Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in Pediatric Diarrheal Illnesses.

Abstract:

CONTEXT:Cryptosporidium spp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. However, there still exist significant knowledge gaps in its estimated global burden, epidemiology, diagnosis and management. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:A semi-systematic search was performed across PubMed to select studies on epidemiological burden of cryptosporidium diarrhea using the following keywords- ['crytosporidiosis' OR 'cryptosporidium'] AND ['diarrhea' OR 'diarrhoea']. Articles were included if participants were 'Humans', belonged to pediatric (0-18 y) age group, and were published after 1990. The results were compiled separately for acute and persistent diarrhea. RESULTS:Cryptosporidium spp is commonly detected in stools of both cases (acute/ persistent diarrhea) and asymptomatic controls. The prevalence is higher in children with diarrhea than non-diarrheal controls (1.7-35% vs 0.3-15%); varying widely across different studies. The positivity rate is higher in younger children (<2 years) suffering from diarrhea. The main symptoms associated with cryptosporidiosis include fever, vomiting and abdominal pain with propensity for prolonged duration of diarrhea. It predisposes to malnutrition, which is also a risk factor for cryptosporidiosis. The prevalence is higher in HIV positive patients; certain socio-demographic factors play a more important role than mere geographical distribution for infection. CONCLUSION:The high positivity rates during both acute and persistent diarrhea highlights the need to suspect this infection even in immunocompetent children.

journal_name

Indian Pediatr

journal_title

Indian pediatrics

authors

Dabas A,Shah D,Bhatnagar S,Lodha R

doi

10.1007/s13312-017-1093-3

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2017-04-15 00:00:00

pages

299-309

issue

4

eissn

0019-6061

issn

0974-7559

journal_volume

54

pub_type

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