bound termination factor RF2.

    abstract::Protein synthesis takes place on the ribosome, where genetic information carried by messenger RNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids. This process is terminated when a stop codon moves into the ribosomal decoding centre (DC) and is recognized by a class-1 release factor (RF). RFs have a conserved GGQ amino-a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rawat UB,Zavialov AV,Sengupta J,Valle M,Grassucci RA,Linde J,Vestergaard B,Ehrenberg M,Frank J

    更新日期:2003-01-02 00:00:00

  • The amygdala modulates prefrontal cortex activity relative to conditioned fear.

    abstract::Animals learn that a tone can predict the occurrence of an electric shock through classical conditioning. Mice or rats trained in this manner display fear responses, such as freezing behaviour, when they hear the conditioned tone. Studies using amygdalectomized rats have shown that the amygdala is required for both th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garcia R,Vouimba RM,Baudry M,Thompson RF

    更新日期:1999-11-18 00:00:00

  • A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization.

    abstract::Human behaviour is thought to spread through face-to-face social networks, but it is difficult to identify social influence effects in observational studies, and it is unknown whether online social networks operate in the same way. Here we report results from a randomized controlled trial of political mobilization mes...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bond RM,Fariss CJ,Jones JJ,Kramer AD,Marlow C,Settle JE,Fowler JH

    更新日期:2012-09-13 00:00:00

  • Cell-type-specific replication initiation programs set fragility of the FRA3B fragile site.

    abstract::Common fragile sites have long been identified by cytogeneticists as chromosomal regions prone to breakage upon replication stress. They are increasingly recognized to be preferential targets for oncogene-induced DNA damage in pre-neoplastic lesions and hotspots for chromosomal rearrangements in various cancers. Commo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Letessier A,Millot GA,Koundrioukoff S,Lachagès AM,Vogt N,Hansen RS,Malfoy B,Brison O,Debatisse M

    更新日期:2011-02-03 00:00:00

  • Fringe-dependent separation of dorsal and ventral cells in the Drosophila wing.

    abstract::The separation of cells into populations that do not intermix, termed compartments, is a fundamental organizing principle during development. Dorsal-ventral compartmentalization of the Drosophila wing is regulated downstream of the apterous (ap) gene, which encodes a transcription factor that specifies dorsal wing fat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rauskolb C,Correia T,Irvine KD

    更新日期:1999-09-30 00:00:00

  • Science without borders: 4 big questions.

    abstract:: ...


    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Hodson R

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Visualizing transient events in amino-terminal autoprocessing of HIV-1 protease.

    abstract::HIV-1 protease processes the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into mature structural and functional proteins, including itself, and is therefore indispensable for viral maturation. The mature protease is active only as a dimer with each subunit contributing catalytic residues. The full-length transframe region protease pr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tang C,Louis JM,Aniana A,Suh JY,Clore GM

    更新日期:2008-10-02 00:00:00

  • Targeting of temperate phages drives loss of type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

    abstract::On infection of their host, temperate viruses that infect bacteria (bacteriophages; hereafter referred to as phages) enter either a lytic or a lysogenic cycle. The former results in lysis of bacterial cells and phage release (resulting in horizontal transmission), whereas lysogeny is characterized by the integration o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rollie C,Chevallereau A,Watson BNJ,Chyou TY,Fradet O,McLeod I,Fineran PC,Brown CM,Gandon S,Westra ER

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • CREBBP mutations in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    abstract::Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a leading cause of death due to disease in young people, but the biological determinants of treatment failure remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide profiling of structural DNA alterations in ALL have identified multiple submicroscopic somatic mutations targeting k...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mullighan CG,Zhang J,Kasper LH,Lerach S,Payne-Turner D,Phillips LA,Heatley SL,Holmfeldt L,Collins-Underwood JR,Ma J,Buetow KH,Pui CH,Baker SD,Brindle PK,Downing JR

    更新日期:2011-03-10 00:00:00

  • Isolation of an excision product of T-cell receptor alpha-chain gene rearrangements.

    abstract::The genes for the T-cell receptor, like the immunoglobulin genes, are rearranged as DNA. The mechanism of this rearrangement is not clear; unequal crossover between chromosomes and the looping-out and excision of the excess DNA have both been suggested. We isolated small polydisperse circular (spc) DNAs from mouse thy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fujimoto S,Yamagishi H

    更新日期:1987-05-21 00:00:00

  • Spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy at redshift z = 8.6.

    abstract::Galaxies had their most significant impact on the Universe when they assembled their first generations of stars. Energetic photons emitted by young, massive stars in primeval galaxies ionized the intergalactic medium surrounding their host galaxies, cleared sightlines along which the light of the young galaxies could ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lehnert MD,Nesvadba NP,Cuby JG,Swinbank AM,Morris S,Clément B,Evans CJ,Bremer MN,Basa S

    更新日期:2010-10-21 00:00:00

  • A possible neuronal basis for representation of acoustic scenes in auditory cortex of the big brown bat.

    abstract::Behavioural studies and field observations demonstrate that echolocating bats simultaneously perceive range, direction and shape of multiple objects in the environment as acoustic images derived from echoes. Cortical echo delay-tuned neurons contribute to the perception of object range, because focal inactivation of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dear SP,Simmons JA,Fritz J

    更新日期:1993-08-12 00:00:00

  • Maximizing US nitrate removal through wetland protection and restoration.

    abstract::Growing populations and agricultural intensification have led to raised riverine nitrogen (N) loads, widespread oxygen depletion in coastal zones (coastal hypoxia)1 and increases in the incidence of algal blooms.Although recent work has suggested that individual wetlands have the potential to improve water quality2-9,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng FY,Van Meter KJ,Byrnes DK,Basu NB

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • A proteolytic system that compensates for loss of proteasome function.

    abstract::Proteolysis is essential for the execution of many cellular functions. These include removal of incorrectly folded or damaged proteins, the activation of transcription factors, the ordered degradation of proteins involved in cell cycle control, and the generation of peptides destined for presentation by class I molecu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Glas R,Bogyo M,McMaster JS,Gaczynska M,Ploegh HL

    更新日期:1998-04-09 00:00:00

  • Interaction of polyadenylate-binding protein with the eIF4G homologue PAIP enhances translation.

    abstract::In the initiation of translation in eukaryotes, binding of the small ribosomal subunit to the messenger RNA results from recognition of the 5' cap structure (m7GpppX) of the mRNA by the cap-binding complex eIF4F. eIF4F is itself a three-subunit complex comprising the cap-binding protein eIF4E, eIF4A, an ATP-dependent ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Craig AW,Haghighat A,Yu AT,Sonenberg N

    更新日期:1998-04-02 00:00:00

  • Pro-gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone cleavage in adrenal gland undergoing compensatory growth.

    abstract::Regulation of the rapid compensatory growth seen in the remaining adrenal gland of rats following unilateral adrenalectomy is poorly understood. The role of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is obscure as immunoneutralization of circulating ACTH does not affect the observed compensatory growth or hyperplasia. This fi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lowry PJ,Silas L,McLean C,Linton EA,Estivariz FE

    更新日期:1983-11-03 00:00:00

  • Polymer-supported membranes as models of the cell surface.

    abstract::Lipid-bilayer membranes supported on solid substrates are widely used as cell-surface models that connect biological and artificial materials. They can be placed either directly on solids or on ultrathin polymer supports that mimic the generic role of the extracellular matrix. The tools of modern genetic engineering a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tanaka M,Sackmann E

    更新日期:2005-09-29 00:00:00

  • Plasticity in single neuron and circuit computations.

    abstract::Plasticity in neural circuits can result from alterations in synaptic strength or connectivity, as well as from changes in the excitability of the neurons themselves. To better understand the role of plasticity in the brain, we need to establish how brain circuits work and the kinds of computations that different circ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Destexhe A,Marder E

    更新日期:2004-10-14 00:00:00

  • Enhancing the potential of enantioselective organocatalysis with light.

    abstract::Organocatalysis-catalysis mediated by small chiral organic molecules-is a powerful technology for enantioselective synthesis, and has extensive applications in traditional ionic, two-electron-pair reactivity domains. Recently, organocatalysis has been successfully combined with photochemical reactivity to unlock previ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Silvi M,Melchiorre P

    更新日期:2018-01-31 00:00:00

  • Isotopic evidence for the source of lead in Greenland snows since the late 1960s.

    abstract::IN 1969, Murozumi et al.1 demonstrated that the concentration of lead in Greenland snow had increased by a factor of 200 since ancient times, and concluded that most of this increase was a result of the use of alkyl-leaded petrol. Partly because of these findings, the United States and other western countries limited ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosman KJR,Chisholm W,Boutron CF,Candelone JP,Görlach U

    更新日期:1993-03-25 00:00:00

  • Loss of ADAR1 in tumours overcomes resistance to immune checkpoint blockade.

    abstract::Most patients with cancer either do not respond to immune checkpoint blockade or develop resistance to it, often because of acquired mutations that impair antigen presentation. Here we show that loss of function of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 in tumour cells profoundly sensitizes tumours to immunotherapy and overcome...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishizuka JJ,Manguso RT,Cheruiyot CK,Bi K,Panda A,Iracheta-Vellve A,Miller BC,Du PP,Yates KB,Dubrot J,Buchumenski I,Comstock DE,Brown FD,Ayer A,Kohnle IC,Pope HW,Zimmer MD,Sen DR,Lane-Reticker SK,Robitschek EJ,Grif

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • NMR study of parallel-stranded tetraplex formation by the hexadeoxynucleotide d(TG4T).

    abstract::Multistranded DNA structures based upon guanine association have been proposed to be important in the structure of chromosome telomeres and in immunoglobulin class switching. Nucleic acids containing runs of guanine bases form a number of structures in vitro, including fold-back structures (Fig. 1a) and parallel-stran...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aboul-ela F,Murchie AI,Lilley DM

    更新日期:1992-11-19 00:00:00

  • RAD6-RAD18-RAD5-pathway-dependent tolerance to chronic low-dose ultraviolet light.

    abstract::In nature, organisms are exposed to chronic low-dose ultraviolet light (CLUV) as opposed to the acute high doses common to laboratory experiments. Analysis of the cellular response to acute high-dose exposure has delineated the importance of direct DNA repair by the nucleotide excision repair pathway and for checkpoin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hishida T,Kubota Y,Carr AM,Iwasaki H

    更新日期:2009-01-29 00:00:00

  • Dissociation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens from intracranial self-stimulation.

    abstract::Mesolimbic dopamine-releasing neurons appear to be important in the brain reward system. One behavioural paradigm that supports this hypothesis is intracranial self-stimulation (ICS), during which animals repeatedly press a lever to stimulate their own dopamine-releasing neurons electrically. Here we study dopamine re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garris PA,Kilpatrick M,Bunin MA,Michael D,Walker QD,Wightman RM

    更新日期:1999-03-04 00:00:00

  • Replication of Epstein-Barr virus in human epithelial cells infected in vitro.

    abstract::Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the herpes group of viruses and the aetiological agent of infectious mononucleosis, is usually thought of as a lymphotrophic virus with the ability to transform B lymphocytes. So the association of EBV with nasopharyngeal carcinoma is puzzling, especially given the lack of success...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sixbey JW,Vesterinen EH,Nedrud JG,Raab-Traub N,Walton LA,Pagano JS

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00