Living beyond our "means": new methods for comparing distributions.

Abstract:

:This paper introduces the projection methods for describing and testing the differences between pairs of continuous distributions. These methods include the projection plot, the projection spline, and the iter-1 test. The projection plot displays the difference between corresponding quantiles against the average of the corresponding quantiles. It is analogous to an empirical quantile-quantile plot that has been rotated 45 degrees. The projection spline is a knotted linear spline iteratively fit to the projection plot so that all knots are associated with significant changes in slope. It summarizes nonrandom deviations from linearity on the projection plot, allowing classification of the highest level of difference between two distributions as a difference in shape, in spread, or in location. The iter-1 test compares the first iteration of the projection spline with the line y = 0, providing a global test of difference between two distributions that is more powerful in simulations than either the chi-square test of independence or the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. These methods will enhance epidemiologic practice by making the comparison of full distributions an accessible tool for routine data analysis.

journal_name

Am J Epidemiol

authors

Jones CP

doi

10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009234

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1997-12-15 00:00:00

pages

1056-66

issue

12

eissn

0002-9262

issn

1476-6256

journal_volume

146

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Longitudinal study of risk factors for coronary heart disease across the menopausal transition.

    abstract::The patterns of change in blood lipids, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking and drinking behaviors, and exercise were examined in an ongoing longitudinal study from 1991 to 1995 of 150 middle-aged Melbourne, Australia, women as they passed through menopause. Changes in risk factors over time were examin...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010246

    authors: Do KA,Green A,Guthrie JR,Dudley EC,Burger HG,Dennerstein L

    更新日期:2000-03-15 00:00:00

  • Efficient design for Mendelian randomization studies: subsample and 2-sample instrumental variable estimators.

    abstract::Mendelian randomization (MR) is a method for estimating the causal relationship between an exposure and an outcome using a genetic factor as an instrumental variable (IV) for the exposure. In the traditional MR setting, data on the IV, exposure, and outcome are available for all participants. However, obtaining comple...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwt084

    authors: Pierce BL,Burgess S

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • A study of the effect of weight and dietary fat on breast cancer survival time.

    abstract::Female breast cancer patients who had participated in a case-control study conducted during 1973-1975 were followed up, using record linkage to the Statistics Canada mortality data base, to the end of 1980. A number of variables recorded for the case-control study, in particular body weight and daily intake of dietary...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114305

    authors: Newman SC,Miller AB,Howe GR

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00

  • Mortality rate in children born to mothers and fathers with celiac disease: a nationwide cohort study.

    abstract::Celiac disease (CD) is associated with increased mortality rate and adverse pregnancy outcome, but little is known about offspring mortality rate. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we identified persons whose biopsy-verified CD was diagnosed in Sweden in 1969-2008. We compared mortality rates in children ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kws397

    authors: Zugna D,Richiardi L,Stephansson O,Cnattingius S,Ludvigsson JF

    更新日期:2013-06-15 00:00:00

  • Observations on the history of epidemiology in western New York, 1843-1960.

    abstract::Epidemiology has a rich tradition in western New York State, beginning with the classic study by Austin Flint of a waterborne typhoid fever outbreak in North Boston in 1843. Other important investigations included the study of the Buffalo poliomyelitis epidemic of 1912, by Wade Hampton Frost, which provided a comprehe...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009215

    authors: Winkelstein W Jr

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for secondary transmission in households after a common-source outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis.

    abstract::In November 1984, a foodborne outbreak of Norwalk gastroenteritis occurred in a K-12 public school in northern Vermont. The outbreak offered an opportunity to systematically study in detail secondary transmission rates in households. Eating salad at Tuesday's school-sponsored Thanksgiving Banquet was associated with i...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114756

    authors: Heun EM,Vogt RL,Hudson PJ,Parren S,Gary GW

    更新日期:1987-12-01 00:00:00

  • Age-specific differences in influenza A epidemic curves: do children drive the spread of influenza epidemics?

    abstract::There is accumulating evidence suggesting that children may drive the spread of influenza epidemics. The objective of this study was to quantify the lead time by age using laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A for the 1995/1996-2005/2006 seasons from Canadian communities and laboratory-confirmed hospital admission...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwr037

    authors: Schanzer D,Vachon J,Pelletier L

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence survey of cytomegalovirus infection in children in Chengdu.

    abstract::Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common worldwide perinatal infection. Although usually asymptomatic, it may cause deafness in up to 15% of these infants. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the age-specific prevalence of CMV seropositivity in Chinese children and to determine if any risk factors for infectio...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115467

    authors: Liu Z,Wang E,Taylor W,Yu H,Wu T,Wan Z,Huang Y,Ni Z,Sackett D

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in commingled body mass index distributions associated with secular trends in overweight among Danish young men.

    abstract::The authors present results from a novel approach to understanding recent secular trends in overweight in terms of changes in underlying component distributions. On the basis of an examination of two large overlapping samples of Danish young men (ns = 16,557 and 21,747) spanning birth cohorts 1939-1958, the authors fo...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115917

    authors: Price RA,Ness R,Sørensen TI

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Misclassification bias arising from random error in exposure measurement: implications for dual measurement strategies.

    abstract::Despite the resulting loss of information, continuous exposure variables are often categorized in epidemiologic data analysis. It has been shown that nondifferential measurement error of exposure can lead to differential misclassification under these circumstances. This paper extends these findings to the misclassific...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116877

    authors: Brenner H,Blettner M

    更新日期:1993-09-15 00:00:00

  • Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer by age 50 years among German women.

    abstract::Recent studies suggest that both active and passive smokers have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with women who have never been either actively or passively exposed. Data on lifetime active and passive smoking were collected in 1999-2000 from 468 predominantly premenopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwf093

    authors: Kropp S,Chang-Claude J

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Social support and mortality in an elderly community population.

    abstract::A community sample made in the fall of 1972 in Durham County, North Carolina, and that consisted of 331 persons 65 years of age and older was assessed for adequacy of social support along three parameters: roles and available attachments, perceived social support, and frequency of social interaction. This approach to ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113351

    authors: Blazer DG

    更新日期:1982-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress and allostatic load in adolescents.

    abstract::The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kws185

    authors: Theall KP,Drury SS,Shirtcliff EA

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Relation of occupational exposure to respiratory symptoms and asthma in a general population sample: self-reported versus interview-based exposure data.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to examine how the consistency of self-reported exposure to dust or gas, asbestos, and quartz varied between subjects with and those without respiratory symptoms and asthma in a Norwegian community sample () in 1987-1988. Exposure characterization obtained in a structured work history i...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/154.5.477

    authors: Bakke PS,Hanoa R,Gulsvik A

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Parenteral and sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in intravenous drug users: a study of seroconversion. The Northern Italian Seronegative Drug Addicts (NISDA) Study.

    abstract::To evaluate the role of parenteral and sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, we studied seronegative intravenous drug users recruited from 25 drug dependence treatment centers in northern Italy. All attending intravenous drug users were asked for their consent and screened for antibodies to human immuno...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116275

    authors: Nicolosi A,Leite ML,Musicco M,Molinari S,Lazzarin A

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Are the acute effects of particulate matter on mortality in the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study the result of inadequate control for weather and season? A sensitivity analysis using flexible distributed lag models.

    abstract::Time-series studies have linked daily variations in nonaccidental deaths with daily variations in ambient particulate matter air pollution, while controlling for qualitatively larger influences of weather and season. Although time-series analyses typically include nonlinear terms for weather and season, questions rema...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwi157

    authors: Welty LJ,Zeger SL

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Optimizing buccal cell DNA yields in mothers and infants for human leukocyte antigen genotyping.

    abstract::Buccal cells provide a convenient source of DNA for epidemiologic studies. Mouthwash rinses yield a higher quality and quantity of DNA than cytobrushes but are not practical for collection from infants. Although cytobrushes yield sufficient DNA for most genotyping analyses, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) analysis can r...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwh171

    authors: Saftlas AF,Waldschmidt M,Logsden-Sackett N,Triche E,Field E

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • What Transmission Precautions Best Control Influenza Spread in a Hospital?

    abstract::Influenza is a significant problem within hospitals, leading to extended hospital stays, excess morbidity and mortality, and economic loss. Prevention and control strategies are generally "bundled"; therefore, the individual effects of particular strategies and the value of combined strategies cannot be determined dir...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwv293

    authors: Blanco N,Eisenberg MC,Stillwell T,Foxman B

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Use of electric bedding devices and risk of breast cancer in African-American women.

    abstract::In this case-control study, the authors aimed to examine whether use of an electric bedding device increased breast cancer risk in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American patients diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-1998 who were aged 20-64 years and lived in one of three Tennessee counties. Contr...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwg220

    authors: Zhu K,Hunter S,Payne-Wilks K,Roland CL,Forbes DS

    更新日期:2003-10-15 00:00:00

  • Determinants of the incidence of childhood asthma: a two-stage case-control study.

    abstract::Extensive literature exists on potential risk factors for childhood asthma. To the authors' knowledge, no investigators have yet attempted to disentangle the effects of those determinants within a single study setting. The authors aimed to evaluate the independent effects of 47 potential determinants (from the prenata...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwn309

    authors: Martel MJ,Rey E,Malo JL,Perreault S,Beauchesne MF,Forget A,Blais L

    更新日期:2009-01-15 00:00:00

  • Increased childhood morbidity after measles is short-term in urban Bangladesh.

    abstract::In a 1995-1996 cohort study in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh, morbidity in 117 hospitalized and 137 acute measles cases compared with age-matched children without measles (unexposed) was determined by weekly interview for 6 months. Compared with unexposed children, there were higher incidences of hospitalization (adju...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010267

    authors: Akramuzzaman SM,Cutts FT,Wheeler JG,Hossain MJ

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Birth weight, early weight gain, and subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Previous studies suggest that birth weight and weight gain during the first year of life are related to later risk of type 1 diabetes. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on these associations. Twelve studies involving 2,398,150 persons of whom 7,491 had type 1 diabetes provided odds ratios and...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwp065

    authors: Harder T,Roepke K,Diller N,Stechling Y,Dudenhausen JW,Plagemann A

    更新日期:2009-06-15 00:00:00

  • Young age at first sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infections in adolescents and young adults.

    abstract::The authors examined the relation between age at first vaginal intercourse and a positive nucleic acid amplification test for sexually transmitted infection (STI). A nationally representative sample of 9,844 respondents aged 18-26 years was tested for chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in wave 3 (2001...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwi095

    authors: Kaestle CE,Halpern CT,Miller WC,Ford CA

    更新日期:2005-04-15 00:00:00

  • Delayed application of condoms is a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus infection among homosexual and bisexual men.

    abstract::The objective of this analysis was to identify risk factors for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among homosexual and bisexual men in Ontario, Canada, during 1998-2001. Participants were recruited through the provincial HIV diagnostic laboratory and through physicians and community organizations. HI...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwf195

    authors: Calzavara L,Burchell AN,Remis RS,Major C,Corey P,Myers T,Millson M,Wallace E

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between complement component 3 and age-related macular degeneration: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::The authors performed a meta-analysis to estimate the magnitude of polymorphism effects for the complement component C3 gene (C3) and their possible mode of action on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The meta-analysis included 16 and 7 studies for rs2230199 and rs1047286, respectively. Data extraction and risk ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwr025

    authors: Thakkinstian A,McKay GJ,McEvoy M,Chakravarthy U,Chakrabarti S,Silvestri G,Kaur I,Li X,Attia J

    更新日期:2011-06-15 00:00:00

  • Using Bounds to Compare the Strength of Exchangeability Assumptions for Internal and External Validity.

    abstract::In the absence of strong assumptions (e.g., exchangeability), only bounds for causal effects can be identified. Here we describe bounds for the risk difference for an effect of a binary exposure on a binary outcome in 4 common study settings: observational studies and randomized studies, each with and without simple r...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kwz060

    authors: Breskin A,Westreich D,Cole SR,Edwards JK

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Low dehydroepiandrosterone and ischemic heart disease in middle-aged men: prospective results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study.

    abstract::The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) have been characterized as "protective" against ischemic heart disease (IHD), especially in men, on the basis of sparse epidemiologic evidence. The authors used data from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study, a random sample prospective study of 1...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/153.1.79

    authors: Feldman HA,Johannes CB,Araujo AB,Mohr BA,Longcope C,McKinlay JB

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive disorders and occupational exposure to organophosphates: results from the PHYTONER study.

    abstract::The involvement of organophosphate insecticides in cognitive disorders is supported by epidemiologic and biological evidence, but the effects of long-term exposure remain debated. We studied the association between organophosphate exposure and cognitive performance in vine workers from the PHYTONER study cohort in the...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/aje/kws346

    authors: Blanc-Lapierre A,Bouvier G,Gruber A,Leffondré K,Lebailly P,Fabrigoule C,Baldi I

    更新日期:2013-05-15 00:00:00

  • Multi-level analysis in epidemiologic research on health behaviors and outcomes.

    abstract::Individual-level health behaviors and outcomes have multi-level determinants (individual and environmental). Multi-level analysis seeks to explain individual outcomes in terms of both individual and environmental or aggregate variables. Ecologic fallacy (improper inference about individual-level associations based on ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116207

    authors: Von Korff M,Koepsell T,Curry S,Diehr P

    更新日期:1992-05-15 00:00:00

  • Differences between blacks and whites in the epidemiology of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania.

    abstract::Racial differences in the incidence and natural history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were evaluated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The yearly incidence rate for whites was approximately 1.5 times that for blacks. The cumulative risk of developing insulin-dependent diabetes prior to age 20 was greater for...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114279

    authors: LaPorte RE,Tajima N,Dorman JS,Cruickshanks KJ,Eberhardt MS,Rabin BS,Atchison RW,Wagener DK,Becker DJ,Orchard TJ

    更新日期:1986-04-01 00:00:00