Apoptosis in yeast--mechanisms and benefits to a unicellular organism.


:Initial observations that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be induced to undergo a form of cell death exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis has led to the emergence of a thriving new field of research. Since this discovery, a number of conserved pro- and antiapoptotic proteins have been identified in yeast. Indeed, early experiments have successfully validated yeasts as a powerful genetic tool with which to investigate mechanisms of apoptosis. However, we still have little understanding as to why programmes of cell suicide exist in unicellular organisms and how they may be benefit such organisms. Recent research has begun to elucidate pathways that regulate yeast apoptosis in response to environmental stimuli. These reports strengthen the idea that physiologically relevant mechanisms of programmed cell death are present, and that these function as important regulators of yeast cell populations.


Mol Microbiol


Molecular microbiology


Gourlay CW,Du W,Ayscough KR




Has Abstract


2006-12-01 00:00:00














  • Visualization of the subcellular location of sporulation proteins in Bacillus subtilis using immunofluorescence microscopy.

    abstract::We describe the application of immunofluorescence microscopy to visualization of the subcellular localization of proteins involved in coat morphogenesis and chromosome packaging during the process of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. In confirmation and extension of previous findings, we show that SpolVA, which is res...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pogliano K,Harry E,Losick R

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • The SpoIIQ-SpoIIIAH complex of Clostridium difficile controls forespore engulfment and late stages of gene expression and spore morphogenesis.

    abstract::Engulfment of the forespore by the mother cell is a universal feature of endosporulation. In Bacillus subtilis, the forespore protein SpoIIQ and the mother cell protein SpoIIIAH form a channel, essential for endosporulation, through which the developing spore is nurtured. The two proteins also form a backup system for...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Serrano M,Crawshaw AD,Dembek M,Monteiro JM,Pereira FC,Pinho MG,Fairweather NF,Salgado PS,Henriques AO

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Lipid body formation plays a central role in cell fate determination during developmental differentiation of Myxococcus xanthus.

    abstract::Cell differentiation is widespread during the development of multicellular organisms, but rarely observed in prokaryotes. One example of prokaryotic differentiation is the gram-negative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In response to starvation, this gliding bacterium initiates a complex developmental programme that resu...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoiczyk E,Ring MW,McHugh CA,Schwär G,Bode E,Krug D,Altmeyer MO,Lu JZ,Bode HB

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Autonomous plasmid-like replication of a conjugative transposon.

    abstract::Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), a.k.a. conjugative transposons, are mobile genetic elements involved in many biological processes, including pathogenesis, symbiosis and the spread of antibiotic resistance. Unlike conjugative plasmids that are extra-chromosomal and replicate autonomously, ICEs are integrat...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee CA,Babic A,Grossman AD

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • A defined sequence within the 3' UTR of the areA transcript is sufficient to mediate nitrogen metabolite signalling via accelerated deadenylation.

    abstract::Nitrogen metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by AREA, a member of the GATA family of transcription factors. One mechanism that modulates AREA activity involves the rapid degradation of the areA transcript when sufficient NH4+ or Gln are available. This signalling mechanism has been shown to require a regio...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morozov IY,Martinez MG,Jones MG,Caddick MX

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Peptide-mediated macrolide resistance reveals possible specific interactions in the nascent peptide exit tunnel.

    abstract::Expression of specific short peptides can render cells resistant to macrolide antibiotics. Peptides conferring resistance to structurally different macrolides including oleandomycin, azithromycin, azaerythromycin, josamycin and a ketolide cethromycin were selected from a random pentapeptide expression library. Analysi...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vimberg V,Xiong L,Bailey M,Tenson T,Mankin A

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • The endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery influences haem uptake and capsule elaboration in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    abstract::Iron availability is a key determinant of virulence in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Previous work revealed that the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) protein Vps23 functions in iron acquisition, capsule formation and virulence. Here, we further characterized the ESCRT machinery...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hu G,Caza M,Cadieux B,Bakkeren E,Do E,Jung WH,Kronstad JW

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • The E protein of satellite phage P4 acts as an anti-repressor by binding to the C protein of helper phage P2.

    abstract::Temperate phage P2 has the capacity to function as a helper for the defective, unrelated, satellite phage P4. In the absence of a helper, P4 can either lysogenize its host or establish itself as a plasmid. For lytic growth, P4 requires the structural genes, packaging and lysis functions of the helper. P4 can get acces...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu T,Renberg SK,Haggård-Ljungquist E

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Secondary metabolic gene cluster silencing in Aspergillus nidulans.

    abstract::In contrast to most primary metabolism genes, the genes involved in secondary metabolism and certain nutrient utilization pathways are clustered in fungi. Recently a nuclear protein, LaeA, was found to be required for the transcription of several secondary metabolite gene clusters in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we show...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bok JW,Noordermeer D,Kale SP,Keller NP

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Structural insights into the inhibition mechanism of bacterial toxin LsoA by bacteriophage antitoxin Dmd.

    abstract::Bacteria have obtained a variety of resistance mechanisms including toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems against bacteriophages (phages), whereas phages have also evolved to overcome bacterial anti-phage mechanisms. Dmd from T4 phage can suppress the toxicities of homologous toxins LsoA and RnlA from Escherichia coli, represe...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wan H,Otsuka Y,Gao ZQ,Wei Y,Chen Z,Masuda M,Yonesaki T,Zhang H,Dong YH

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Regulatory noise in prokaryotic promoters: how bacteria learn to respond to novel environmental signals.

    abstract::Various features of the regulation of pathways for biodegradation of recalcitrant compounds by Pseudomonas provide insights into the mechanisms by which operons evolve to acquire conditionally active promoters that permit the corresponding genes to be transcribed only when required. The "regulatory noise hypothesis' p...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: de Lorenzo V,Pérez-Martín J

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Differential RNA elongation controls the variant surface glycoprotein gene expression sites of Trypanosoma brucei.

    abstract::The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei develops antigenic variation to escape the immune response of its host. To this end, the trypanosome genome contains multiple telomeric expression sites competent for transcription of variant surface glycoprotein genes, but as a rule only a single antigen is expressed at any t...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vanhamme L,Poelvoorde P,Pays A,Tebabi P,Van Xong H,Pays E

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium MisL is an intestinal colonization factor that binds fibronectin.

    abstract::MisL is an autotransporter protein encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 3 (SPI3). To investigate the role of MisL in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) pathogenesis, we characterized its function during infection of mice and identified a host receptor for this adhesin. In a mouse model of ...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dorsey CW,Laarakker MC,Humphries AD,Weening EH,Bäumler AJ

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a multifunctional protein, PhaM, that determines number, surface to volume ratio, subcellular localization and distribution to daughter cells of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    abstract::A two-hybrid approach was applied to screen for proteins with the ability to interact with PHB synthase (PhaC1) of Ralstonia eutropha. The H16_A0141 gene (phaM) was identified in the majority of positive clones. PhaM (26.6 kDa) strongly interacted with PhaC1 and with phasin PhaP5 but not with PhaP1 or other PHB granul...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pfeiffer D,Wahl A,Jendrossek D

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Role of lipid modification on a starch-debranching enzyme, Klebsieila pullulanase: comparison of properties of lipid-modified and unmodified pullulanases.

    abstract::Klebsiella pullulanase is a lipoprotein synthesized as a precursor with a signal peptide, which is processed by lipoprotein signal peptidase. To clarify the role of lipid modification of pullulanase, we purified lipid-modified wild-type and the unmodified (mutant) pullulanases and compared their properties. The Km and...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamashita M,Nakagawa A,Katsuragi N,Murooka Y

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mutational analysis of receptor binding mediated by the Dr family of Escherichia coli adhesins.

    abstract::The fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins of the Dr family mediate the adherence of uropathogenic and diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli to decay-accelerating factor (DAF) present on erythrocytes and other cell types. The Dr haemagglutinin binds type IV collagen and, unlike other members of the Dr family, mediates an adh...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carnoy C,Moseley SL

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Initiation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signalling pathways: a genetic analysis.

    abstract::Populations of surface-attached microorganisms comprising either single or multiple species are commonly referred to as biofilms. Using a simple assay for the initiation of biofilm formation (e.g. attachment to an abiotic surface) by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365, we have shown that: (i) P. fluorescens can for...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Toole GA,Kolter R

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • A protein kinase gene complements the lytic phenotype of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lyt2 mutants.

    abstract::By genetic analysis of a thermosensitive autolytic mutant whose phenotype was complemented by osmotic stabilization with sorbitol, we identified gene LYT2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is probably involved in cell wall formation. A yeast gene complementing lyt2 strains was cloned and shown to carry an open readin...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torres L,Martín H,García-Saez MI,Arroyo J,Molina M,Sánchez M,Nombela C

    更新日期:1991-11-01 00:00:00

  • AUG-proximal nucleotides regulate protein synthesis in Leishmania tropica.

    abstract::Gene expression in the Leishmania is controlled post-transcriptionally, and is likely to be impacted by both 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). We have investigated the effects of trinucleotides in the AUG-proximal region (APR) (i.e. positions -3 to -1 upstream of an AUG) on two reporter genes in the context of an...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stanton JD,Mensa-Wilmot K

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Protected environments allow parallel evolution of a bacterial pathogen in a patient subjected to long-term antibiotic therapy.

    abstract::Long-term antibiotic treatment offers a rare opportunity to study the evolution of bacteria within the same individual. The appearance of new variants has been suggested to take place via the selection of enhanced resistance in compartments of the body in which the antibiotic concentration is low. Laboratory models of...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Low AS,MacKenzie FM,Gould IM,Booth IR

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • The NblAI protein from the filamentous cyanobacterium Tolypothrix PCC 7601: regulation of its expression and interactions with phycobilisome components.

    abstract::Cyanobacteria respond to changes in light or nutrient availability by modifications in their photosynthetic light harvesting antenna. In unicellular cyanobacteria a small polypeptide (NblA) is required for phycobilisome degradation following environmental stresses. In the filamentous strain Tolypothrix sp. PCC 7601 th...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luque I,Ochoa De Alda JA,Richaud C,Zabulon G,Thomas JC,Houmard J

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Host processing of branched DNA intermediates is involved in targeted transposition of IS911.

    abstract::A simplified system using bacterial insertion sequence IS911 has been developed to investigate targeted insertion next to DNA sequences resembling IS ends. We show here that these IR-targeted events occur by an unusual mechanism. In the circular IS911 transposition intermediate the two IRs are abutted to form an IR/IR...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loot C,Turlan C,Chandler M

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Repression of tonB transcription during anaerobic growth requires Fur binding at the promoter and a second factor binding upstream.

    abstract::Although iron is an essential nutrient, its toxicity at high levels necessitates regulated transport. In Gram-negative bacteria a central target for regulation is the TonB protein, an energy transducer that couples the cytoplasmic membrane proton motive force to active transport of (FeIII)-siderophore complexes across...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young GM,Postle K

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of type-III protein secretion: Regulation of FlhA conformation by a functionally critical charged-residue cluster.

    abstract::The bacterial flagellum contains a specialized secretion apparatus in its base that pumps certain protein subunits through the growing structure to their sites of installation beyond the membrane. A related apparatus functions in the injectisomes of gram-negative pathogens to export virulence factors into host cells. ...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Erhardt M,Wheatley P,Kim EA,Hirano T,Zhang Y,Sarkar MK,Hughes KT,Blair DF

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of tRNA(1Leu) overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    abstract::Strains of Escherichia coli have been produced which express very high levels of the tRNA(1Leu) isoacceptor. This was accomplished by transforming cells with plasmids containing the leuV operon which encodes three copies of the tRNA(1Leu) gene. Most transformants grew very slowly and exhibited a 15-fold increase in ce...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wahab SZ,Rowley KO,Holmes WM

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the spacer between the -35 and -10 regions in sigmas promoter selectivity in Escherichia coli.

    abstract::In vitro, the sigma(s) subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), RpoS, recognizes nearly identical -35 and -10 promoter consensus sequences as the vegetative sigma70. In vivo, promoter selectivity of RNAP holoenzyme containing either sigma(s) (Esigma(s)) or sigma70 (Esigma70) seems to be achieved by the differential ability o...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Typas A,Hengge R

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Coupling of Escherichia coli hns mRNA levels to DNA synthesis by autoregulation: implications for growth phase control.

    abstract::The H-NS protein of enteric bacteria is one of the major proteins of the bacterial nucleoid and seems to play an important role in nucleoid structure. Transcription of the hns gene encoding the H-NS protein appears to be negatively regulated by H-NS itself both in vitro and in vivo. We have examined the role of this m...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Free A,Dorman CJ

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Candida glabrata environmental stress response involves Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msn2/4 orthologous transcription factors.

    abstract::We determined the genome-wide environmental stress response (ESR) expression profile of Candida glabrata, a human pathogen related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Despite different habitats, C. glabrata, S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans have a qualitatively similar ESR. We investigate the fun...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roetzer A,Gregori C,Jennings AM,Quintin J,Ferrandon D,Butler G,Kuchler K,Ammerer G,Schüller C

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular population genetic analysis of the enn subdivision of group A streptococcal emm-like genes: horizontal gene transfer and restricted variation among enn genes.

    abstract::The group A streptococcal emm-like genes, which encode the cell-surface M and M-like proteins, are divided into distinct mrp, emm and enn subdivisions and are clustered together in a region of the chromosome called the vir regulon. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in the evolution of emm-like genes, a 18...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whatmore AM,Kapur V,Musser JM,Kehoe MA

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • A widely conserved molecular switch controls quorum sensing and symbiosis island transfer in Mesorhizobium loti through expression of a novel antiactivator.

    abstract::ICEMlSym(R7A) of Mesorhizobium loti is an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) that confers the ability to form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus species. Horizontal transfer is activated by TraR and N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which can stimulate ICE excision in 100% of cells. However, in wild-type cu...

    journal_title:Molecular microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramsay JP,Major AS,Komarovsky VM,Sullivan JT,Dy RL,Hynes MF,Salmond GP,Ronson CW

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00