Lead and conditioned fear to contextual and discrete cues.


:Male Fischer 344 rats received either tap water or water containing 250 ppm lead for 90 days prior to training in either Pavlovian fear conditioning or consummatory contrast, an aversive reward reduction paradigm. In Experiment 1, lead-exposed and -unexposed rats were trained in operant chambers over a 6-min session. After 3 min elapsed, three tone-shock pairings were presented over the remainder of the session. Rats then received 7 days of extinction training in an identical procedure with only tones presented, no shocks. Lead-exposed rats exhibited greater behavioral suppression to both the contextual and auditory cues that predicted shock. In Experiment 2, rats were placed in operant chambers daily and allowed to consume either a 15% or a 5% fructose solution for 7 days. On Day 8, the rats consuming the 15% fructose solution were shifted to the 5% solution for 3 days. Lead-exposed rats did not differ from their controls in either initial consumption of either solution or in the suppression of their consumption after shifting to the 5% solution. Taken together, these findings suggest that lead impairs the extinction of fear conditioning and this finding is not due to a nonspecific increase in aversive emotionality.


Neurotoxicol Teratol


Salinas JA,Huff NC




Has Abstract


2002-07-01 00:00:00














  • Involvement of p53 in 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced rat fetal brain lesions.

    abstract::1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine (Ara-C), a cytidine analogue cytotoxic to proliferating cells, has a teratogenic effect in the brain of experimental animals and causes neural cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, pregnant rats were injected with Ara-C on Day 13 of gestation and the fetal brain w...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamauchi H,Katayama K,Ueno M,Uetsuka K,Nakayama H,Doi K

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of high doses of toluene on color vision.

    abstract::High exposure to toluene may cause optic neuropathy and retinopathy, both associated with dyschromatopsia. Another solvent, ethanol, is known to induce acute blue-yellow dyschromatopsia. This study investigated the acute effects of high doses of toluene on color vision. Eight male printshop workers were examined befor...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Muttray A,Wolters V,Jung D,Konietzko J

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in sleep-wake cycle after chronic exposure to uranium in rats.

    abstract::Uranium is a heavy metal known to induce toxicity in kidneys. It is also known to enter the central nervous system, thus inducing neurophysiological effects, after exposure to relatively high concentrations. The effect of chronic uranium exposure (40 mg l(-1) in drinking water, for 90 days) on electroencephalographic ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lestaevel P,Bussy C,Paquet F,Dhieux B,Clarençon D,Houpert P,Gourmelon P

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term cognitive sequelae of solvent intoxication.

    abstract::Memory problems lasting 8 months have previously been described for a small group of female solvent workers following an accidental workplace solvent intoxication. Three years after the intoxication the presence of longer-term residual impairment of cognitive functions was evaluated. The major residual difficulty unco...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Stollery BT

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • Color vision and occupational toluene exposure.

    abstract::We examined the relationship between acquired color vision loss and exposure to toluene and total hydrocarbons among 125 male workers. Seventy-two toluene-exposed printers were compared with 34 workers from the same photogravure plant with ambient background exposure, and with 19 workers from a bookbinding plant locat...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campagna D,Stengel B,Mergler D,Limasset JC,Diebold F,Michard D,Huel G

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Gestational and lactational exposure to TCDD or coplanar PCBs alters adult expression of saccharin preference behavior in female rats.

    abstract::Previous studies have shown that maternal doses of 1 microg/kg or less of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in late gestation can demasculinize and feminize reproductive behavior in male rats. However, it was not known whether coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had similar effects, or whether non-repro...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amin S,Moore RW,Peterson RE,Schantz SL

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Indirubins deplete striatal monoamines in the Intact and MPTP-treated mouse brain and block kainate-induced striatal astrogliosis.

    abstract::The indirubins long have been used in Chinese medicine for treatment of myelocytic leukemia. Among the many more recently described biological activities of the indirubins, attention has been directed toward the ability of these compounds to inhibit GSK-3 and CDKs, kinases implicated in neurodegenerative conditions. L...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magiatis P,Polychronopoulos P,Skaltsounis AL,Lozach O,Meijer L,Miller DB,O'Callaghan JP

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Anesthetics disrupt growth cone guidance cue sensing through actions on the GABAA α2 receptor mediated by the immature chloride gradient.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:General anesthetics (GAs) may exert harmful effects on the developing brain by disrupting neuronal circuit formation. Anesthetics that act on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors can interfere with axonal growth cone guidance, a critical process in the assembly of neuronal circuitry. Here we investigate the ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu J,Xu M,Wang Y,Mathena RP,Wen J,Zhang P,Furmanski O,Mintz CD

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • The development of a neurobehavioral test battery for use in hazard evaluations in occupational settings.

    abstract::The interest in, and number of, neurobehavioral test batteries for use in occupational settings has increased markedly over the last decade. While this is a welcome development in furthering the cause for greater acceptance of these methods in hazard evaluation and toxicity testing, there are a number of issues that a...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williamson AM

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Thermoregulatory effects of chlorpyrifos in the rat: long-term changes in cholinergic and noradrenergic sensitivity.

    abstract::Subcutaneous injection of a sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CHLP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, causes long-term inhibition in cholinesterase activity (ChE) of brain, blood, and other tissues. Such prolonged inhibition in ChE should lead to marked behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory patterns, especially in...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gordon CJ

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neurophysiological markers as early signs of organophosphate neurotoxicity.

    abstract::The central and peripheral nervous system effects of acute and subchronic exposure to three organic phosphoro-acid esters (dimethoate, dichlorvos, parathion-methyl) were studied. CNS-dependent variables included mean EEG amplitude, mean frequency of the EEG, and the activity (power density) of six component frequency ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagymajtényi L,Dési I,Lorencz R

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral evaluations in developmental toxicity testing: MARTA survey results.

    abstract::During 1991, the Middle Atlantic Reproduction and Teratology Association (MARTA) conducted a survey of laboratories performing behavioral evaluations as part of GLP developmental toxicity studies. This survey was conducted to determine the extent to which an "industry standard" had evolved for behavioral test batterie...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lochry EA,Johnson C,Wier PJ

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of chronic cocaine exposure throughout pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::To explore the effects of gestational cocaine exposure in a nonhuman primate model, pregnant rhesus monkeys were either treated (N = 10) with escalating doses of cocaine up to 7.5 mg/kg (IM), three times per day, 5 consecutive days per week, prior to conception and throughout gestation, or were not treated (N = 10) wi...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris P,Binienda Z,Gillam MP,Klein J,McMartin K,Koren G,Duhart HM,Slikker W Jr,Paule MG

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Terbutaline impairs the development of peripheral noradrenergic projections: potential implications for autism spectrum disorders and pharmacotherapy of preterm labor.

    abstract::Terbutaline, a β2-adrenoceptor agonist, is used off-label for long-term management of preterm labor; such use is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. We explored the mechanisms underlying terbutaline's effects on development of peripheral sympathetic proj...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slotkin TA,Seidler FJ

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sociodemographic factors modifying the effect of environmental lead on neuropsychological development in early childhood.

    abstract::A long-term prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental lead and childhood neuropsychological development. The possible interactive effects of blood lead and some covariates on early development were explored in this study. Our data suggest...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McMichael AJ,Baghurst PA,Vimpani GV,Robertson EF,Wigg NR,Tong SL

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Exacerbation of iminodipropionitrile-induced behavioral toxicity, oxidative stress, and vestibular hair cell degeneration by gentamicin in rats.

    abstract::This study describes the effect of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced abnormal neurobehavioral syndrome in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were exposed to IDPN in the dose of 100 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 7 days. Gentamicin (GM) was administered intraperitonea...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Al Deeb S,Al Moutaery K,Khan HA,Tariq M

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of perfluorinated alkyls in an avian model.

    abstract::Perfluorinated alkyls are widely-used agents that accumulate in ecosystems and organisms because of their slow rate of degradation. There is increasing concern that these agents may be developmental neurotoxicants and the present study was designed to develop an avian model for the neurobehavioral teratogenicity of pe...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinkas A,Slotkin TA,Brick-Turin Y,Van der Zee EA,Yanai J

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cocaine/polydrug exposure and maternal psychological distress on infant birth outcomes.

    abstract::To assess teratogenic effects of cocaine exposure and maternal psychological distress on birth outcomes, we conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 415 infants (218 cocaine-exposed--CE, 197 nonexposed--NE). Drug exposure was determined through a combination of maternal self-report, urine, and meconium screens. M...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singer LT,Salvator A,Arendt R,Minnes S,Farkas K,Kliegman R

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral and electrophysiological estimates of visual thresholds in awake rats treated with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126).

    abstract::Visual thresholds for luminance increments were obtained behaviorally and electrophysiologically from rats exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) during development. Male Long-Evans rats exposed to 0, 0.25, or 1.0 microg/kg/day of 3,3',4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) through gestation and weaning were train...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geller AM,Bushnell PJ,Rice DC

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of late fetal irradiation on adult behavior of mouse: Dose-response relationship.

    abstract::Pregnant Swiss mice were exposed to 0.3-1.5 Gy of gamma radiation on day 17 of gestation and allowed to deliver the offspring. When the F1 mice were 6 months old, they were subjected to a number of behavioral tests. Open-field and dark-bright arena tests were conducted to study locomotor and exploratory activities. Le...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Devi PU,Hossain M,Bisht KS

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Repeated measures designs in behavioral toxicology: application to chronic marijuana smoke exposure.

    abstract::This paper discusses the application of repeated measures methods in the statistical analysis of an experiment in behavioral toxicology. The chronic marijuana smoke exposure study conducted at the National Center for Toxicological Research is used for an example of the types of problems that one encounters in analyzin...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen RR,Slikker W Jr,Paule MG

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Structure-activity and dose-response relationships in the neural and behavioral teratogenesis of retinoids.

    abstract::The therapeutic use in the human teratogenic range of retinoid compounds (Accutane; Tigason) for the treatment of dermatologic disorders has refocused attention on the teratogenicity of vitamin A-related compounds. This article reviews rodent data on three retinoids: vitamin A (retinol), all-trans retinoic acid (treti...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Adams J

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Glucose and corticosterone changes in developing and adult rats following exposure to (+/-)-3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine or 5-methoxydiisopropyltryptamine.

    abstract::The use of the club drugs 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 5-methoxy-n,n-diisopropyltryptamine (Foxy) is of growing concern, especially as many of the effects, particularly during development, are unknown. The effects of these drugs upon homeostasis may be important since both are known to stimulate the hy...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graham DL,Herring NR,Schaefer TL,Vorhees CV,Williams MT

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal nicotine exposure in rhesus monkeys compromises development of brainstem and cardiac monoamine pathways involved in perinatal adaptation and sudden infant death syndrome: amelioration by vitamin C.

    abstract::Maternal smoking during pregnancy greatly enhances perinatal morbidity/mortality and is the major risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that targets monoamine pathways involved in the responses to hypoxia that are in turn, hypothes...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slotkin TA,Seidler FJ,Spindel ER

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal urinary tract infection alters water maze performance in the offspring.

    abstract::The effects of maternal urinary tract infection (UTI) or endotoxin exposure on fetal outcome in rats were investigated. Prior to conception, dams of the UTI group were water-deprived and anesthetized. The urinary tract was then catheterized and injected with 0.2 of 1 x 10(9) Escherichia coli. The endotoxin group was i...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cronise K,Kelly SJ

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations do not increase neuronal vulnerability to MPTP in young POLG mutator mice.

    abstract::Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In support of this, high levels of somatic mtDNA mutations in “POLG mutator” mice carrying a proofreading-deficient form of mtDNA polymerase ã (Polg(D257A...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai Y,Clark J,Zheng K,Kujoth GC,Prolla TA,Simon DK

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of 5-azacytidine on differentiation and growth in rat nervous system tumor cell lines.

    abstract::In vitro studies with permanent cell lines derived from ENU-induced rat CNS and PNS tumors have shown that substances acting on second messenger systems as well as glucocorticoids have a cytostatic effect at high cell densities, but enhance proliferation at low densities. The nontoxic cytostatic effects are partially ...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stark M,Bilzer T,Inoue N,Wechsler W

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • Methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin reductions in neostriatum are not gender specific in rats with comparable hyperthermic responses.

    abstract::Methamphetamine (MA)-induced monoamine depletions in male and female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were studied under conditions in which the magnitude of MA-induced hyperthermia was comparable between the sexes. MA (5 or 10 mg/kg) or saline (3 ml/kg) was administered SC four times at 2-h intervals. Animals were sacrificed 3...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fukumura M,Cappon GD,Broening HW,Vorhees CV

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Dysmorphic and anthropometric outcomes in 6-year-old prenatally cocaine-exposed children.

    abstract::Dysmorphologic and anthropometric assessments were performed on 154 6-year-old children prenatally exposed to cocaine (PCE) and 131 high-risk controls (NCE) of similar race and social class. Adjusted mean height z scores demonstrated a dose-response with metahydroxybenzoylecgonine above a threshold of 100 ng/g of meco...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Minnes S,Robin NH,Alt AA,Kirchner HL,Satayathum S,Salbert BA,Ellison L,Singer LT

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Heart rate variability in neonatal rats after perinatal cocaine exposure.

    abstract::Pregnant rats received saline once daily (Control QD) or twice daily (Control BID), cocaine 2 mg/kg IV daily (COC QD) or twice daily (COC BID) throughout gestation beginning on gestational day 4. The treatment was continued in nursing mothers until postnatal day 7. All studies were performed in their offsprings on pos...

    journal_title:Neurotoxicology and teratology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hseu SS,Yien HW,Du F,Sun LS

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00