Enzymatic bioremediation: from enzyme discovery to applications.


:1. Enzymatic bioremediation is potentially a rapid method of removing environmental pesticide residues. Applications include the treatment of residues resulting from agricultural production and processing industries, such as the treatment of irrigation waters, surface-contaminated fruit and vegetables and spent dip liquors. 2. A specific application for some organophosphate-degrading enzymes involves detoxification of nerve agent stockpiles. Effective and affordable remediation requires highly specialized enzymes, so protein engineering techniques are being used to improve properties of various source enzymes to enhance catalytic rates, stability and substrate range. 3. Trials with an optimized organophosphate-degrading enzyme have shown the feasibility of such technology in various applications. 4. The enzymes developed for environmental remediation for specific pesticide classes also have applications as antidotes for high-dose pesticide poisonings and as prophylaxis for people at risk of high pesticide doses.


Sutherland TD,Horne I,Weir KM,Coppin CW,Williams MR,Selleck M,Russell RJ,Oakeshott JG





Has Abstract


2004-11-01 00:00:00














  • Recent developments concerning diet and hypertension.

    abstract::1. Recent data from randomized controlled dietary trials have shown blood pressure-lowering effects of foodstuffs and dietary patterns to be of practical importance for both individual and population blood pressure control. 2. The salient studies include Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trials, on comple...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beilin LJ,Burke V,Puddey IB,Mori TA,Hodgson JM

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological role of large, Ca2+-activated K+ channels in human glomerular mesangial cells.

    abstract::1. Contraction assays and patch clamp methods were used to determine the role of K+ channels in the regulation of contractile tone of human mesangial cells (MC) in culture. 2. MC contraction was induced by vasoconstrictor agents, such as angiotensin II (AngII; 100 nmol/L) and glybenclamide (Glyb), but not by iberiotox...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sansom SC,Stockand JD

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vasoconstrictor responses to polymorphonuclear leucocytes from atherosclerotic rabbits.

    abstract::1. The vascular contractile effects of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) isolated from control rabbits and from rabbits made atherosclerotic by 1% cholesterol feeding for 8 weeks were examined. 2. Rings of control rabbit thoracic aorta with or without endothelium were mounted at 2 g tension in 10 mL organ baths and w...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sobey CG,Hart JL,Woodman OL

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Species difference in the beta1/beta2-adrenoceptor selectivity of SM220CL in the cat and guinea-pig.

    abstract::The beta-receptor stimulant effects of Sm220Cl, dl-N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-phenylpropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)ethylamine, and (-)-isoprenaline have been compared in isolated atrial (beta1) and tracheal (beta2) preparations from guinea-pigs and cats. 2. The compounds were also tested for their ability t...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bohmer K,Raper C

    更新日期:1977-07-01 00:00:00

  • Down-regulation of microRNA-375 regulates adipokines and inhibits inflammatory cytokines by targeting AdipoR2 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    abstract::Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been considered as a multi-factorial metabolic syndrome. MicroRNA-375 (MiR-375) was significantly up-regulated in serum of NAFLD patients and the role of miR-375 was addressed as a putative biomarker of NAFLD progression. However, the specific function of miR-375 in the pr...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lei L,Zhou C,Yang X,Li L

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Gender-related differences in the development of atherosclerosis: studies at the cellular level.

    abstract::1. Calcified arteriosclerotic lesions have been recognized early in life as abnormalities in coronary arteries. 2. We examined coronary arterial plaques as an undecalcified tissue and revealed widespread mineralization within the plaque. Non-collagenous proteins that regulate calcification, such as osteopontin, have b...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fitzpatrick LA

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular regulation of skeletal muscle mass.

    abstract::1. The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is determined by a fine balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Skeletal mass is increased when there is a net gain in protein synthesis, which can occur following progressive exercise training. In contrast, skeletal muscle mass is lost when degradation occ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Russell AP

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Role of reactive metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen in partial liver transplantation: lessons learned from reduced-size liver ischaemia and reperfusion injury.

    abstract::1. Hepatic resection with concomitant periods of ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) is required to perform reduced-size liver (RSL) transplantation procedures, such as living donor or split liver transplantation. Although a great deal of progress has been made using these types of surgical procedures, a significant numbe...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Urakami H,Abe Y,Grisham MB

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Differential efficacy of perindopril and enalapril in experimental diabetic nephropathy.

    abstract::1. Treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ameliorates human and experimental diabetic nephropathy, possibly as a result of changes in angiotensin II (AngII) and/or bradykinin concentrations. However, ACE is an indiscriminate enzyme, which hydrolyses numerous vasoactive peptides at two catalytic ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Duggan KA,Hodge G,Makarious MM,Charlesworth JA

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • A controlled study of the effects of aerobic exercise on antihypertensive drug requirements of essential hypertensive patients in the general practice setting.

    abstract::1. To investigate the effect of an exercise training programme on antihypertensive drug requirements, 19 sedentary subjects (14 men and five women) with mild essential hypertension (systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg but less than 180 mmHg), aged 29-55 years, were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of moderate i...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Allen DH,Puddey IB,Morton AR,Beilin LJ

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Existence of beta(3)-adrenoceptors in rat heart: functional implications.

    abstract::1. beta(3)-Adrenoceptors (AR) have been reported to be present in numerous species, where they mediate multiple responses. 2. The aim of the present study was to determine whether beta(3)-AR are present in intact rat heart and the functional implications of beta(3)-AR stimulation. The response to the cardiac beta(3)-A...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barbier J,Mouas C,Rannou-Bekono F,Carré F

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of nicorandil on post-ischaemic contractile dysfunction in the heart: roles of its ATP-sensitive K+ channel opening property and nitrate property.

    abstract::1. This study aimed to characterize the effect of nicorandil (NC) on myocardial stunning and the role of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opening property in its cardioprotective action. 2. In open-chest anaesthetized rabbits, myocardial stunning was induced by 10 min of coronary occlusion followed by 30 min of reperfu...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iwamoto T,Miura T,Urabe K,Itoya M,Shimamoto K,Iimura O

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological activities of the antihypertensive drug urapidil in the rat.

    abstract::Urapidil had blocking activity on alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the rat isolated caudal artery (pA2 congruent to 7) and in the anaesthetized rat. Urapidil had no clonidine like agonistic activity on alpha 2-adrenoceptors in preparations of the guinea-pig ileum (prejunctional) or dog saphenous vein (post-junctional). Urapid...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verberne AJ,Rand MJ

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Kynurenic acid, an endogenous glutamate antagonist, in SHR and WKY rats: possible role in central blood pressure regulation.

    abstract::1. Kynurenine aminotransferase catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine to kynurenic acid, an endogenous antagonist of excitatory amino acid receptors. The kynurenic acid content and kynurenine aminotransferase activity was measured in micro-dissected regions of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kapoor V,Kapoor R,Chalmers J

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Elevation of blood pressure in hypertensive rats after lesioning serotonin nerves in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata.

    abstract::The possibility that serotonin (5HT) nerve endings in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata participate in the control of blood pressure was investigated in stroke-prone hypertensive rats and in normotensive rats. 5HT nerves were destroyed by injecting 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine bilaterally into the solitary tract nucleus. I...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Howe PR,Rogers PF,King RA,Smith RM

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • The permeability of collecting ducts to 22Na+ and 36Cl- in rat isolated papillae.

    abstract::1. The diffusional permeability of collecting ducts to 22Na+ and 36Cl- was measured in rat papillae in vitro. 2. The permeability of the collecting duct to 36Cl- was 0.72 (s.e.m. = 0.01; n = 356) microns/sec which was significantly higher than the value of 0.51 (s.e.m. = 0.01; n = 356) microns/sec measured for 22Na+. ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morgan T,Ray C

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pressure-flow relationships in the peripheral circulation of the dog with isoprenaline.

    abstract::1. The effects of isoprenaline on the pressure-flow relationships in the peripheral circulation were studied in five anaesthetized dogs during right heart bypass procedures. 2. Isoprenaline (1 mug/kg per min) produced a significant drop in arterial pressure and arterial resistance. 3. There was a significant decrease ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green JF

    更新日期:1975-03-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-arrhythmic effects of a new calcium antagonist, monatepil, AJ-2615, in experimental arrhythmic models [corrected].

    abstract::1. To characterize the anti-arrhythmic properties of a new calcium antagonist, monatepil [corrected], AJ-2615, the preventive effects of AJ-2615 were compared with those of the existing calcium antagonists, diltiazem and verapamil, in experimental models of arrhythmia. 2. AJ-2615 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg, i.v.) suppressed ventr...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto T,Hosoki K,Karasawa T

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effects of magnesium against ischaemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of P-selectin in rats.

    abstract::1. The leucocyte-mediated inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. P-Selectin and CD11b are important mediators for the recruitment of leucocytes into the endothelium. However, the time-course of changes in P-selectin and CD11b expression during reperfusion is not defined. Magnesium ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ying SQ,Fang L,Xiang MX,Xu G,Shan J,Wang JA

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of 17 beta-oestradiol on vascular responses in the in situ blood-perfused mesentery of Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    abstract::1. To determine whether endogenous oestrogen plays a role in pregnancy induced decreased vascular reactivity we have examined the effects of 17 beta-oestradiol on vasoconstrictor responses to various stimuli using an in situ blood-perfused mesenteric vascular preparation in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Daily administra...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chu ZM,Beilin LJ

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Maintenance of pseudopregnancy by prolactin in indomethacin treated rats.

    abstract::1. The effects of bromocriptine and indomethacin on prolactin-induced pseudopregnancy were studied in pituitary grafted rats. 2.Administration of bromocriptine (a prolactin suppressant drug) at a total dose of 3 mg/kg body weight, given in 3 divided doses on day 5 of pseudopregnancy, effectively terminated it within 3...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan GJ

    更新日期:1980-05-01 00:00:00

  • Red blood cell ionized calcium concentration in spontaneous hypertension: modulation in vivo by the calcium antagonist PN 200.110.

    abstract::1. Altered calcium regulation has been observed in experimental and human hypertension. In this study erythrocyte (RBC) intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was compared in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their normotensive controls (WKY) at rest and after injection of the dihydropyridine ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morris MJ,David-Dufilho M,Devynck MA

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of taurine and homocysteine on calcium homeostasis and hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions in rat myocardial mitochondria.

    abstract::1. Taurine and homocysteine are metabolites of methionine. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although taurine may be a cardiovascular cytoprotective substance, we hypothesized that it may antagonize the effects of homocysteine on myocardial mitochondrial function. 2. We studi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang L,Zhao J,Xu J,Jiang W,Tang CS,Qi YF

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Atrial natriuretic factor in chronic renal failure: studies in man and the rat.

    abstract::1. Plasma concentration and atrial content of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) were measured in rats with chronic renal failure induced by subtotal nephrectomy. 2. Plasma ANF was higher, and atrial ANF content lower in rats with renal failure when compared with sham-operated controls. 3. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hodsman GP,Jackson B,Debrevi LM,Ogawa K,Johnston CI

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Uric acid permeability coefficient in the rat papillary collecting duct.

    abstract::1. While it is believed that the mammalian distal nephron is not involved in uric acid transport, this has not been directly evaluated. Nevertheless, some studies are consistent with significant distal nephron transport. 2. As uric acid transport in man may be similar to the rat, undirectional uric acid permeability w...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ray C,Carney S,Morgan T

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Renal function in adult rats subjected to prenatal dexamethasone.

    abstract::1. Prenatal dexamethasone leads to low birth weight and compromises organogenesis, but its effects on nephrogenesis in male and female rats have not yet been investigated extensively. Reduced renal mass may be responsible for hypertension and renal haemodynamic and morphological adjustments to maintain the glomerular ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martins JP,Monteiro JC,Paixão AD

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chlamydia pneumoniae induces a pro-inflammatory phenotype in murine vascular smooth muscle cells independently of elevating reactive oxygen species.

    abstract::  NADPH oxidases (Nox) are reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes that play important physiological roles in host defence and redox signalling. However, Nox activity is upregulated in the vascular wall during atherosclerosis and contributes to plaque formation by promoting oxidative stress and inflammation. ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rivera J,Walduck AK,Strugnell RA,Sobey CG,Drummond GR

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Single-unit sympathetic discharge pattern in pathological conditions associated with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    abstract::1. Although measuring the rate of firing of multi-unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) has provided important information in many aspects of cardiovascular medicine, measuring single-unit vasoconstrictor activity provides a better understanding of the possible mechanisms underlying disturbed sympathetic nervo...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lambert E,Dawood T,Schlaich M,Straznicky N,Esler M,Lambert G

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway protects cardiomyocytes from ischaemic and hypoxic apoptosis via mitochondrial function.

    abstract::1. After a severe burn, a marked decrease in myocardial blood flow results in ischaemic and hypoxic injury, which subsequently leads to apoptosis or necrosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt is an important intracellular signal transduction molecule that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, glucose...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Song HP,Zhang L,Dang YM,Yan H,Chu ZG,Huang YS

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Functional diversity of mammalian type 2C protein phosphatase isoforms: new tales from an old family.

    abstract::1. The Type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) represent a highly conserved gene family in the mammalian genome. Recent studies have revealed that PP2C isoforms possess unique patterns of tissue and subcellular distribution associated with diverse functionalities. 2. The functional importance of PP2C isoforms has been sho...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lu G,Wang Y

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00