Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use.

Abstract:

:The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed.

journal_name

Mar Drugs

journal_title

Marine drugs

authors

Yoshida K,Hashimoto M,Hori R,Adachi T,Okuyama H,Orikasa Y,Nagamine T,Shimizu S,Ueno A,Morita N

doi

10.3390/md14050094

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2016-05-12 00:00:00

issue

5

issn

1660-3397

pii

md14050094

journal_volume

14

pub_type

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