The effect of two mailing strategies on the response to a survey of physicians.


:In 1989, the authors tested the effectiveness of two response-enhancing techniques, a postage stamped or franked return envelope and a prenotification letter, in a survey of pregnancy among 10,047 resident physicians in the United States. The techniques were randomly assigned using a factorial design. No significant interactions were observed between the techniques. After two mailings, those who received a stamped return envelope had a response of 71.2%, compared with 68.2% for those who received a franked return envelope (95% confidence interval 1.3-4.9%). Men who received the stamped envelope had a 5.9% greater response than those who received the franked envelope (p less than 0.001), but the type of postage did not influence response among women (p = 0.84); this interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.006). Physicians who received a prenotification letter had a response of 69.0%, compared with 70.5% for those who did not receive the letter (95% confidence interval -3.3 to 0.2%). The authors conclude that seemingly minor changes in survey design could have saved from 12% to 19% of the total cost of the study.


Am J Epidemiol


Shiono PH,Klebanoff MA




Has Abstract


1991-09-01 00:00:00












  • Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trial cohorts in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978-1991.

    abstract::The authors evaluated the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease from the date of seroconversion to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death among 362 well-documented seroconverters. The participants were homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trials in Amsterda...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hessol NA,Koblin BA,van Griensven GJ,Bacchetti P,Liu JY,Stevens CE,Coutinho RA,Buchbinder SP,Katz MH

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Bladder cancer in a low risk population: results from the Adventist Health Study.

    abstract::A cohort study of bladder cancer was conducted in a population of California Seventh-day Adventists. Most Seventh-day Adventists use neither tobacco nor alcohol yet experience a large degree of variation in dietary habits. Therefore, diet and other lifestyle habits were evaluated in this unique population. In 1976, 34...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mills PK,Beeson WL,Phillips RL,Fraser GE

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Self-ratings of health and change in walking speed over 2 years: results from the caregiver-study of osteoporotic fractures.

    abstract::Although poorer self-rated health (SRH) is associated with increased mortality, less is known about its impact on functioning. This study evaluated whether poorer SRH was associated with decline in walking speed and whether caregiving, often considered an indicator of chronic stress, modified this relation. The sample...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ashburner JM,Cauley JA,Cawthon P,Ensrud KE,Hochberg MC,Fredman L

    更新日期:2011-04-15 00:00:00

  • Measuring dietary change in a diet intervention trial: comparing food frequency questionnaire and dietary recalls.

    abstract::Measurement of dietary change was assessed in a systematic quota subsample (n = 397) of women recruited into the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study between 1996 and 1998, a multicenter, randomized dietary intervention trial among breast cancer survivors. Women from the intervention and comparison arms completed t...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Thomson CA,Giuliano A,Rock CL,Ritenbaugh CK,Flatt SW,Faerber S,Newman V,Caan B,Graver E,Hartz V,Whitacre R,Parker F,Pierce JP,Marshall JR

    更新日期:2003-04-15 00:00:00

  • Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    abstract::Perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid are perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) widely distributed in the environment. Previous studies of PFCs and birth weight are equivocal. The authors examined this association in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), using data from 901 women enrolled from 2...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitworth KW,Haug LS,Baird DD,Becher G,Hoppin JA,Skjaerven R,Thomsen C,Eggesbo M,Travlos G,Wilson R,Cupul-Uicab LA,Brantsaeter AL,Longnecker MP

    更新日期:2012-06-15 00:00:00

  • Environmental exposure to tremolite and respiratory cancer in New Caledonia: a case-control study.

    abstract::A case-control study on respiratory cancers was conducted in New Caledonia (South Pacific), where a high incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma had been observed. The disease pattern suggested an environmental exposure to asbestos. The first results showed that, in some areas, tremolite asbestos derived from loca...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luce D,Bugel I,Goldberg P,Goldberg M,Salomon C,Billon-Galland MA,Nicolau J,Quénel P,Fevotte J,Brochard P

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.

    abstract::Periconceptional intake of folic acid prevents some neural tube defects (NTDs). Other nutrients may also contribute to NTD etiologies; a likely candidate is choline. Similar to folic acid, choline is involved in one-carbon metabolism for methylation of homocysteine to methionine. The authors investigated whether mater...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shaw GM,Carmichael SL,Yang W,Selvin S,Schaffer DM

    更新日期:2004-07-15 00:00:00

  • The association between water supply and inflammatory bowel disease based on a 1990-1993 cohort study in southeastern Norway.

    abstract::Inflammatory bowel disease refers to a group of chronic diseases of unknown etiology related to both genetic and environmental factors. In this 1990-1993 study, the authors investigated associations between the content and quality of drinking water and the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease. They used data from a...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Aamodt G,Bukholm G,Jahnsen J,Moum B,Vatn MH,IBSEN Study Group.

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI).

    abstract::The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed clinically and with ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lundgren JD,Melbye M,Pedersen C,Rosenberg PS,Gerstoft J

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • Modeling prevention strategies for gonorrhea and Chlamydia using stochastic network simulations.

    abstract::A simulation model was used to study the spread of two sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), namely gonorrhea and genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The model is based on a stochastic pair formation and separation process, which describes the underlying structure of the sexual contact pattern. It is impleme...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kretzschmar M,van Duynhoven YT,Severijnen AJ

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Can the Risk of Severe Depression-Related Outcomes be Reduced by Tailoring the Antidepressant Therapy to Patient Characteristics?

    abstract::Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatment for patients with unipolar depression, yet there is little guidance on which SSRI provides the most benefit to a patient, based on her/his personal characteristics. In this work, we explore whether an individualized treatment strategy can be ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coulombe J,Moodie EEM,Shortreed SM,Renoux C

    更新日期:2020-12-09 00:00:00

  • Risk indicators for falls in institutionalized frail elderly.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to identify individual predisposing risk indicators for falls in a sample of institutionalized frail elderly in southern Germany. The design was a prospective observational study with a 1-year follow-up (October 1998-September 1999). The study population included 472 long-term-care residents ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kron M,Loy S,Sturm E,Nikolaus T,Becker C

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence of Lyme Disease Diagnosis in a Maryland Medicaid Population, 2004-2011.

    abstract::The epidemiology of Lyme disease has been examined utilizing insurance claims from privately insured individuals; however, it is unknown whether reported patterns vary among the publicly insured. We examined trends in incidence rates of first Lyme disease diagnosis among 384,652 Maryland Medicaid recipients enrolled f...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rebman AW,Wang L,Yang T,Marsteller JA,Murphy SME,Uriyo M,Mihm EA,Weinstein ER,Fagan P,Aucott JN

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for neonatal seizures: a population-based study, Harris County, Texas, 1992-1994.

    abstract::Risk factors for neonatal seizures were evaluated in 116,048 infants born between 1992 and 1994 to residents of Harris County, Texas; 207 of these infants were diagnosed with clinical neonatal seizures. Information was obtained from the infant's birth certificate to assess the relation between seizures and birth weigh...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saliba RM,Annegers FJ,Waller DK,Tyson JE,Mizrahi EM

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive disorders and occupational exposure to organophosphates: results from the PHYTONER study.

    abstract::The involvement of organophosphate insecticides in cognitive disorders is supported by epidemiologic and biological evidence, but the effects of long-term exposure remain debated. We studied the association between organophosphate exposure and cognitive performance in vine workers from the PHYTONER study cohort in the...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blanc-Lapierre A,Bouvier G,Gruber A,Leffondré K,Lebailly P,Fabrigoule C,Baldi I

    更新日期:2013-05-15 00:00:00

  • Use of electric bedding devices and risk of breast cancer in African-American women.

    abstract::In this case-control study, the authors aimed to examine whether use of an electric bedding device increased breast cancer risk in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American patients diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-1998 who were aged 20-64 years and lived in one of three Tennessee counties. Contr...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu K,Hunter S,Payne-Wilks K,Roland CL,Forbes DS

    更新日期:2003-10-15 00:00:00

  • Estimating the Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer Symptoms in Women Aged 50 Years or Older: Problems and Possibilities.

    abstract::Diagnostic testing is recommended in women with "ovarian cancer symptoms." However, these symptoms are nonspecific. The ongoing Diagnosing Ovarian Cancer Early (DOVE) Study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provides diagnostic testing to women aged 50 years or older with symptoms lasting for more than 2 weeks and less than...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun Z,Gilbert L,Ciampi A,Kaufman JS,Basso O

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Do mothers overestimate breast feeding duration? An example of recall bias from a study in southern Brazil.

    abstract::The problem of recall bias when reporting breast feeding duration is investigated. Data are presented from the follow-up of over 1,000 children from a birth cohort (1982) in southern Brazil, when they were on average 11, 23, and 47 months of age. Compared with the response given at 11 months of age, 24% of mothers mis...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huttly SR,Barros FC,Victora CG,Beria JU,Vaughan JP

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lung cancer risk in hard-metal workers.

    abstract::An industry-wide mortality study on the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cobalt and tungsten carbide was carried out in the French hard-metal industry. This case-control study was nested in the historical cohort of workers ever employed in this industry's 10 facilities, most of which are lo...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moulin JJ,Wild P,Romazini S,Lasfargues G,Peltier A,Bozec C,Deguerry P,Pellet F,Perdrix A

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Hospital-acquired infections. II. Infection rates by site, service and common procedures in a university hospital.

    abstract::Over a three-year period, 3432 nosocomial infections occurred in a university hospital admitting 55,476 patients over a three-year period (6/100 admissions). A single system of surveillance was used, and overall monthly rates varied from 4-9/100 admissions with particularly high rates in the Newborn Intensive Care Uni...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wenzel RP,Osterman CA,Hunting KJ

    更新日期:1976-12-01 00:00:00

  • Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer.

    abstract::With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within the ongoing Poolin...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith-Warner SA,Spiegelman D,Ritz J,Albanes D,Beeson WL,Bernstein L,Berrino F,van den Brandt PA,Buring JE,Cho E,Colditz GA,Folsom AR,Freudenheim JL,Giovannucci E,Goldbohm RA,Graham S,Harnack L,Horn-Ross PL,Krogh V,L

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • An analysis of excess mortality rates for persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Western Australia using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

    abstract::A cohort of 888 rural, nonaboriginal persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus identified in Western Australia through surveys in 1978-1982 were followed for death until the end of 1986. A total of 257 deaths were observed. Excess mortality in this cohort as compared with the general Australian population w...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knuiman MW,Welborn TA,Whittall DE

    更新日期:1992-03-15 00:00:00

  • Semen Quality as a Predictor of Subsequent Morbidity: A Danish Cohort Study of 4,712 Men With Long-Term Follow-up.

    abstract::Semen quality has been suggested to be a biological marker of long-term morbidity and mortality; however, few studies have been conducted on this subject. We identified 5,370 men seen for infertility at Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark, during 1977-2010, and 4,712 of these men were followed in the Danish National Patie...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Latif T,Kold Jensen T,Mehlsen J,Holmboe SA,Brinth L,Pors K,Skouby SO,Jørgensen N,Lindahl-Jacobsen R

    更新日期:2017-10-15 00:00:00

  • Night-Shift Work and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results From a Canadian Case-Control Study, the Prostate Cancer and Environment Study.

    abstract::Night-shift work involving disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with breast cancer risk. A role in prostate cancer is also suspected, but evidence is limited. We investigated the association between night-shift work and prostate cancer incidence in the Prostate Cancer and Environment Study (PROtEuS), a ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barul C,Richard H,Parent ME

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic variation in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, SLC23A1, and SLC23A2 and risk for preterm delivery.

    abstract::Vitamin C has been the focus of epidemiologic investigation in preterm delivery (<37 weeks' gestation), which is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and birth-related morbidity. There are two sodium-dependent membrane transporters encoded by SLC23A1 and SLC23A2, which have key roles in human vitamin C metabolism and...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erichsen HC,Engel SA,Eck PK,Welch R,Yeager M,Levine M,Siega-Riz AM,Olshan AF,Chanock SJ

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Using the Self-Controlled Tree-Temporal Scan Statistic to Assess the Safety of Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

    abstract::The self-controlled tree-temporal scan statistic allows detection of potential vaccine- or drug-associated adverse events without prespecifying the specific events or postexposure risk intervals of concern. It thus opens a promising new avenue for safety studies. The method has been successfully used to evaluate the s...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yih WK,Kulldorff M,Dashevsky I,Maro JC

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Occupational noise exposure and risk of acoustic neuroma.

    abstract::A small number of prior epidemiologic studies of occupational noise exposure based on self-report have suggested an association with acoustic neuroma. The goal of the present study was to further examine the association between noise exposure and acoustic neuroma by using an objective measure of exposure in the form o...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edwards CG,Schwartzbaum JA,Nise G,Forssén UM,Ahlbom A,Lönn S,Feychting M

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Characteristics of hepatitis C virus among intravenous drug users in Iceland.

    abstract::According to antibody analysis, approximately two of every three intravenous drug users in Iceland have become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this study, serum samples from 55 HCV antibody-positive intravenous drug users (39 males and 16 females) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral str...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Löve A,Sigurdsson JR,Stanzeit B,Briem H,Rikardsdottir H,Widell A

    更新日期:1996-03-15 00:00:00

  • Hostility and trajectories of body mass index over 19 years: the Whitehall II Study.

    abstract::The authors examined the associations of hostility measured in adulthood with subsequent body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) assessed at 4 time points over a 19-year period (1985-2004) in a United Kingdom cohort study. A total of 6,484 participants (4,494 men and 1,990 women) aged 35-55 years at baseline ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nabi H,Kivimaki M,Sabia S,Dugravot A,Lajnef M,Marmot MG,Singh-Manoux A

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Regression toward the mean in a two-stage selection program.

    abstract::A model for a two-stage selection program based upon normally distributed variables is examined. Subjects in the upper part of the distribution of first-stage observations are retained and subsequently observed an additional number of times in a second stage. Subjects in the upper part of the distribution of second-st...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: McMahan CA

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00