The undiagnosed pleural effusion.

Abstract:

:The most common causes for undiagnosed transudative effusions are congestive heart failure and hepatic hydrothorax. Pleural fluid N terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels higher than 1500 pg/mL are virtually diagnostic of congestive heart failure. The most common causes for undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions are malignancy, pulmonary embolism, and tuberculosis. Clinical characteristics of patients with a malignant pleural effusion are symptoms for more than 1 month, absence of fever, blood-tinged pleural fluid, and CT findings suggestive of malignancy. Thoracoscopy is useful to establish the diagnosis of malignancy and tuberculosis.

journal_name

Clin Chest Med

authors

Light RW

doi

10.1016/j.ccm.2005.12.002

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2006-06-01 00:00:00

pages

309-19

issue

2

eissn

0272-5231

issn

1557-8216

pii

S0272-5231(05)00126-7

journal_volume

27

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Treatment of HIV infection and its complications.

    abstract::Because the AIDS epidemic continues to grow, there is a sense of urgency to develop new treatment strategies, both for HIV infection and for AIDS-related illnesses. The rapid gathering of basic information related to HIV type 1 biology and opportunistic infections has led to an explosion in physicians' ability to diag...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0272-5231(05)70338-5

    authors: Polsky B

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive impairment in the intensive care unit.

    abstract::Delirium is a frequent complication in older patients in the ICU and often persists beyond their ICU stay. Delirium in older persons in the ICU is a dynamic and complex process. There is a high prevalence of pre-existing cognitive impairment in patients who are admitted to the medical ICU. This pre-existing cognitive ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0272-5231(03)00092-3

    authors: Pisani MA,McNicoll L,Inouye SK

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Military service and lung disease.

    abstract::Military personnel can be exposed to toxicants and conditions that can contribute to lung diseases. This article describes what is known about these exposures and diseases, focusing on the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Adverse lung health outcomes have been reported in US military personnel deployed to Iraq and/or Afghan...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2012.09.001

    authors: Rose CS

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular, pharmacologic, and clinical aspects of oxygen-induced lung injury.

    abstract::The pathogenesis of O2 toxicity involves intracellular production of partially reduced O2 metabolites, which increases with O2 partial pressure. Cytotoxic O2 metabolites impair enzyme function and inhibit DNA, protein, and surfactant lipid biosynthesis. Compounds used clinically that increase O2 metabolism or that are...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Jackson RM

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • Asthma and Corticosteroid Responses in Childhood and Adult Asthma.

    abstract::Corticosteroids are the most effective treatment for asthma; inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are the first-line treatment for children and adults with persistent symptoms. ICSs are associated with significant improvements in lung function. The anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids are mediated by both genomic an...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2018.10.010

    authors: Ramadan AA,Gaffin JM,Israel E,Phipatanakul W

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.

    abstract::Traditionally, a subset of patients diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had positive results on cellular biopsies (prominent lymphoplasmacytic inflammation), bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytosis, a clinical response to steroids, and a better long-term prognosis. On review of the lung histopathology, the ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2011.11.003

    authors: Kinder BW

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Imaging of small airways disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    abstract::CT is a useful tool for identification of small airways diseases, and it can be used to classify these entities into inflammatory and constrictive bronchiolitis. Inflammatory forms of bronchiolitis include cellular bronchiolitis (usually caused by infection or aspiration), respiratory bronchiolitis, panbronchiolitis, ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2007.11.008

    authors: Lynch DA

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms and measures of exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    abstract::The mechanisms for exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are complex and multifaceted. Although ventilatory limitation caused by abnormal pulmonary function is a major contributor to this phenomenon, other factors may play an important role in limiting exercise. These other factors include depr...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0272-5231(05)70178-7

    authors: Nici L

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Etiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    abstract::This review focuses on the top ten causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), updating an earlier study. These pathogens have specific risk factors, different patterns of clinical resolution, and a wide range of attributable mortality. The discussion herein analyzes these aspects, placing particular emphasis on ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2004.10.017

    authors: Rello J,Díaz E,Rodríguez A

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Indoor air pollution.

    abstract::This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leadi...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Gold DR

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • A decade of advances in treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    abstract::The last decade has heralded a paradigm shift in the evaluation and treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). No longer are patients with NSCLC considered a homogeneous population treated in the same way; rather, clinical characteristics, histology, and an expanding array of molecular markers are incre...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2011.08.017

    authors: Gettinger S,Lynch T

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Inhaled Corticosteroids in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Benefits and Risks.

    abstract::Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), when used in combination with long-acting bronchodilators, reduce the risk of exacerbations and improve health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with bronchodilator or ICS therapy alone. Potential side effects of ICSs include ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2020.05.006

    authors: Mkorombindo T,Dransfield MT

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cough: differential diagnosis and treatment.

    abstract::Cough is a complex physiologic event that protects the lungs from mechanical, chemical, and thermal injury. It is a normal reflex and therefore helps humans to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Cough can also be a pathologic reflex in that it may be an important and often the only sign of serious disease, may sig...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Braman SS,Corrao WM

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Late complications of tracheotomy.

    abstract::Complications of tracheotomy are largely preventable. Although some authors cite these complications as indications for prolonged endotracheal intubation to avoid tracheotomy, others believe that the laryngotracheal complications of prolonged endotracheal intubation warrant early tracheotomy. Obviously, unnecessary tr...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Wood DE,Mathisen DJ

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnosis of roentgenographically occult lung cancer by sputum cytology.

    abstract::The specialty has the knowledge and technology to change the outcome of lung cancer. Lung cancer, diagnosed in early stages, is as curable as all other cancers. Sputum cytology is the initial step in diagnosing roentgenographically occult lung cancer. Sputum cytology is complementary to CT scanning. Sputum cytology id...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0272-5231(03)00060-1

    authors: Petty TL,Tockman MS,Palcic B

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep and respiration: a postscript.

    abstract::The recent advances in our understanding of breathing in sleep include an evolution in the selection and surgical therapy of patients with the sleep apnea syndrome. Recent work suggests that shorter polysomnographic studies may be adequate for diagnostic purposes in many sleep apnea patients. It is now clear that cent...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:

    authors: Kryger MH,White DP,Zwillich CW,Robinson RW,Guilleminault C

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Control of breathing in asthma.

    abstract::The hyperventilation seen in asthma is due to an increase in respiratory drive. This may be reflected by increased neural output to the respiratory muscles and probably by alterations in the respiratory pattern. This increased respiratory drive is most likely in response to irritant receptor stimulation in the lung. O...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Schiff M

    更新日期:1980-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preinvasive lesions of the bronchus.

    abstract::It has been proposed that invasive carcinoma of the bronchus develops through a transition from preinvasive lesions to overt malignancy. Newer diagnostic technologies have provided a more sensitive way to diagnose preinvasive lesions and a better understanding of the prevalence of such lesions. The natural history of ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2011.08.008

    authors: Rivera MP

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Lung transplantation for primary pulmonary hypertension.

    abstract::Recent progress in medical therapies has diminished the role of transplantation in the management of PPH during the past decade. Drug therapy is not effective in some patients, responses to therapy are not sustained over time in others, and drug side effects eventually limit the benefits of treatment in a few more. Lu...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0272-5231(05)70293-8

    authors: Trulock EP

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary hypertension. Anatomic and physiologic correlates.

    abstract::The types of pulmonary arterial hypertension described here all focus attention on the changes produced in the lung's microcirculation, particularly the precapillary unit. Although one senses intuitively that obliteration of resistance arteries is an effective cause of hypertension, we emphasize that cell metaplasia a...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Meyrick B,Reid L

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Asthma in pregnancy.

    abstract::Most gravidas with asthma can be managed with an inhaled beta-adrenergic agonist (terbutaline or epinephrine) and beclomethasone dipropionate. The administration of prednisone to control exacerbation of asthma is appropriate and should not be withheld if current medications are inadequate. The outcome of pregnancy in ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Greenberger PA

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for Occupational Lung Cancer: An Unprecedented Opportunity.

    abstract::Selected occupational populations are at the highest risk of lung cancer, because they smoke at increased rates and are concurrently exposed to workplace lung carcinogens. Low-dose computed tomography (CT)-based lung cancer screening has an enormous potential to reduce lung cancer mortality in these populations, as sh...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2020.08.016

    authors: Markowitz SB,Dickens B

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome.

    abstract::Obesity hypoventilation syndrome has been noted for centuries, yet we still are trying to uncover the exact mechanisms behind the disease and best treatment modalities for patients afflicted by the condition. The syndrome, which results in symptoms based on a diverse spectrum of interactions between obesity, ventilato...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2018.01.006

    authors: Iftikhar IH,Roland J

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of daytime sleepiness.

    abstract::In summary, the evaluation of the tired patient requires an awareness of the various meanings of tiredness. Furthermore, it is important to differentiate normal sleepiness that is a product of circadian rhythm variation in vigilance from pathologic sleepiness. Sleepiness that results from faulty habits, e.g., altered ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Moldofsky H

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Documentation in bronchology.

    abstract::With the performance of more endoscopic procedures and newly developed diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, a wealth of information around the actual procedure is created. To date, accepted guidelines for standardized documentation are lacking. The authors present recommendations for minimal guidelines that may help...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0272-5231(05)70051-4

    authors: Ernst A,Becker HD

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Chest trauma. Assessment, diagnosis, and management.

    abstract::In the United States, trauma is the leading cause of death in people under 40 years of age. Chest trauma is a relatively common but potentially lethal injury and requires a high level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and appropriate therapy. Methods for the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of chest trauma are discus...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:

    authors: Kshettry VR,Bolman RM 3rd

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • New modalities of mechanical ventilation: high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and airway pressure release ventilation.

    abstract::Management of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is largely supportive, with the use of mechanical ventilation being a central feature. Recent advances in the understanding of ALI/ARDS and mechanical ventilation have revealed that lung-protective ventilation strategies may atten...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2006.06.008

    authors: Fan E,Stewart TE

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Physiologic and pathologic abnormalities in severe asthma.

    abstract::Severe asthma remains poorly understood and frustrating to treat, partly because it is a heterogeneous disease. Recent improvements in the definition of severe asthma have allowed better characterization of the phenotypes of severe asthma and the related physiologic and pathologic abnormalities. Early-onset severe ast...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2005.10.002

    authors: Wenzel S

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Intracavitary therapeutics for pleural malignancies.

    abstract::Pleural malignancies are ideal for novel therapeutic approaches because they are invariably fatal. Intrapleural (IP) chemotherapy has only marginal benefit in pleural malignancies, but may prove efficacious with hyperthermic chemotherapy administered in combination with maximal tumor debulking. IP immunotherapies may ...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2013.04.007

    authors: Haas AR,Sterman DH

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in Cystic Fibrosis.

    abstract::Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are important emerging cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 6% to 13%. Diagnosis of NTM disease in patients with CF is challenging, as the infection may remain indolent in some, without evidence of clinical consequence, whereas other patients suffe...

    journal_title:Clinics in chest medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2015.11.001

    authors: Martiniano SL,Nick JA,Daley CL

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00