Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Southeastern China.


:H9N2 influenza viruses are panzootic in domestic poultry in Eurasia and since 1999 have caused transient infections in humans and pigs. To investigate the zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses, we studied the evolution of the viruses in live-poultry markets in Hong Kong in 2003. H9N2 was the most prevalent influenza virus subtype in the live-poultry markets between 2001 and 2003. Antigenic and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) showed that all of the 19 isolates found except one belonged to the lineage represented by A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2). The exception was A/Guinea fowl/NT184/03 (H9N2), whose HA is most closely related to that of the human isolate A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2), a virus belonging to the A/Chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (H9N2) lineage. At least six different genotypes were recognized. The majority of the viruses had nonstructural (and HA) genes derived from the A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage but had other genes of mixed avian virus origin, including genes similar to those of H5N1 viruses isolated in 2001. Viruses of all six genotypes of H9N2 found were able to replicate in chickens and mice without adaptation. The infected chickens showed no signs of disease, but representatives of two viral genotypes were lethal to mice. Three genotypes of virus replicated in the respiratory tracts of swine, which shed virus for at least 5 days. These results show an increasing genetic and biologic diversity of H9N2 viruses in Hong Kong and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents.


J Virol


Journal of virology


Choi YK,Ozaki H,Webby RJ,Webster RG,Peiris JS,Poon L,Butt C,Leung YH,Guan Y




Has Abstract


2004-08-01 00:00:00














  • The core and carboxyl-terminal domains of the integrase protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 each contribute to nonspecific DNA binding.

    abstract::The integrase protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 removes two nucleotides from the 3' ends of reverse-transcribed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA (3' processing) and covalently inserts the processed ends into a target DNA (DNA strand transfer). Mutant integrase proteins that lack the amino-and/or ca...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Engelman A,Hickman AB,Craigie R

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 produces a defect in CD3-gamma gene transcripts similar to that observed for human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    abstract::T cells are central players in the immune response to infectious disease, with the specificity of their responses controlled by the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex on the cell surface. Impairment of TCR/CD3-directed CD4(+) T-cell immune responses is frequently observed in individuals infected with human immunodefici...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Segura I,Delmelle-Wibaut C,Janssens M,Cleuter Y,van den Broeke A,Kettmann R,Willard-Gallo KE

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • RNA- and virus-independent inhibition of antiviral signaling by RNA helicase LGP2.

    abstract::Antiviral innate immune responses can be triggered by accumulation of intracellular nucleic acids resulting from virus infections. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can be detected by the cytoplasmic RNA helicase proteins RIG-I and MDA5, two proteins that share sequence similarities within a caspase recruitment domain (CARD...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Komuro A,Horvath CM

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic Expression in Heterozygous Replicative Form Molecules of phiX174.

    abstract::Heterozygous replicative form molecules of bacteriophage phiX174 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have been constructed in vitro. These are composed of viral strands extracted from purified preparations of phage bearing ts mutations and complementary strands of either half length or full length synthesized with purified DN...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merriam V,Dumas LB,Sinsheimer RL

    更新日期:1971-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dengue virus inhibits the production of type I interferon in primary human dendritic cells.

    abstract::Dengue virus (DENV) infects human immune cells in vitro and likely infects dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo. DENV-2 productive infection induces activation and release of high levels of chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), with the notable exception of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodriguez-Madoz JR,Bernal-Rubio D,Kaminski D,Boyd K,Fernandez-Sesma A

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation of leukemogenic potential of murine retroviruses with transcriptional tissue preference of the viral long terminal repeats.

    abstract::Recombination studies have established that retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) are important genetic determinants of the viral capacity to induce hematopoietic tumors and to specify the type of cell making up the tumor. Plasmids containing LTRs of several murine leukemia viruses linked to the chloramphenicol acet...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Short MK,Okenquist SA,Lenz J

    更新日期:1987-04-01 00:00:00

  • Variation in antagonism of the interferon response to rotavirus NSP1 results in differential infectivity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    abstract::Rotavirus NSP1 has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates proteasome-dependent degradation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF), including IRF3, -5, and -7, and suppresses the cellular type I IFN response. However, the effect of rotavirus NSP1 on viral replication is not well defined. P...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feng N,Sen A,Nguyen H,Vo P,Hoshino Y,Deal EM,Greenberg HB

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • The Major Envelope Glycoprotein of Murid Herpesvirus 4 Promotes Sexual Transmission.

    abstract::Gammaherpesviruses are important human and animal pathogens. Infection control has proven difficult because the key process of transmission is ill understood. Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4), a gammaherpesvirus of mice, is transmitted sexually. We show that this depends on the major virion envelope glycoprotein gp150. gp...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2017-06-09 00:00:00

  • Nucleotide composition of the ribonucleic acid of rabies virus.

    abstract::The nucleotide composition of the ribonucleic acid of three strains of rabies virus was determined and found to be similar to that of vesicular stomatitis virus. ...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aaslestad HG,Urbano C

    更新日期:1971-12-01 00:00:00

  • Altered cytokine expression in T lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus Tat transgenic mice.

    abstract::Examination of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regulatory gene products and the host immune system is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of HIV and could reveal possible targets for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of AIDS. The HIV Tat gene is a potential candidate for th...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Thermostability of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Is Modulated by Lethal and Viability-Restoring Compensatory Amino Acid Substitutions.

    abstract::Infection by viruses depends on a balance between capsid stability and dynamics. This study investigated biologically and biotechnologically relevant aspects of the relationship in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) between capsid structure and thermostability and between thermostability and infectivity. In the FMDV ...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The phosphoprotein (P protein) of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a key component of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex. The protein is constitutively phosphorylated at the two clusters of serine residues (116, 117, and 119 [116/117/119] and 232 and 237 [232/237]). To examine the role of phosphorylati...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu B,Ma CH,Brazas R,Jin H

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of polyomavirus virion proteins by a vaccinia virus vector: association of VP1 and VP2 with the nuclear framework.

    abstract::The polyomavirus proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 move from their cytoplasmic site of synthesis into the nucleus, where virus assembly occurs. To identify cellular or viral components which might control this process, we determined the distribution of VP1, VP2, and VP3 in a soluble fraction, a cytoplasmic cytoskeleton fract...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C: a set of 23 full-length clones from Botswana.

    abstract::To better understand the virological aspect of the expanding AIDS epidemic in southern Africa, a set of 23 near-full-length clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) representing eight AIDS patients from Botswana were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. All study viruses from Botswana belonged to HIV-...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Novitsky VA,Montano MA,McLane MF,Renjifo B,Vannberg F,Foley BT,Ndung'u TP,Rahman M,Makhema MJ,Marlink R,Essex M

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of coagulation factor zymogens on the infectivity of adenoviruses pseudotyped with fibers from subgroup D.

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    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The CC-chemokines RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), and MIP-1beta are natural ligands for the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5. MIP-1alpha, also known as LD78alpha, has an isoform, LD78beta, which was identified as the product of a nonallelic gene. The two isoforms differ in only 3 amino acids. LD...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Differential expression of murine leukemia virus loci in chemically induced hybrid cells.

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    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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  • Metagenomic analysis of the viral flora of pine marten and European badger feces.

    abstract::A thorough understanding of the diversity of viruses in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about potential pathogens. Metagenomic analysis of the enteric viral flora revealed a new anellovirus and bocavirus species in pine martens and a new circovirus-like virus and geminivirus-related DNA virus in...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van den Brand JM,van Leeuwen M,Schapendonk CM,Simon JH,Haagmans BL,Osterhaus AD,Smits SL

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • A structured viroid RNA serves as a substrate for dicer-like cleavage to produce biologically active small RNAs but is resistant to RNA-induced silencing complex-mediated degradation.

    abstract::RNA silencing is a potent means of antiviral defense in plants and animals. A hallmark of this defense response is the production of 21- to 24-nucleotide viral small RNAs via mechanisms that remain to be fully understood. Many viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing, and some viral RNAs function directly as silenc...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The temporal regulation of DNA replication is thought to be important for chromosome organization and genome stability. We show here that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes replicate in mid- to late S phase and that agents that accelerate replication timing of EBV reduce viral genome stability. Hydroxyurea (HU) treatmen...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::S-Adenosylhomocysteine was found to have no effect on Epstein-Barr virus-induced transformation of B-lymphocytes and to stimulate viral capsid antigen expression only slightly in the FF41-1 cell line. In contrast, the S-adenosylhomocysteine analogs sinefungin and S-isobutyladenosine inhibited Epstein-Barr virus transf...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • Novel use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus.

    abstract::We describe a modification of the polymerase chain reaction technique which allows amplification of cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus given sequence information for the provirus only. The modified technique should be generally useful for studies of insertional mutagenesis and other situations in which on...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • DNA binding properties of simian virus 40 temperature-sensitive A proteins.

    abstract::Wild-type simian virus 40 A protein (large T antigen) bound to three tandem regions of simian virus 40 DNA. The binding regions were defined by the ability of A protein to protect simian virus 40 DNA from digestion with limited (footprint assay) or excess (fragment assay) amounts of DNase I. At low concentrations, pro...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson VG,Tevethia MJ,Lewton BA,Tegtmeyer P

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mapping the genomic location of the gene encoding alpha-amanitin resistance in vaccinia virus mutants.

    abstract::To facilitate the determination of the genomic location of the vaccinia virus gene(s) encoding alpha-amanitin resistance (alpha r) (Villarreal et al., J. Virol. 51:359-366, 1984), a collection of alpha r, temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants were isolated. The premise of these experiments was that mutants might be found...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Villarreal EC,Hruby DE

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hierarchy of polyadenylation site usage by bovine papillomavirus in transformed mouse cells.

    abstract::The great majority of viral mRNAs in mouse C127 cells transformed by bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV) have a common 3' end at the early polyadenylation site which is 23 nucleotides (nt) downstream of a canonical poly(A) consensus signal. Twenty percent of BPV mRNA from productively infected cells bypasses the early ...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andrews EM,DiMaio D

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Tetherin Sensitivity of Influenza A Viruses Is Strain Specific: Role of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:The expression of the antiviral host cell factor tetherin is induced by interferon and can inhibit the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The Vpu protein of HIV-1 antagonizes the antiviral activity of tetherin, and tetherin antagonists with Vpu-like activity have been identified in other virus...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gnirß K,Zmora P,Blazejewska P,Winkler M,Lins A,Nehlmeier I,Gärtner S,Moldenhauer AS,Hofmann-Winkler H,Wolff T,Schindler M,Pöhlmann S

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of alternating passage on adaptation of sindbis virus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells.

    abstract::Mosquito-borne alphaviruses, which replicate alternately and obligately in mosquitoes and vertebrates, appear to experience lower rates of evolution than do many RNA viruses that replicate solely in vertebrates. This genetic stability is hypothesized to result from the alternating host cycle, which constrains evolutio...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greene IP,Wang E,Deardorff ER,Milleron R,Domingo E,Weaver SC

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • The human cytomegalovirus protein UL16 mediates increased resistance to natural killer cell cytotoxicity through resistance to cytolytic proteins.

    abstract::Several reports have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected cells are resistant to NK lysis. These studies have focused on receptor-ligand interactions, and different HCMV proteins have been indicated to mediate inhibitory NK signals. Here, we report that the HCMV protein UL16 is of major importance for the ...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Odeberg J,Browne H,Metkar S,Froelich CJ,Brandén L,Cosman D,Söderberg-Nauclér C

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of two novel YY1 binding sites in the polyomavirus late promoter.

    abstract::NF-D is a ubiquitous nuclear factor that has been shown to bind specifically to a DNA element in the polyomavirus regulatory region. In this report, we demonstrate that NF-D is either identical or very similar to a transcription factor that has been variously named YY1, delta, NF-E1, UCRBP, or CF1. Moreover, we show t...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martelli F,Iacobini C,Caruso M,Felsani A

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Early blood profiles of virus infection in a monkey model for Lassa fever.

    abstract::Acute arenavirus disease in primates, like Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans, begins with flu-like symptoms and leads to death approximately 2 weeks after infection. Our goal was to identify molecular changes in blood that are related to disease progression. Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) infected intravenously with...

    journal_title:Journal of virology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Djavani MM,Crasta OR,Zapata JC,Fei Z,Folkerts O,Sobral B,Swindells M,Bryant J,Davis H,Pauza CD,Lukashevich IS,Hammamieh R,Jett M,Salvato MS

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00