The five-factor model of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale I: confirmatory factor analysis fails to confirm 25 published five-factor solutions.


OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to test the goodness-of-fit of all previously published five-factor models of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). METHODS:We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a large data set (N = 5769). RESULTS:The different subsamples were tested for heterogeneity and were found to be homogeneous. This indicates that despite variability in age, sex, duration of illness, admission status, etc., in the different subsamples, the structure of symptoms is the same for all patients with schizophrenia. Although previous research has shown that a five-factor model fits the data better than models with three or four factors, no satisfactory fit for any of the 25 published five-factor models was found with CFA. CONCLUSIONS:Variability in age, sex, admission status and duration of illness has no substantial effect on the structure of symptoms in schizophrenia. The lack of fit can be caused by ill-defined items that aim to measure several properties in a single rating. Another explanation is that well-defined symptoms can have two or more causes. Then a double or triple loading item should not be discarded, but included because the complexity of symptoms in schizophrenia is represented by these multiple loadings. Such a complex model not only needs confirmation by CFA, but also has to be proven stable. A 10-fold cross-validation is suggested to develop a complex and stable model.


Schizophr Res


Schizophrenia research


van der Gaag M,Cuijpers A,Hoffman T,Remijsen M,Hijman R,de Haan L,van Meijel B,van Harten PN,Valmaggia L,de Hert M,Wiersma D




Has Abstract


2006-07-01 00:00:00














  • The aprosody of schizophrenia: Computationally derived acoustic phonetic underpinnings of monotone speech.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Acoustic phonetic methods are useful in examining some symptoms of schizophrenia; we used such methods to understand the underpinnings of aprosody. We hypothesized that, compared to controls and patients without clinically rated aprosody, patients with aprosody would exhibit reduced variability in: pitch (F0)...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Compton MT,Lunden A,Cleary SD,Pauselli L,Alolayan Y,Halpern B,Broussard B,Crisafio A,Capulong L,Balducci PM,Bernardini F,Covington MA

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cannabis use on age at onset in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cannabis use may decrease age at onset in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, given the evidence for substantial phenotypic and genetic overlap between both disorders. METHODS:766 patients, aged 16 to 65 years, were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for substance abu...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Hert M,Wampers M,Jendricko T,Franic T,Vidovic D,De Vriendt N,Sweers K,Peuskens J,van Winkel R

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cortical gray matter deficit in patients with bipolar disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:cortical gray matter volume deficit and ventricular enlargement are well documented in schizophrenia, but their presence in bipolar disorder is less well established. METHODS:global cortical gray matter, white matter and sulcal CSF, as well as lateral and third ventricular volume measures, were derived from...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lim KO,Rosenbloom MJ,Faustman WO,Sullivan EV,Pfefferbaum A

    更新日期:1999-12-21 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of psychosis among the Hutterites: a reanalysis of the 1950-53 study.

    abstract::Psychiatric case records from Eaton and Weil's 1950-53 study of the Hutterites were rediagnosed using DSM-III-R criteria. The results confirmed that the Hutterites have a very low prevalence of both schizophrenia (0.9 per 1000) and bipolar disorder (0.6 per 1000). Genetic and/or environmental explanations are both pos...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torrey EF

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabis use, cognition and brain structure in first-episode psychosis.

    abstract::Cannabis use is highly prevalent worldwide and it is associated with psychosis, but its effects on brain structure and cognition are still controversial. The aim of this paper is to investigate cognitive functioning and brain structure in patients with their first episode of psychosis who used Cannabis. We examined gr...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cunha PJ,Rosa PG,Ayres Ade M,Duran FL,Santos LC,Scazufca M,Menezes PR,dos Santos B,Murray RM,Crippa JA,Busatto GF,Schaufelberger MS

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Correlates of insight and insight change in schizophrenia.

    abstract::Various theories have been proposed to account for poor insight in schizophrenia. This study examined the relationships between insight, mood, schizophrenic symptoms and cognitive functioning. The relationship between longitudinal changes in insight and changes in symptoms and mood was also investigated. One-hundred p...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carroll A,Fattah S,Clyde Z,Coffey I,Owens DG,Johnstone EC

    更新日期:1999-02-15 00:00:00

  • Schizotypal dimensions in normals and schizophrenic patients: a comparison with other clinical samples.

    abstract::Schizotypy is usually referred to as a "liability" to schizophrenia, but it could also be more generally referred to as nonspecific "psychosis-proneness". This study examined the structure of schizotypy in a normal sample and in a sample of schizophrenics through the administration of the Schizotypal Personality Quest...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research



    authors: Rossi A,Daneluzzo E

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • The internal structure of the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) do not have uniform pathological significance. They affect patients with different brain disorders, and vary along multiple phenomenological dimensions. Evidence indicates that some of the phenomenological variables have specific neural substrates. Therefore, a comprehens...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stephane M,Thuras P,Nasrallah H,Georgopoulos AP

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Measuring theory of mind in schizophrenia research: Cross-cultural validation.

    abstract::Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand mental states of others and it is crucial for building sensitivity to other persons or events. Measuring ToM is important for understanding and rehabilitating social cognitive impairments in persons with schizophrenia. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-M...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee HS,Corbera S,Poltorak A,Park K,Assaf M,Bell MD,Wexler BE,Cho YI,Jung S,Brocke S,Choi KH

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Delusions in the general population: A systematic review with emphasis on methodology.

    abstract::The presence of delusions is considered a key feature of psychosis, but despite the psychopathological centrality of the concept of delusion, its definition and comprehension is a matter of continuing debate. In recent years studies showing that delusions are common in the general population have accumulated and chall...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heilskov SER,Urfer-Parnas A,Nordgaard J

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • An overview of medical risk factors for childhood psychosis: Implications for research and treatment.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, a...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Giannitelli M,Consoli A,Raffin M,Jardri R,Levinson DF,Cohen D,Laurent-Levinson C

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Abnormal white matter microstructure in schizophrenia: a voxelwise analysis of axial and radial diffusivity.

    abstract::Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) investigations in schizophrenia have provided evidence of impairment in white matter as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). However, the neuropathological implications of these findings remain unclear. In the current study, we conducted a voxelwise analysis of the constituen...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seal ML,Yücel M,Fornito A,Wood SJ,Harrison BJ,Walterfang M,Pell GS,Pantelis C

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Subjective wellbeing under quetiapine treatment: effect of diagnosis, mood state, and anxiety.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the effect of diagnosis, mood state, and anxiety on subjective wellbeing in patients with affective and non-affective psychotic disorders treated with quetiapine IR. METHODS:2175 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum (SZ, n=1681), schizoaffective (SA, n=249), and bipolar disorder (BPD, n=245) were ...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Lambert M,Naber D,Karow A,Huber CG,Köhler J,Heymann J,Schimmelmann BG

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • The occurrence of cancer in first admitted schizophrenic patients.

    abstract::The incidence of cancer was studied in a cohort of all first admitted 9156 patients in Denmark with a diagnosis of schizophrenia in the period 1970-1987. The overall incidence of cancer was reduced particularly in the males. Adjustment for the smoking habits of psychiatric patients enhanced this risk reduction. Fewer ...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mortensen PB

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Measuring cognitive insight in middle-aged and older patients with psychotic disorders.

    abstract::The study examined the psychometric properties, factor structure and validity of a recently developed measure of insight, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and tested the relationship between the BCIS and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective dis...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pedrelli P,McQuaid JR,Granholm E,Patterson TL,McClure F,Beck AT,Jeste DV

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Reduced fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity in white matter in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a pilot study.

    abstract::Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) evince a 30% incidence of schizophrenia. We compared the white matter (WM) of 22q11.2DS patients without schizophrenia to a group of matched healthy controls using Tract-Based-Spatial-Statistics (TBSS). We found localized reduction of Fractional Anisotropy (FA) an...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Kikinis Z,Asami T,Bouix S,Finn CT,Ballinger T,Tworog-Dube E,Kucherlapati R,Kikinis R,Shenton ME,Kubicki M

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive deficits in clinical and familial high risk groups for psychosis are common as in first episode schizophrenia.

    abstract::The aim of this study is to compare the neurocognitive functions in individuals with clinical or genetic risk for psychosis, in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and in healthy controls. We compared cognitive functions of 52 individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis, 53 patients with FES, their ...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Üçok A,Direk N,Koyuncu A,Keskin-Ergen Y,Yüksel Ç,Güler J,Karadayı G,Akturan E,Devrim-Üçok M

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Trajectories of change in self-reported psychotic-like experiences in childhood and adolescence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) during adolescence are not uncommon and potentially represent a clinical and public health concern. A greater understanding of their aetiology and patterns of change over time is needed. We aimed to describe trajectories of PLEs during adolescence, and examine their associat...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thapar A,Heron J,Jones RB,Owen MJ,Lewis G,Zammit S

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • DNA hypermethylation of serotonin transporter gene promoter in drug naïve patients with schizophrenia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Dysfunctional serotonin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autism, obsessive compulsive disorder, mood disorders and schizophrenia. While the hypo-activity of serotonin signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder; LSD, an agonist of serot...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdolmaleky HM,Nohesara S,Ghadirivasfi M,Lambert AW,Ahmadkhaniha H,Ozturk S,Wong CK,Shafa R,Mostafavi A,Thiagalingam S

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Deficits in GABAA receptor function and working memory in non-smokers with schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, it is unclear whether the influence of GABA on working memory processes is confounded by nicotine use in this population. It is therefore crucial to evaluate working memory and its u...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bridgman AC,Barr MS,Goodman MS,Chen R,Rajji TK,Daskalakis ZJ,George TP

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Self-esteem moderates affective and psychotic responses to social stress in psychosis: A virtual reality study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Higher liability to psychosis is associated with low self-esteem and increased sensitivity to social stress. Recently, we reported a positive relation between liability to psychosis and affective and psychotic responses to social stress. This study investigated how self-esteem moderates paranoia, peak subjec...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jongeneel A,Pot-Kolder R,Counotte J,van der Gaag M,Veling W

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Bone mineral density as a marker of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure: relationship to background genetic risk of psychotic disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Alterations in bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with psychotic disorder may reflect the effect of treatment (disease effect observed in patients but not their siblings) or, as an intermediate marker of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure, alterations in the neuroprotective effect of estrogen in the...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van der Leeuw C,Habets P,Domen P,van Kroonenburgh M,van Os J,Marcelis M,for G.R.O.U.P.

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between clinical and biochemical changes following neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia.

    abstract::Clinical improvement in psychotic symptoms is not immediate when neuroleptic treatment is commenced. Previous studies have demonstrated the development of biochemical tolerance to the effects of neuroleptics on the dopamine system. This study demonstrates a relationship between this biochemical change and the clinical...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Cooper SJ,Leahey W,Liddle J,King DJ

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Measuring neuroleptic-induced akathisia by three-channel actometry.

    abstract::Three-channel actometry was used to study neuroleptic-induced akathisia (NIA), a common and often serious disorder in association of traditional neuroleptic therapy. The aim was to explore the diagnostic possibilities of actometry in NIA and to examine in detail the motor phenomenology of the disorder in detail. The a...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tuisku K,Lauerma H,Holi M,Markkula J,Rimon R

    更新日期:1999-11-30 00:00:00

  • Further evidence for an association between schizophrenia and the HLA DQB1 gene locus.

    abstract::A case-control study was conducted in Singapore, in order to examine a proposed association between schizophrenia and the HLA DQB1 gene locus. The probands were male inpatients of Chinese ethnicity with schizophrenia (ICD-10 criteria, n = 102) and the controls were adults matched for gender and ethnicity (n = 111). Po...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nimgaonkar VL,Rudert WA,Zhang XR,Tsoi WF,Trucco M,Saha N

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • A polymorphism in the glutamate metabotropic receptor 7 is associated with cognitive deficits in the early phases of psychosis.

    abstract::Schizophrenia is an illness characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments occur before the onset of psychosis and could reflect glutamatergic dysregulation. Thus, identifying associations between genetic variations in genes coding for glutamatergic receptors an...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chaumette B,Sengupta SM,Lepage M,Malla A,Iyer SN,Kebir O,ICAAR study group.,Dion PA,Rouleau GA,Krebs MO,Shah JL,Joober R

    更新日期:2020-07-02 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for completed suicide in schizophrenia and other chronic psychotic disorders: a case-control study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Despite an increased risk for suicide among individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders, risk factors for completed suicide remain largely unexamined in this population. Using a case-control design, this study aimed to investigate clinical and behavioural risk factors for suicide completion in schizophreni...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McGirr A,Tousignant M,Routhier D,Pouliot L,Chawky N,Margolese HC,Turecki G

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Trends in psychiatric hospitalisation of people with schizophrenia: a register-based investigation over the last three decades.

    abstract::The number of psychiatric beds has declined considerably in many countries over the past decades. Long-term studies on the impact of these health care changes for the severely mentally ill, however, are still scarce. This epidemiological study investigates the use of inpatient psychiatric services by people with schiz...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lay B,Nordt C,Rössler W

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Attention shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits in outpatients with schizophrenia and impaired controls.

    abstract::Deficits in emotion perception are common in people with schizophrenia and current research has focused on improving these deficits. In our previous research, we demonstrated that directing attention to salient facial features via attention shaping can improve these deficits among inpatients. In this study, we examine...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Combs DR,Chapman D,Waguspack J,Basso MR,Penn DL

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    abstract::Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the...

    journal_title:Schizophrenia research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Guastella AJ,Ward PB,Hickie IB,Shahrestani S,Hodge MA,Scott EM,Langdon R

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00