Invited commentary: residential segregation and health--the complexity of modeling separate social contexts.


:When researching racial disparities in health, residential segregation cannot be ignored. Because of segregation, contextual differences by race are so pronounced that ignoring them may lead to mis-estimating the effect of individual-level factors. However, given the stark racial separation of social contexts, researching how residential segregation and neighborhood inequality contribute to racial health disparities remains methodologically challenging. Estimating the contribution of neighborhood effects to health disparities would require overlap in the racial distributions of neighborhood environment, for example, in the distributions of neighborhood poverty. Because of segregation, though, the extent of such overlap is extremely restricted. Previous analyses of the 2000 US Census found, on average, only a 24% overlap between the distribution of neighborhood poverty for black children and that for white children in metropolitan areas. Propensity score methods may be 1 useful tool for addressing limited overlap or exchangeability. However, as shown by their application to the segregation and health relation, their use should be informed by a sound conceptualization of the scale of the social exposure of interest, the hypothesized pathways between the exposure and the health outcome, and possible unmeasured confounders.


Am J Epidemiol


Acevedo-Garcia D,Osypuk TL




Has Abstract


2008-12-01 00:00:00














  • Relation between birth weight and the insulin sensitivity index in a population sample of 331 young, healthy Caucasians.

    abstract::The objective was to study the association between birth weight and the insulin sensitivity index. Altogether, 331 unrelated Caucasian subjects aged 18-32 years with measures of the insulin sensitivity index and insulin secretion during a combined intravenous glucose and tolbutamide tolerance test were included in the...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clausen JO,Borch-Johnsen K,Pedersen O

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Invited commentary: disclosure of gender-based violence in developing countries.

    abstract::The evolving concept of gender-based violence (GBV) is a multifaceted issue of public health significance. Until recently, most studies examining GBV have been conducted in North America. In this issue of the Journal, Palermo et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(5):602-612) report their secondary analyses involving approx...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Beydoun HA,Beydoun MA

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma vitamin D biomarkers and leukocyte telomere length.

    abstract::Vitamin D may reduce telomere shortening through anti-inflammatory and anti-cell proliferation mechanisms. In the present study, we examined the association between vitamin D and relative leukocyte telomere length by using both plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) biomarkers. V...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu JJ,Prescott J,Giovannucci E,Hankinson SE,Rosner B,Han J,De Vivo I

    更新日期:2013-06-15 00:00:00

  • Modeling preclinical cardiovascular risk for use in epidemiologic studies: Miami community health study.

    abstract::To develop a method for assessing preclinical cardiovascular disease risk, models of resting cardiovascular regulation and of insulin metabolic syndrome were derived from information collected from 1991 to 1996 in a culturally heterogeneous sample of 319 healthy men and women (aged 25-44 years) from Miami-Dade County,...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldstein RZ,Hurwitz BE,Llabre MM,Schneiderman N,Gutt M,Skyler JS,Prineas RJ,Donahue RP

    更新日期:2001-10-15 00:00:00

  • Strategies for pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination of schoolchildren in the United States.

    abstract::Vaccinating school-aged children against influenza can reduce age-specific and population-level illness attack rates. Using a stochastic simulation model of influenza transmission, the authors assessed strategies for vaccinating children in the United States, varying the vaccine type, coverage level, and reproductive ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Basta NE,Chao DL,Halloran ME,Matrajt L,Longini IM Jr

    更新日期:2009-09-15 00:00:00

  • Relations among standard epidemiologic measures in a population.

    abstract::Recent developments in population mathematics apply to measurement issues in epidemiology. In particular, they demonstrate explicitly the relations that prevail among incidence, prevalence, case-fatality, mortality, and duration of illness in a population at a moment in time, rather than in a cohort of persons followe...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Preston SH

    更新日期:1987-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparing mean levels of total cholesterol from visit 2 of the Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study with the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    abstract::Mean levels of total cholesterol by sex and age were compared between groups of whites in visit 2 of the Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study and in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). NHANES II estimates were found to be higher than comparable visit 2 estimates by 3-14 ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalsbeek WD,Kral KM,Wallace RB,Rifkind BM

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • The relation of diet, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption to plasma beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol levels.

    abstract::The relation of diet and nutritional supplements, cigarette use, alcohol consumption, and blood lipids to plasma levels of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol was studied among 330 men and women aged 18-79 years. Dietary carotene, preformed vitamin A, and vitamin E intake were estimated by a self-administered semiquant...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stryker WS,Kaplan LA,Stein EA,Stampfer MJ,Sober A,Willett WC

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Occupational exposures and male infertility.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine the association between male occupational exposures and infertility. A retrospective case-control study was performed using data collected between 1991 and 1997 at nine US clinical sites as part of a previously conducted large multicenter trial. Cases were defined as infertil...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Gracia CR,Sammel MD,Coutifaris C,Guzick DS,Barnhart KT

    更新日期:2005-10-15 00:00:00

  • Neighborhood contextual influences on depressive symptoms in the elderly.

    abstract::To understand whether neighborhood contexts contribute to the onset or maintenance of mental health problems independently of individual characteristics requires the use of multilevel study designs and analytical strategies. This study used a multilevel analytical framework to examine the relation between neighborhood...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kubzansky LD,Subramanian SV,Kawachi I,Fay ME,Soobader MJ,Berkman LF

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • Relation of caffeine intake during pregnancy to intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth.

    abstract::Whether caffeine intake during pregnancy is related to intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preterm birth remains unclear. The purpose of this population-based study is to assess these associations and to evaluate the interaction between caffeine intake and smoking. The study participants (n = 7,025)...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fortier I,Marcoux S,Beaulac-Baillargeon L

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring.

    abstract::Periconceptional intake of folic acid prevents some neural tube defects (NTDs). Other nutrients may also contribute to NTD etiologies; a likely candidate is choline. Similar to folic acid, choline is involved in one-carbon metabolism for methylation of homocysteine to methionine. The authors investigated whether mater...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shaw GM,Carmichael SL,Yang W,Selvin S,Schaffer DM

    更新日期:2004-07-15 00:00:00

  • Indoor air pollution from coal combustion and the risk of neural tube defects in a rural population in Shanxi Province, China.

    abstract::The authors evaluated indoor air pollution from coal combustion (IAPCC) as a potential risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs) in a rural population in Shanxi Province, China. The studied rural population has both high IAPCC exposure and a high prevalence of NTDs. A population-based case-control study was used to i...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Z,Zhang L,Ye R,Pei L,Liu J,Zheng X,Ren A

    更新日期:2011-08-15 00:00:00

  • Use of the mental function index in older adults. Reliability, validity, and measurement of change over time.

    abstract::The Mental Function Index is a weighted combination of scores on three brief tests. The Index was developed to aid in the discrimination of elderly persons with early cases of senile dementia from nondemented elderly individuals. In a previous report (Am J Epidemiol 1981;114:515-27), the authors described preliminary ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pfeffer RI,Kurosaki TT,Chance JM,Filos S,Bates D

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Factor XIII Val34Leu variant is protective against venous thromboembolism: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::It has been suggested that a G-to-T transition in exon 2 of the factor XIIIA gene resulting in a substitution of leucine for valine at amino acid 34 (FXIII Val34Leu) protects against venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the evidence to date is insufficient to incorporate testing for the FXIII Val34Leu variant into c...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Wells PS,Anderson JL,Scarvelis DK,Doucette SP,Gagnon F

    更新日期:2006-07-15 00:00:00

  • Trends in the incidence of cancer of the corpus uteri in Denmark, 1943-1980.

    abstract::The occurrence of cancer of the corpus uteri in Denmark is examined by the use of data from the Danish Cancer Registry. The study population consists of 14,149 cases diagnosed with cancer of the corpus uteri between 1943 and 1980. Since 1943, the incidence has been steadily increasing. The trend in the incidence rates...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ewertz M,Jensen OM

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI).

    abstract::The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed clinically and with ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lundgren JD,Melbye M,Pedersen C,Rosenberg PS,Gerstoft J

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • Selection on atherosclerosis as an explanation of the attenuated cholesterol-mortality relation in coronary heart disease populations.

    abstract::Recent studies of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline have shown that their cholesterol levels are much less predictive of subsequent mortality than in populations free of CHD (FCHD). One previously suggested explanation of this attenuation is that the impact of hyperlipidemia on atherosclerosis or ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cornfield J,Detre K

    更新日期:1979-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Male Twins With Discordant Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    abstract::Whether genetic and familial factors influence the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. Two cohorts were formed based on data from 1,212,295 men aged 18 years who were conscripted for military service in Sweden during 1972-1996. The first comprised 4,260 twin...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ballin M,Nordström A,Nordström P

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary Quality and Ovarian Cancer Risk in African-American Women.

    abstract::This study evaluated 3 index-based dietary patterns-Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, HEI-2010, and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010-in relation to ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. The study was conducted among 415 ovarian cancer cases and 629 age- and site-matched controls of African-American d...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Qin B,Moorman PG,Kelemen LE,Alberg AJ,Barnholtz-Sloan JS,Bondy M,Cote ML,Funkhouser E,Peters ES,Schwartz AG,Terry P,Schildkraut JM,Bandera EV

    更新日期:2017-06-15 00:00:00

  • Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    abstract::The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve st...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Morabia A

    更新日期:2013-11-15 00:00:00

  • Invited Commentary: The Microbiome and Population Health-Considerations for Enhancing Study Design and Data Analysis in Observational and Interventional Epidemiology.

    abstract::Measurement and characterization of the human microbiome in large population-based human studies has recently become a reality secondary to technological advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing. These advances bring new challenges and knowledge gaps for study planning, data analysis, and interpretation that are nov...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Demmer RT

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Genetics of leptin and obesity: a HuGE review.

    abstract::Leptin is an important regulator of the mass of adipose tissue and of body weight; it operates by inhibiting food intake and stimulating energy expenditure. Some polymorphic genes involved in the regulation of leptin-the leptin gene (LEP A19G), the leptin receptor gene (LEPR Q223R, K109R, and K656N), and the peroxisom...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Paracchini V,Pedotti P,Taioli E

    更新日期:2005-07-15 00:00:00

  • Alcohol concentration and risk of oral cancer in Puerto Rico.

    abstract::Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (oral cancer), but the differential risks by beverage type are unclear. In this 1992-1995 study, the authors examined oral cancer risk in Puerto Rico, comparing alcohol intake among 286 male cases aged 21-79 years and 417 population-based ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang WY,Winn DM,Brown LM,Gridley G,Bravo-Otero E,Diehl SR,Fraumeni JF Jr,Hayes RB

    更新日期:2003-05-15 00:00:00

  • Familial aggregation of blood pressure in a rural Chinese community.

    abstract::This study investigated blood pressure in 1,183 Chinese nuclear families (mother, father, and first two children) via a cross-sectional 1994-1997 survey. The mother's, the father's, and the first sibling's blood pressures were each significantly and independently related to the second sibling's blood pressure after ad...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang X,Wang B,Chen C,Yang J,Fang Z,Zuckerman B,Xu X

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Five-year analysis of adenovirus 8 antibody levels in an industrial community following an outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis.

    abstract::Serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were monitored for five years with samples from 79 keratoconjunctivitis patients with type 8 adenovirus (AV-8) infection. Geometric mean antibody titers declined from 1:161 at the peak of the epidemic to 1:56 after five years. Computerized analysis of the decline ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hierholzer JC,Sprague JB

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolic syndrome and ischemic heart disease in elderly men and women.

    abstract::Associations between metabolic syndrome components and prevalent ischemic heart disease (IHD) were investigated in a cross-sectional, community-based study of elderly men (n = 1,015) and women (n = 1,259) in Rancho Bernardo, California, in 1984-1987. In both sexes, there were significant positive associations between ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lindblad U,Langer RD,Wingard DL,Thomas RG,Barrett-Connor EL

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Alcohol and breast cancer: results from The Netherlands Cohort Study.

    abstract::Although the results of cohort studies on the association between alcohol and breast cancer are rather consistent, the current evidence is based solely on North American cohorts. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, conducted since 1986 among 62,573 women aged 5...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van den Brandt PA,Goldbohm RA,van 't Veer P

    更新日期:1995-05-15 00:00:00

  • The North Queensland "Sun-Safe Clothing" study: design and baseline results of a randomized trial to determine the effectiveness of sun-protective clothing in preventing melanocytic nevi.

    abstract::In 1999, the authors began recruitment for a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at preventing melanocytic nevi (moles) by minimizing sun exposure through the use of sun-protective clothing. The study involves 652 Caucasian children (75.6% response) aged 0-35 months from 25 child-care centers (n = 13 interv...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Harrison SL,Buettner PG,Maclennan R

    更新日期:2005-03-15 00:00:00

  • Adult-onset vulvodynia in relation to childhood violence victimization.

    abstract::Researchers have failed to find a consistent association between childhood victimization and vulvodynia, a debilitating, unexplained vulvar pain condition. However, selection bias associated with case ascertainment, and differential reporting bias between clinic-based cases and controls, may explain in part the incons...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harlow BL,Stewart EG

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00