Ghrelin gene-related peptides: multifunctional endocrine / autocrine modulators in health and disease.


:1. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects various processes, including growth hormone and insulin release, appetite regulation, gut motility, metabolism and cancer cell proliferation. Ghrelin is produced in the stomach and in other normal and pathological cell types. It may act as an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine factor. 2. The present article reviews recent findings in the study of ghrelin and its receptor that suggest that the ghrelin gene locus may give rise to a number of functional molecules (peptides and RNA transcripts) in addition to ghrelin. 3. The ghrelin gene encodes a precursor protein, preproghrelin, from which ghrelin and other potentially active peptides are derived by alternative mRNA splicing and/or proteolytic processing. The metabolic role of the peptide obestatin, derived from the preproghrelin C-terminal region, is contentious. However, obestatin has direct effects on cell proliferation. 4. The regulation of ghrelin expression and the mechanisms through which the peptide products arise are unclear. We have recently re-examined the organization of the ghrelin gene and identified several novel exons and transcripts. One transcript, which lacks the ghrelin-coding region of preproghrelin, contains the coding sequence of obestatin. 5. Furthermore, we have identified an overlapping gene on the antisense strand of ghrelin, namely GHRLOS, which generates transcripts that may function as non-coding regulatory RNAs or code for novel, short bioactive peptides. 6. The identification of these novel ghrelin-gene related transcripts and peptides raises critical questions regarding their physiological function and their potential role in obesity, diabetes and cancer.


Seim I,Amorim L,Walpole C,Carter S,Chopin LK,Herington AC




Has Abstract


2010-01-01 00:00:00














  • Effect of sodium depletion on pressor responsiveness in ACTH-induced hypertension in man.

    abstract::1. Pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (AII) and phenylephrine (PHE) was measured before and after 5 days of ACTH (1 mg i.m. daily) in six normal men maintained on low sodium diet (15 mmol daily). 2. ACTH caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure of 9 mmHg. 3. There was no change in pressor respons...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Connell JM,Fisher BM,Davidson G,Fraser R,Whitworth JA

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Auranofin increases apoptosis and ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the rat isolated heart.

    abstract::Auranofin, an antirheumatic gold compound, is an inhibitor of selenocysteine enzymes, such as thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase. These enzymes play an important role in protecting cardiac tissue from oxidative stress generated during ischaemia-reperfusion. Auranofin (100 mg/kg) was administered to rats ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Venardos K,Harrison G,Headrick J,Perkins A

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hypertonicity increases rabbit atrium and pulmonary vein arrhythmogenesis: a potential contributor to the genesis of atrial fibrillation.

    abstract::1. Pulmonary veins are the most important focus for the initiation of atrial fibrillation. Diabetes mellitus may be associated with hypertonicity and increased occurrence of atrial fibrillation. 2. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether hypertonicity alters the electrophysiological characteristics...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SH,Chen YC,Cheng CC,Higa S,Chen YJ,Chen SA

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • The CGP7930 analogue 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (BSPP) potentiates baclofen action at GABA(B) autoreceptors.

    abstract::The pharmacological actions of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2-spiropentylpropyl)-phenol (BSPP), a putative presynaptic GABA(B) receptor modulator, were examined in electrically stimulated rat neocortical brain slices preloaded with [3H]-GABA or [3H]-glutamic acid. At 10 mmol/L, BSPP inhibited the release of [3H]-GAB...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parker DA,Marino V,Ong J,Puspawati NM,Prager RH

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Tocolytic effect of parecoxib, a new parenteral cyclo-oxygenase-2-specific inhibitor, on the spontaneous and prostaglandin-induced contractions of rat isolated myometrium.

    abstract::1. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effects of parecoxib, a novel cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, on spontaneous and prostaglandin-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscle. 2. Non-pregnant adult Wistar rats were decapitated and dissected to isolate myometrial strips. The tissue was mounted in ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ayar A

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Re-evaluation of the SA gene in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    abstract::1. To investigate whether the difference in the SA gene expression in the kidneys is causally related to the pathogenesis of hypertension, we reassessed the expression of the SA gene in the kidneys of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), its stroke-prone substrain (SHRSP) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat from different...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishinaga Y,Nabika T,Shimada T,Hiraoka J,Nara Y,Yamori Y

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thymoquinone protects rat liver after partial hepatectomy under ischaemia/reperfusion through oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress prevention.

    abstract::Ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) is associated with liver injury and impaired regeneration during partial hepatectomy (PH). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the active compound of essential oil obtained from Nigella sativa seeds, on rat liver after PH. Male Wistar rats were divided ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouhlel A,Bejaoui M,Ben Mosbah I,Hadj Abdallah N,Ribault C,Viel R,Hentati H,Corlu A,Ben Abdennebi H

    更新日期:2018-05-07 00:00:00

  • Spermidine prevents high glucose-induced senescence in HT-22 cells by upregulation of CB1 receptor.

    abstract::Hyperglycaemia-induced neurotoxicity involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy and neuronal senescence is one of the worst effects of hyperglyceamic neurotoxicity. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) has neuroprotective function in a series of neuropathy. Spermidine (Spd) has anti-aging function in many ti...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu WW,Xiao F,Tang YY,Zou W,Li X,Zhang P,Wang AP,Tang XQ

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac effects of salbutamol-induced hypokalaemia in the conscious dog.

    abstract::1. Infusion of salbutamol (3.0 microgram/min after a bolus injection of 100 microgram) produced hypokalaemia in conscious dogs. 2. Measurement of arterial and coronary sinus potassium differences revealed no significant potassium loss from the heart with established hypokalaemia. 3. Shortly after the initial salbutamo...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wahlqvist ML,Shanahan EA,Dennis PM,Pullan PT,Wilmshurst EG

    更新日期:1978-11-01 00:00:00

  • Indomethacin abolishes core temperature, but not cardiovascular or renal, responses to lipopolysaccharide in conscious lambs.

    abstract::1. Core temperature (Tc), cardiovascular and renal responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as the role of endogenously produced prostaglandins (PG) in influencing these responses, were investigated in the present study in conscious, chronically instrumented lambs. 2. Core temperature, mean arterial pressure, he...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith FG,Fewell JE,Qi W

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Deleterious effects of salt intake other than effects on blood pressure.

    abstract::1. Salt intake is not only known to play an important role in determining blood pressure (BP) but has been shown to have other deleterious effects independent of BP. 2. Epidemiological and animal studies have provided evidence that salt intake may have an adverse effect on stroke mortality independent of BP. 3. Signif...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Antonios TF,MacGregor GA

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic factors regulate the rise in blood pressure in F2 generation crossed between stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    abstract::1. There was no significant difference between the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of offspring derived from SHRSP mother and WKY father and the SBP of offspring derived from WKY mother and SHRSP father at the developing stage (5-13 weeks of age). 2. The degree of genetic determinations of SBP in stroke-prone spontaneou...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ikeda K,Nara Y,Nabica T,Fujimoto A,Endo J,Ishino H,Yamori Y

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diclofenac sodium in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis: double-blind crossover study.

    abstract::The prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor diclofenac sodium has been compared with a placebo in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in a double-blind crossover trial. Twenty patients were entered: 14 female, six male; age range 6-17 years. The results showed that diclofenac sodium was significantly more effective ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Al-Waili NS

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • Calycosin induces apoptosis in adenocarcinoma HT29 cells by inducing cytotoxic autophagy mediated by SIRT1/AMPK-induced inhibition of Akt/mTOR.

    abstract::Autophagy promotes cell survival or induces apoptosis in cancer cells. While SIRT1 and AMPK induce autophagy in both normal and cancer cells, Akt and mTOR can inhibit it. Calycosin, a methoxyisoflavone, protects against several types of solid tumours including colorectal cancer. However, the mechanisms behind the anti...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: El-Kott AF,Al-Kahtani MA,Shati AA

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Piretanide and urinary excretion of ions in rat. Effect of indomethacin.

    abstract::1. Piretanide is a new loop diuretic resembling furosemide. The effects of this diuretic on various parameters of renal function and on the excretion of the major ions were studied on anaesthetized, hydrated rats. 2. Piretanide induced a marked diuresis and increased sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium excretion. ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen-Simonnet H,Gauthier C,Pellet M

    更新日期:1981-07-01 00:00:00

  • Sensitivity changes in guinea-pig atria and ileum following subacute administration of dyflos.

    abstract::1. Subacute administration of dyflos to guinea-pigs (1.2 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 10 days) led to the development of subsensitivity to carbachol in the ileum but not in the electrically stimulated left atrium. 2. Atria from dyflos-pretreated animals became supersensitive to acetylcholine but the ileum became subsensitiv...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitchelson F,O'Shea RA

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • Enhanced antitumour activity of doxorubicin and simvastatin combination loaded nanoemulsion treatment against a Swiss albino mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    abstract::Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most commonly used anticancer drug; however, it has limited use because prolonged administration may result in severe cardiotoxicity. Simvastatin (SIM), generally prescribed for hypercholesterolaemia, has also shown salubrious results in the monotherapy or combinational drug therapy of differe...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alkreathy HM,Alkhatib MH,Al Musaddi SA,Balamash KSA,Osman NN,Ahmad A

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Liver alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase: inhibition and potentiation by histamine agonists and antagonists.

    abstract::1. The in vitro effects of histamine, some other H1- and H2-receptor agonists and some antagonists were studied on the specific activities and kinetics of rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). 2. Histamine (H1- and H2-agonist) non-competitively in...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Messiha FS,Hughes MJ

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • The uridine nucleotides constitute a natriuretic pressor system.

    abstract::1. Uridine monophosphate was tested in the conscious rat for natriuretic properties and an immunoperoxidase technique was used to localize uridine-containing compounds in the rat kidney. 2. Uridine monophosphate, infused in a moderate pressor dose, caused a significant natriuresis compared to the effect of control inf...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macdonald G,Assef R,Watkins S,Burrell J

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of angiotensin converting enzyme and nitric oxide in the enhanced systemic depressor responses to bradykinin in pregnant rats.

    abstract::1. In the present study we have examined the effects of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibition on bradykinin (BK) depressor responses in pregnancy in both Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. Ramipril (10 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduce...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chu ZM,Beilin LJ

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Opioid mechanisms controlling renal function.

    abstract::1. Over the past 50 years considerable evidence has been reported suggesting that endogenous opioids participate in the control of renal function. 2. Exogenous administration of opioids produces profound changes in the renal excretion of water and sodium. 3. Opioids produce changes in urine output and urine sodium exc...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kapusta DR

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Faulty induction of blood-brain barrier functions by astrocytes isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    abstract::1. It has been suggested that astrocytes prompt the induction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions in cerebrovascular endothelial cells. 2. In the present study we have tried to elucidate the genetic differences between astrocytes isolated from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats and astrocytes isolated from stroke-pron...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamagata K,Tagami M,Nara Y,Fujino H,Kubota A,Numano F,Kato T,Yamori Y

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of coumarin on tissue levels of radio-labelled plasma protein and povidone (polyvinylpyrrolidine) in normal and thermally injured rats.

    abstract::1. The administration of coumarin resulted in a two-fold increase in the entry of 51Cr-labelled rat plasma protein into otherwise normal tissues. 2. Prior treatment of rats with coumarin allowed about 50% more radio-labelled protein to enter the tissues immediately after thermal injury than occurred with thermal injur...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Piller NB

    更新日期:1976-11-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling: The ins and outs of quantitative imaging.

    abstract::Nucleocytoplasmic protein shuttling is integral to the transmission of signals between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of proteins of interest can be determined via fluorescence microscopy, following labelling of the target protein with fluorophore-conjugated antibodies (immunofluor...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Molenaar C,Weeks KL

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of rilmenidine on proximal tubular fluid absorption in rats.

    abstract::The antihypertensive agent rilmenidine has threefold higher affinity for I(1) imidazoline receptors compared with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and acts on the central nervous system by reducing sympathetic activity and in the kidney by inhibiting Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity. In the present study, we examined: (i) the effec...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jovanovska V,Eitle E,Harris PJ

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hypoxia-activated prodrugs as antitumour agents: strategies for maximizing tumour cell killing.

    abstract::1. Hypoxia arises in solid tumour because of inefficient blood supply. While hypoxic cells are resistant to radiotherapy and probably to many chemotherapeutic drugs they can, in principle, be turned to advantage through the development of hypoxia-activated cytotoxic drugs (bioreductive drugs). 2. Three general approac...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson WR,Pruijn FB

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • A study of the relationship between cardiac beta-adrenoceptor blockade and intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in rats depleted of catecholamines.

    abstract::1. The intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of a range of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and its relationship to beta-adrenoceptor blockade was studied in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, vagotomized rats which had been depleted of catecholamines by pretreatment with syrosingopine. Dichlorisoprenaline, practolol, oxprenolol...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bilski A,Robertson HH,Wale JL

    更新日期:1979-01-01 00:00:00

  • Protecting murine hearts from ischaemia-reperfusion using selective inhibitors of adenosine metabolism.

    abstract::1. By selectively modifying adenosine metabolism via adenosine deaminase or adenosine kinase inhibitors, it may be possible to enhance the receptor-mediated protective actions of adenosine in a site- and event-specific fashion. 2. We characterized cardioprotective actions of the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-2...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willems L,Headrick JP

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Antihyperglycaemic and anti-oxidant properties of Anoectochilus formosanus in diabetic rats.

    abstract::1. In the present study, we investigated aqueous extracts of Anoectochilus formosanus (AFE) for antihyperglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). 2. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups and treated orally by gavage with vehicle (distilled water) or AFE (1 and 2 g/...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shih CC,Wu YW,Lin WC

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • A novel model of constrictive pericarditis associated with myocardial fibrosis in rats.

    abstract::An efficient animal model is fundamental for studies on the underlying mechanisms of constrictive pericarditis (CP). A novel CP rat model was established by pericardial injection composing of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and talcum powder without thoracotomy. Pathological changes were confirmed by histological staining. ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qiao W,Xiao YJ,Wang X,Sun LJ,Chen YX,Ren WD

    更新日期:2020-12-21 00:00:00