Structural basis for transcription elongation by bacterial RNA polymerase.


:The RNA polymerase elongation complex (EC) is both highly stable and processive, rapidly extending RNA chains for thousands of nucleotides. Understanding the mechanisms of elongation and its regulation requires detailed information about the structural organization of the EC. Here we report the 2.5-A resolution structure of the Thermus thermophilus EC; the structure reveals the post-translocated intermediate with the DNA template in the active site available for pairing with the substrate. DNA strand separation occurs one position downstream of the active site, implying that only one substrate at a time can specifically bind to the EC. The upstream edge of the RNA/DNA hybrid stacks on the beta'-subunit 'lid' loop, whereas the first displaced RNA base is trapped within a protein pocket, suggesting a mechanism for RNA displacement. The RNA is threaded through the RNA exit channel, where it adopts a conformation mimicking that of a single strand within a double helix, providing insight into a mechanism for hairpin-dependent pausing and termination.






Vassylyev DG,Vassylyeva MN,Perederina A,Tahirov TH,Artsimovitch I




Has Abstract


2007-07-12 00:00:00
















  • Crystal structures of mismatch repair protein MutS and its complex with a substrate DNA.

    abstract::DNA mismatch repair is critical for increasing replication fidelity in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. MutS protein, a member of the ABC ATPase superfamily, recognizes mispaired and unpaired bases in duplex DNA and initiates mismatch repair. Mutations in human MutS genes cause a predisposition to hereditary...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Obmolova G,Ban C,Hsieh P,Yang W

    更新日期:2000-10-12 00:00:00

  • Compositional differences between meteorites and near-Earth asteroids.

    abstract::Understanding the nature and origin of the asteroid population in Earth's vicinity (near-Earth asteroids, and its subset of potentially hazardous asteroids) is a matter of both scientific interest and practical importance. It is generally expected that the compositions of the asteroids that are most likely to hit Eart...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vernazza P,Binzel RP,Thomas CA,DeMeo FE,Bus SJ,Rivkin AS,Tokunaga AT

    更新日期:2008-08-14 00:00:00

  • Global reference mapping of human transcription factor footprints.

    abstract::Combinatorial binding of transcription factors to regulatory DNA underpins gene regulation in all organisms. Genetic variation in regulatory regions has been connected with diseases and diverse phenotypic traits1, but it remains challenging to distinguish variants that affect regulatory function2. Genomic DNase I foot...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vierstra J,Lazar J,Sandstrom R,Halow J,Lee K,Bates D,Diegel M,Dunn D,Neri F,Haugen E,Rynes E,Reynolds A,Nelson J,Johnson A,Frerker M,Buckley M,Kaul R,Meuleman W,Stamatoyannopoulos JA

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V.

    abstract::Class-V myosin proceeds along actin filaments with large ( approximately 36 nm) steps. Myosin-V has two heads, each of which consists of a motor domain and a long (23 nm) neck domain. In accordance with the widely accepted lever-arm model, it was suggested that myosin-V steps to successive (36 nm) target zones along t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanaka H,Homma K,Iwane AH,Katayama E,Ikebe R,Saito J,Yanagida T,Ikebe M

    更新日期:2002-01-10 00:00:00

  • Cell interaction between compartments establishes the proximal-distal axis of Drosophila legs.

    abstract::The appendage primordia of Drosophila are subdivided into compartments by the localized expression of transcription factors. Interaction between cells in adjacent compartments establishes organizing centres responsible for generating spatial pattern and promoting cell proliferation in the developing appendages. Locali...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Diaz-Benjumea FJ,Cohen B,Cohen SM

    更新日期:1994-11-10 00:00:00

  • Calcium entry through stretch-inactivated ion channels in mdx myotubes.

    abstract::Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of human X-linked muscular dystrophies have come from the identification of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein associated with the surface membrane. Although there is little or virtually no dystrophin in affected individuals, it is not known how this causes muscle d...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Franco A Jr,Lansman JB

    更新日期:1990-04-12 00:00:00

  • Forty-five varieties of research (and development).

    abstract::Lord Rothschild presents his personal views about the terminology used to describe research and development. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rothschild L

    更新日期:1972-10-13 00:00:00

  • The GTP-binding protein Ran/TC4 is required for protein import into the nucleus.

    abstract::Two cytosolic fractions (A and B) from Xenopus oocytes are sufficient to support protein import into the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized cells. Fraction A recognizes the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and binds the import substrate to the nuclear envelope, whereas fraction B mediates the subsequent passage of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moore MS,Blobel G

    更新日期:1993-10-14 00:00:00

  • Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of Cd2-GAL4 from S. cerevisiae.

    abstract::The GAL4 protein activates transcription of the genes required for galactose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein, consisting of 881 amino acids, is dimeric when bound to one of the approximately twofold symmetrical DNA sites present in the galactose upstream activating sequence (UASG). Here we use two...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baleja JD,Marmorstein R,Harrison SC,Wagner G

    更新日期:1992-04-02 00:00:00

  • miR-34/449 miRNAs are required for motile ciliogenesis by repressing cp110.

    abstract::The mir-34/449 family consists of six homologous miRNAs at three genomic loci. Redundancy of miR-34/449 miRNAs and their dominant expression in multiciliated epithelia suggest a functional significance in ciliogenesis. Here we report that mice deficient for all miR-34/449 miRNAs exhibited postnatal mortality, infertil...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Song R,Walentek P,Sponer N,Klimke A,Lee JS,Dixon G,Harland R,Wan Y,Lishko P,Lize M,Kessel M,He L

    更新日期:2014-06-05 00:00:00

  • LRG1 promotes angiogenesis by modulating endothelial TGF-β signalling.

    abstract::Aberrant neovascularization contributes to diseases such as cancer, blindness and atherosclerosis, and is the consequence of inappropriate angiogenic signalling. Although many regulators of pathogenic angiogenesis have been identified, our understanding of this process is incomplete. Here we explore the transcriptome ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang X,Abraham S,McKenzie JAG,Jeffs N,Swire M,Tripathi VB,Luhmann UFO,Lange CAK,Zhai Z,Arthur HM,Bainbridge J,Moss SE,Greenwood J

    更新日期:2013-07-18 00:00:00

  • Depletion of intracellular calcium stores activates a calcium current in mast cells.

    abstract::In many cell types, receptor-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores is followed by Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. The sustained entry of Ca2+ is thought to result partly from the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ pools. Most investigations have characterized Ca2+ influx indirectly by measuring Ca(2+)-activa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoth M,Penner R

    更新日期:1992-01-23 00:00:00

  • Water vapour jets inside the plume of gas leaving Enceladus.

    abstract::A plume of water vapour escapes from fissures crossing the south polar region of the Saturnian moon Enceladus. Tidal deformation of a thin surface crust above an internal ocean could result in tensile and compressive stresses that would affect the width of the fissures; therefore, the quantity of water vapour released...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hansen CJ,Esposito LW,Stewart AI,Meinke B,Wallis B,Colwell JE,Hendrix AR,Larsen K,Pryor W,Tian F

    更新日期:2008-11-27 00:00:00

  • Female mating bias results in conflicting sex-specific offspring fitness.

    abstract::Indirect-benefit models of sexual selection assert that females gain heritable offspring advantages through a mating bias for males of superior genetic quality. This has generally been tested by associating a simple morphological quality indicator (for example, bird tail length) with offspring viability. However, sele...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fedorka KM,Mousseau TA

    更新日期:2004-05-06 00:00:00

  • Identification of a proline residue as a transduction element involved in voltage gating of gap junctions.

    abstract::Gap junction channels are structurally distinct from other ion channels in that they comprise two hemichannels which interact head-to-head to form an aqueous channel between cells. Intercellular voltage differences together with increased intracellular concentrations of H+ and Ca2+ cause closure of these normally pate...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suchyna TM,Xu LX,Gao F,Fourtner CR,Nicholson BJ

    更新日期:1993-10-28 00:00:00

  • Phenotypic consequences of 1,000 generations of selection at elevated CO2 in a green alga.

    abstract::Estimates of the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations on future global plant production rely on the physiological response of individual plants or plant communities when exposed to high CO2 (refs 1-6). Plant populations may adapt to the changing atmosphere, however, such that the evolved plant communiti...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collins S,Bell G

    更新日期:2004-09-30 00:00:00

  • Chondroitin proteoglycans are involved in cell division of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    abstract::Glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are extracellular sugar chains involved in intercellular signalling. Disruptions of genes encoding enzymes that mediate glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis have severe consequences in Drosophila and mice. Mutations in the Drosophila gene sugarless, which ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mizuguchi S,Uyama T,Kitagawa H,Nomura KH,Dejima K,Gengyo-Ando K,Mitani S,Sugahara K,Nomura K

    更新日期:2003-05-22 00:00:00

  • Unified response to bilateral hemispheric stimulation by a split-brain patient.

    abstract::Surgical sectioning of the corpus callosum in epileptic patients has provided a unique opportunity to study separately the competence and processing capacities of the two cerebral hemispheres, each of which is able to perceive, think, memorize and learn independently and essentially outside the realm of awareness of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sergent J

    更新日期:1983-10-27 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of BET recruitment to chromatin as an effective treatment for MLL-fusion leukaemia.

    abstract::Recurrent chromosomal translocations involving the mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) gene initiate aggressive forms of leukaemia, which are often refractory to conventional therapies. Many MLL-fusion partners are members of the super elongation complex (SEC), a critical regulator of transcriptional elongation, suggesting ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dawson MA,Prinjha RK,Dittmann A,Giotopoulos G,Bantscheff M,Chan WI,Robson SC,Chung CW,Hopf C,Savitski MM,Huthmacher C,Gudgin E,Lugo D,Beinke S,Chapman TD,Roberts EJ,Soden PE,Auger KR,Mirguet O,Doehner K,Delwel R,

    更新日期:2011-10-02 00:00:00

  • Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria.

    abstract::For many decades comparative analyses of protein sequences and structures have been used to investigate fundamental principles of molecular evolution. In contrast, relatively little is known about the long-term evolution of species' phenotypic and genetic properties. This represents an important gap in our understandi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Plata G,Henry CS,Vitkup D

    更新日期:2015-01-15 00:00:00

  • Discovery central.

    abstract:: ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jia H

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Retardation of arsenic transport through a Pleistocene aquifer.

    abstract::Groundwater drawn daily from shallow alluvial sands by millions of wells over large areas of south and southeast Asia exposes an estimated population of over a hundred million people to toxic levels of arsenic. Holocene aquifers are the source of widespread arsenic poisoning across the region. In contrast, Pleistocene...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Geen A,Bostick BC,Pham TK,Vi ML,Nguyen-Ngoc M,Phu DM,Pham HV,Radloff K,Aziz Z,Mey JL,Stahl MO,Harvey CF,Oates P,Weinman B,Stengel C,Frei F,Kipfer R,Berg M

    更新日期:2013-09-12 00:00:00

  • Multiple conductance channels in type-2 cerebellar astrocytes activated by excitatory amino acids.

    abstract::L-GLUTAMATE and L-aspartate are thought to have a widespread function as synaptic transmitters in the mammalian central nervous system and there are at least three types of neuronal glutamate receptors, which can be activated by the selective agonists N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), quisqualate and kainate. Recent experi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Usowicz MM,Gallo V,Cull-Candy SG

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Altered synaptic physiology and reduced susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures in GluR6-deficient mice.

    abstract::L-glutamate, the neurotransmitter of the majority of excitatory synapses in the brain, acts on three classes of ionotropic receptors: NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate receptors. Little is known about the physiological role of kainate receptors be...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mulle C,Sailer A,Pérez-Otaño I,Dickinson-Anson H,Castillo PE,Bureau I,Maron C,Gage FH,Mann JR,Bettler B,Heinemann SF

    更新日期:1998-04-09 00:00:00

  • Leveraging excited-state coherence for synthetic control of ultrafast dynamics.

    abstract::Design-specific control over excited-state dynamics is necessary for any application seeking to convert light into chemical potential. Such control is especially desirable in iron(II)-based chromophores, which are an Earth-abundant option for a wide range of photo-induced electron-transfer applications including solar...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paulus BC,Adelman SL,Jamula LL,McCusker JK

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the ubiquitin-like protein Hub1 in splice-site usage and alternative splicing.

    abstract::Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs diversifies gene products in eukaryotes and is guided by factors that enable spliceosomes to recognize particular splice sites. Here we report that alternative splicing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SRC1 pre-mRNA is promoted by the conserved ubiquitin-like protein Hub1. Structu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mishra SK,Ammon T,Popowicz GM,Krajewski M,Nagel RJ,Ares M Jr,Holak TA,Jentsch S

    更新日期:2011-05-25 00:00:00

  • Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins.

    abstract::Experimental realization of a universal set of quantum logic gates is the central requirement for the implementation of a quantum computer. In an 'all-geometric' approach to quantum computation, the quantum gates are implemented using Berry phases and their non-Abelian extensions, holonomies, from geometric transforma...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zu C,Wang WB,He L,Zhang WG,Dai CY,Wang F,Duan LM

    更新日期:2014-10-02 00:00:00

  • p63(+)Krt5(+) distal airway stem cells are essential for lung regeneration.

    abstract::Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis involve the progressive and inexorable destruction of oxygen exchange surfaces and airways, and have emerged as a leading cause of death worldwide. Mitigating therapies, aside from impractical organ transplantation, remain limited and t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zuo W,Zhang T,Wu DZ,Guan SP,Liew AA,Yamamoto Y,Wang X,Lim SJ,Vincent M,Lessard M,Crum CP,Xian W,McKeon F

    更新日期:2015-01-29 00:00:00

  • Dynamic fracture by large extraterrestrial impacts as the origin of shatter cones.

    abstract::A large impact by a comet or meteorite releases an enormous amount of energy, which evaporates, melts and fractures the surrounding rocks. Distinctive features of such impacts are 'shatter cones', deformed rocks characterized by hierarchical striated features. Although such features have been used for decades as unequ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sagy A,Reches Z,Fineberg J

    更新日期:2002-07-18 00:00:00

  • Ban bullying in science.

    abstract:: ...


    pub_type: 社论



    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00