Mutagenicity studies on FD&C red No.3.


:FD&C Red No.3 (erythrosine) has been used as a dye in foods, drugs and cosmetics since its approval by the US Department of Agriculture in 1907. In 1977 the Certified Color Manufacturers' Association (CCMA) initiated studies on FD&C Red No.3 including chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice. Data from the CCMA chronic studies revealed an increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell hyperplasia and adenomas in male rats that received 4% FD&C Red No.3 in the diet (2464 mg/kg/day) during life-time (30 months) following in utero exposure. In this report, results of published studies on the mutagenicity of FD&C Red No.3 are critically reviewed. Additional mutagenicity tests including Ames Salmonella/microsome assay, L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay, mouse micronucleus test and mitotic recombination assay with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5 are described. These test results together with the literature review indicate that FD&C Red No.3 can be considered non-mutagenic across several genetic endpoints including gene mutation, chromosome aberrations, primary DNA damage and cell transformation. The results of the genotoxicity assessment generally exclude FD&C Red No.3 as a genotoxic initiator and suggest that some other mechanism is responsible for the increase in tumors.






Lin GH,Brusick DJ




Has Abstract


1986-07-01 00:00:00












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    abstract::Zeocin is a member of the bleomycin/phleomycin family of antibiotics, known to bind and cleave DNA. We established human SK-OV-3 cells that stably express the Zeocin resistance gene (Sh ble) using an ecdysone-inducible mammalian expression system. Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that Zeocin, added in the cultur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliva-Trastoy M,Defais M,Larminat F

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: state of the science and future research needs.

    abstract::Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of underst...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Creton S,Aardema MJ,Carmichael PL,Harvey JS,Martin FL,Newbold RF,O'Donovan MR,Pant K,Poth A,Sakai A,Sasaki K,Scott AD,Schechtman LM,Shen RR,Tanaka N,Yasaei H

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • The expanding role of mTOR in cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    abstract::The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved protein kinase that controls several anabolic processes required for cell growth and proliferation. As such, mTOR has been implicated in an increasing number of pathological conditions, including cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes and neurodegeneration....


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cargnello M,Tcherkezian J,Roux PP

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • The bone marrow clastogenicity of eight halogenated benzenes in male NMRI mice.

    abstract::Eight widely used halogenated benzenes, including bromobenzene (BB), chlorobenzene (CB), three isomers of dichlorobenzene (DCB) and three isomers of trichlorobenzene (TCB) were tested for acute toxicity (LD50) and clastogenicity in 8-week-old NMRI mice by intraperitoneal administration. Four doses of each chemical (up...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mohtashamipur E,Triebel R,Straeter H,Norpoth K

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antihypertensive drug atenolol in cultured human lymphocytes: effects of long-term therapy.

    abstract::The genotoxicity of atenolol, a beta-blocker antihypertensive drug, both in vitro and in vivo, was cytogenetically tested for its ability to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in cultured peripheral lymphocytes. Also, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromeric probe was perfo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Télez M,Martínez B,Criado B,Lostao CM,Penagarikano O,Ortega B,Flores P,Ortiz-Lastra E,Alonso RM,Jiménez RM,Arrieta I

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Use of human hepatoma cells for in vitro metabolic activation of chemical mutagens/carcinogens.

    abstract::An established human hepatoma cell strain (Hep G2) was used in micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays to evaluate the clastogenic potential of several indirectly-acting mutagenic carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide, dimethyl nitrosamine, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyrene and safrole were s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Natarajan AT,Darroudi F

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Species differences in mutagenicity testing. II. Sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus induction in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters treated with cyclophosphamide.

    abstract::Comparative investigations of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus induction in the bone marrow of rats, mice and Chinese hamsters with the cytostatic alkylating mutagen cyclophosphamide (CP) revealed remarkable species differences in their mutagenic responses. With both test systems the sensitivities of t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Madle E,Korte A,Beek B

    更新日期:1986-11-01 00:00:00

  • An aphidicolin-block nucleotide excision repair assay measuring DNA incision and repair capacity.

    abstract::The objective of the present study was to develop a cellular phenotype assay for nucleotide excision repair (NER), using benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) as model mutagen. Since in vitro exposure to BPDE may lead to DNA strand breaks resulting from both direct interaction with DNA and incisions introduced by the rep...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vande Loock K,Decordier I,Ciardelli R,Haumont D,Kirsch-Volders M

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Synthesis and mutagenicity of selectively methylated analogs of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    abstract::Five selectively methylated analogs of the flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Tris-BP) and of the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) were synthesized and their relative mutagenicities determined in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in the presence of rat liver microsomes. In all cases, methylation...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omichinski JG,Søderlund EJ,Bausano JA,Dybing E,Nelson SD

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00

  • The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: evidence from 83 case-control studies.

    abstract::The Ser326Cys polymorphism in the human 8-oxogunaine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) gene had been implicated in cancer susceptibility. Studies investigating the associations between the Ser326Cys polymorphism and cancer susceptibility showed conflicting results. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Wang W,Wang M,Chen Y,Zhang Z,Wang S,Xu M,Wang B,Zhao Q,Zhang Z

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Temperature and time effects on mutagen production in cooked lamb meat.

    abstract::Basic extracts isolated from lamb meat treated at various temperatures were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the presence of S9 mix. Samples of ground lamb patties were cooked for 10 min per side at 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 degrees C. Low cooking temperatures resulted in products with...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sflomos C,Papadopoulou R,Athanasiou K

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Association between age and repair of oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    abstract::It has been hypothesised that positive associations between age and levels of oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA may be related to an age-dependent decline in DNA repair activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age and repair activity of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripher...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Løhr M,Jensen A,Eriksen L,Grønbæk M,Loft S,Møller P

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Aristolochic acid as a probable human cancer hazard in herbal remedies: a review.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Arlt VM,Stiborova M,Schmeiser HH

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of antioxidants on the genotoxicity of phenethyl isothiocyanate.

    abstract::Isothiocyanates are plant-derived compounds that may be beneficial in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. Yet, by stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), isothiocyanates can be genotoxic. Whether antioxidants influence isothiocyanate-induced genotoxicity is unclear, but this situation was ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffman JD,Ward WM,Loo G

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Reversible inhibition of mammalian tubulin assembly in vitro and effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D61.M by mitomycin C.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albertini S,Friederich U,Würgler FE

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term effects of a change from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on human urinary and faecal mutagenic activity.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johansson G,Holmén A,Persson L,Högstedt B,Wassén C,Ottova L,Gustafsson JA

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Gene mutation and V(D)J recombination in the radiosensitive irs lines.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thacker J,Ganesh AN,Stretch A,Benjamin DM,Zahalsky AJ,Hendrickson EA

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction of radiation- and bleomycin-induced lesions and influence of glutathione level on the interaction.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dutta A,Chakraborty A,Saha A,Ray S,Chatterjee A

    更新日期:2005-09-01 00:00:00

  • The clastogenicity of 4NQO is cell-type dependent and linked to cytotoxicity, length of exposure and p53 proficiency.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brüsehafer K,Manshian BB,Doherty AT,Zaïr ZM,Johnson GE,Doak SH,Jenkins GJ

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting the carcinogenicity of the aromatic amine derivatives tested in the second UKEMS Collaborative Study.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ennever FK,Rosenkranz HS

    更新日期:1986-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of black tea theafulvins on aflatoxin B(1) mutagenesis in the Ames test.

    abstract::Black tea theafulvins, a fraction of thearubigins isolated from black tea aqueous infusions, potentiated the mutagenic activity of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B(1) in the Ames test, in the presence of a hepatic S9 activation system derived from Aroclor 1254-treated rats. In contrast, when the S9 activation system was repl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Catterall F,Copeland E,Clifford MN,Ioannides C

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Complementation group assignments of moderately UV-sensitive CHO mutants isolated by large-scale screening (FAECB).

    abstract::The complementation group (CG) assignment is presented for 74 moderately sensitive (approximately 2-4x sensitivity of parental line based on ratio of D10s) UV-sensitive mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells from the Facility for Automated Experiments in Cell Biology (FAECB) collection. The distribution of mutan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Busch D,Greiner C,Rosenfeld KL,Ford R,de Wit J,Hoeijmakers JH,Thompson LH

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prediction of the carcinogenicity in rodents of chemicals currently being tested by the US National Toxicology Program: structure-activity correlations.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosenkranz HS,Klopman G

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular dosimetry of DNA adducts in Chinese hamster ovary cells and C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblast cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene.

    abstract::Chromatographic profiles of DNA adducts formed following treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblast cells with benzo[a]pyrene (BP), in the presence or absence of rat liver S9 fraction, have been obtained by both direct labelling ([3H]BP) and 32P-post-labelling methods. The prin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watson WP,Smith RJ,Ryan D,Meyer AL

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Wavelength dependent responses of primary human keratinocytes to combined treatment with benzo[a]pyrene and UV light.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crallan RA,Ingham E,Routledge MN

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Use of the SOS chromotest, the Ames-fluctuation test and the newt micronucleus test to study the genotoxicity of four trihalomethanes.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Le Curieux F,Gauthier L,Erb F,Marzin D

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Alternatives to Aroclor 1254-induced S9 in in vitro genotoxicity assays.

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    authors: Elliott BM,Combes RD,Elcombe CR,Gatehouse DG,Gibson GG,Mackay JM,Wolf RC

    更新日期:1992-05-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benassi-Evans B,Clifton PM,Noakes M,Keogh JB,Fenech M

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Different mechanisms of reversion of HPRT-deficient V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    abstract::The revertibility of three spontaneous hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT)-deficient V79 cell lines has been determined after exposure to a number of alkylating agents. TG11 and 19 reverted at frequencies ranging from 1 X 10(-5) to 1 X 10(-4) after exposure to doses of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) N-methyl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fox M,Rossiter BJ,Brennand J

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bystander effects induced by chemicals and ionizing radiation: evaluation of changes in gene expression of downstream MAPK targets.

    abstract::Radiation-induced bystander effects have been evaluated extensively, including the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. However, few studies have examined the ability of chemicals to induce bystander effects, and the molecular mechanisms involved in chemical bystander effects have not b...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asur R,Balasubramaniam M,Marples B,Thomas RA,Tucker JD

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00