New developments in the therapy of intoxications.


:There has been a significant evolution in the clinical management of the poisoned patient over the last decade. Interventions that were once the cornerstone of treating the poisoned patient have become passé or have come under intense scrutiny. The advent of evidence-based medicine has forced clinical scientists to re-evaluate standard therapies. Gastrointestinal decontamination with either emesis or gastric lavage was the foundation of the initial management of most poisoned patients. Examination of the published literature demonstrated that neither emesis nor lavage changed the ultimate outcome of poisoned patients, and most poison centers have abandoned their use. Even the use of activated charcoal has been questioned. A multitude of studies demonstrated that the effectiveness of activated charcoal diminished significantly 30-60 min after the ingestion of a poison. No study has demonstrated that charcoal changed patient outcome. Cathartics have been deemed to be ineffective and potentially dangerous and are never indicated. Whole bowel irrigation should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Multiple dose activated charcoal and urinary alkalinization, commonly used to enhance the elimination of some poisons, have limited usefulness. While these 'old' and more general methods of 'detoxification' have thus failed in most cases to improve or change patient outcome, the use of more specific antidotes, tailored to the exact cause of intoxication is to be considered. Very few antidotes, however, are used on a consistent basis in the management of poisoned victims. The indiscriminate use of antidotes may even be harmful to the patient and incur an inordinate expense. In addition to the commonly known antidotes N-acetylcysteine (acetaminophen, paracetamol), naloxone (opioids) and flumazenil (benzodiazepines), new antidotes include fomepizole to treat ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning and Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) for pit viper envenomation.


Toxicol Lett


Toxicology letters


Krenzelok EP





Has Abstract


2002-02-28 00:00:00














  • Acute behavioral toxicity of sulfolane: influence of hypothermia.

    abstract::Sulfolane is a solvent which produces hypothermia and decreased oxygen consumption following acute exposure. In the present experiment, we investigated effects of sulfolane on a behavioral measure of toxicity at ambient temperatures which would either prevent or facilitate the development of hypothermia. Adult male Lo...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruppert PH,Dyer RS

    更新日期:1985-11-01 00:00:00

  • The emerging roles of a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, ZC3H4, in silica-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to fibrosis during silicosis. Zinc finger CCCH-type containing 4 protein (ZC3H4) is a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein that activates inflammation in pulmonary macrophages during silicosis. However, whether ZC3H4 is involved in EMT during silicosi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang R,Zhou Z,Liao Y,Yang F,Cheng Y,Huang J,Wang J,Chen H,Zhu T,Chao J

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fipronil interferes with the differentiation of mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic potential of the pesticide fipronil (FIP) towards the differentiation of mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. At concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 μM that were not cytotoxic, as shown by two different cell viability assays, FIP impaired potently after 24h the development ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sidiropoulou E,Sachana M,Flaskos J,Harris W,Hargreaves AJ,Woldehiwet Z

    更新日期:2011-02-25 00:00:00

  • Formaldehyde induces micronuclei in mouse erythropoietic cells and suppresses the expansion of human erythroid progenitor cells.

    abstract::Although formaldehyde (FA) has been classified as a human leukemogen, the mechanisms of leukemogenesis remain elusive. Previously, using colony-forming assays in semi-solid media, we showed that FA exposure in vivo and in vitro was toxic to human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. In the present study, we have appli...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ji Z,Li X,Fromowitz M,Mutter-Rottmayer E,Tung J,Smith MT,Zhang L

    更新日期:2014-01-13 00:00:00

  • Micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo in response to trans, trans-muconaldehyde.

    abstract::Benzene is a human leukemogen, and a bone marrow toxin and carcinogen in experimental animals. The reactive intermediates involved in benzene toxicity and their mechanism(s) of action have not been clearly delineated. We have investigated the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of trans,trans-muconaldehyde (MUC), a reac...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oshiro Y,Balwierz PS,Witz G

    更新日期:2001-05-19 00:00:00

  • Acute effect of bromodichloromethane on lipid metabolism in rat liver microsomes.

    abstract::Acute effects of CHBrCl2 on microsomal lipid metabolism were studied in the liver of male Wistar rats administered a single oral dose (215 mg/kg). 3 h after administration, the modulation of phospholipid metabolism and the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TG) were noted in the microsomal membranes. A marked decrease i...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koyama Y,Nakazawa Y

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • DRDE-07 and its analogues as promising cytoprotectants to nitrogen mustard (HN-2)--an alkylating anticancer and chemical warfare agent.

    abstract::Nitrogen mustard (HN-2), also known as mechlorethamine, is an alkylating anticancer agent as well as blister inducing chemical warfare agent. We evaluated the cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07 and their analogues, and other antidotes of mustard agents against HN-2. Administration of 1 LD(50) of HN-2 (20mg...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma M,Vijayaraghavan R,Gautam A

    更新日期:2009-08-10 00:00:00

  • Acute exposure to cobalt induces transient methemoglobinuria in rats.

    abstract::We observed transient excretion of dark-brown urine after acute exposure to cobalt in rats and investigated the mechanism of it. We injected cobalt into rats s.c. at a dose of 15 mg/kg and collected urine, peripheral blood, and organ samples at the indicated times after injection. Biochemical and histopathological exa...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Horiguchi H,Oguma E,Nomoto S,Arao Y,Ikeda K,Kayama F

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic cadmium exposure induces transcriptional activation of the Wnt pathway and upregulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in mouse kidney.

    abstract::The transition metal cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant which damages the kidneys. Chronic Cd exposure may induce renal fibrosis and/or cancer, but the signaling pathways involved are not understood. The Wnt pathway is a key signaling cascade responsible for renal development, fibrosis and cancer. Hence the ef...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chakraborty PK,Scharner B,Jurasovic J,Messner B,Bernhard D,Thévenod F

    更新日期:2010-09-15 00:00:00

  • Reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in invertebrates: in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    abstract::In order to gain basic understanding in the ecotoxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs (including natural chemicals and some pharmaceuticals), many international research groups are currently testing these chemicals using aquatic invertebrates. This paper discusses relevant examples to address key questions...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hutchinson TH

    更新日期:2002-05-10 00:00:00

  • Adduct levels from benzo[a]pyrenediol epoxide: Relative formation to histidine in serum albumin and to deoxyguanosine in DNA in vitro and in vivo in mice measured by LC/MS-MS methods.

    abstract::Stable and specific biomacromolecular adducts can be used to measure in vivo doses of reactive compounds. An LC/MS-MS method to measure adducts from the benzo[a]pyrene (BP) metabolite (±)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((±)-anti-BPDE) to His(146) in serum albumin (SA), earlier evaluated on in vitro alkylated human SA, ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Westberg EA,Singh R,Hedebrant U,Koukouves G,Souliotis VL,Farmer PB,Segerbäck D,Kyrtopoulos S,Törnqvist MÅ

    更新日期:2015-01-05 00:00:00

  • New psychoactive substances: Studies on the metabolism of XLR-11, AB-PINACA, FUB-PB-22, 4-methoxy-α-PVP, 25-I-NBOMe, and meclonazepam using human liver preparations in comparison to primary human hepatocytes, and human urine.

    abstract::New psychoactive substances (NPS) are an increasing problem in clinical and forensic toxicology. The knowledge of their metabolism is important for toxicological risk assessment and for developing toxicological urine screenings. Considering the huge numbers of NPS annually appearing on the market, metabolism studies s...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Richter LHJ,Maurer HH,Meyer MR

    更新日期:2017-10-05 00:00:00

  • Mobilization of stored hexachlorobenzene and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene during partial starvation in rats.

    abstract::Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) kinetics were compared in rats before, during and after partial starvation. Food restriction produced a drastic mobilization of the residues stored in the adipose tissue resulting in symptoms of neurotoxicity. The redistribution was reversibl...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: To-Figueras J,Gómez-Catalán J,Rodamilans M,Corbella J

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of trimethyltin on ornithine decarboxylase in various regions of the mouse brain.

    abstract::Male C57B1/6N mice, 8-10 weeks old were given a single oral dose of 0, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg body weight of trimethyltin hydroxide (TMT). Levels of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were measured in several brain areas, 1, 2 and 7 days later. The lower dose of TMT produced a decrease of ODC in the caudate nucleus and ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ali SF,Newport GD,Slikker W Jr,Bondy SC

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of species differences in experimental pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled cadmium for extrapolation to humans.

    abstract::There is sufficient evidence for pulmonary carcinogenicity of inhaled cadmium (Cd) compounds in rats whereas no such evidence was found in mice and hamsters, indicating significant species differences in the pulmonary response to inhaled Cd. We hypothesized that expression of metallothionein (MT) protein in the lung a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oberdörster G,Cherian MG,Baggs RB

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • A vasoactive serum component and reactivity of isolated rat aorta after chronic alcohol administration.

    abstract::Norepinephrine-induced contractility and relaxation to acetylcholine of isolated aortas taken from normal and chronic alcoholic rats were measured. Similar experiments were performed adding serum from normal (NS) or alcoholic rats (AS), with or without norepinephrine and acetylcholine. Responses of normal and alcoholi...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baños G,Lopez-Zetina P,Franco M

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of anthocyanins on the AhR-CYP1A1 signaling pathway in human hepatocytes and human cancer cell lines.

    abstract::Anthocyanins are plant pigments occurring in flowers and berry fruits. Since a phenomenon of food-drug interactions is increasingly emerging, we examined the effects of 21 major anthocyanins and the extracts from 3 food supplements containing anthocyanins on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 s...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamenickova A,Anzenbacherova E,Pavek P,Soshilov AA,Denison MS,Zapletalova M,Anzenbacher P,Dvorak Z

    更新日期:2013-07-31 00:00:00

  • Poly-l-aspartic acid protects cultured human proximal tubule cells against aminoglycoside-induced electrophysiological alterations.

    abstract::Cultured human proximal tubule cell monolayers maintained on permeable supports were treated simultaneously with the aminoglycoside antibiotic, gentamicin, and poly-L-aspartic acid (PAA), an inhibitor of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Following 4 days of exposure, cell monolayers were placed into Ussing chambers to al...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Todd JH,Hottendorf GH

    更新日期:1997-02-07 00:00:00

  • Aloe emodin induces hepatotoxicity by activating NF-κB inflammatory pathway and P53 apoptosis pathway in zebrafish.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatotoxic effect and its underlying mechanism of aloe emodin (AE). AE was docked with the targets of NF-κB inflammatory pathway and P53 apoptosis pathway respectively by using molecular docking technique. To verify the results of molecular docking and further investigate ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quan Y,Gong L,He J,Zhou Y,Liu M,Cao Z,Li Y,Peng C

    更新日期:2019-05-15 00:00:00

  • Improving toxicology testing protocols using computer simulations.

    abstract::Computer simulation can be used to integrate existing toxicity information within a biologically realistic framework. Simulation models calculate relevant measures of target tissue dose based on physiological, biochemical and physicochemical properties and readily support the dose, route, species and interchemical ext...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clewell HJ 3rd,Andersen ME

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase as a key player in excitotoxicity and post-ischemic brain damage.

    abstract::Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a group of protein-modifying and nucleotide-polymerizing enzymes able to catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-ribose units from NAD to substrate proteins. In the human genome, 16 different genes encoding for members of this emerging family of enzymes have been identified. Know...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meli E,Pangallo M,Baronti R,Chiarugi A,Cozzi A,Pellegrini-Giampietro DE,Moroni F

    更新日期:2003-04-04 00:00:00

  • Simulation of interindividual differences in inactivation of reactive para-benzoquinone imine metabolites of diclofenac by glutathione S-transferases in human liver cytosol.

    abstract::Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID that causes severe idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (IDILI) in a small part of the patient population. Formation of protein-reactive metabolites is considered to play a role in the development of diclofenac-induced IDILI. Therefore, a high hepatic activity of enzymes invo...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: den Braver MW,Zhang Y,Venkataraman H,Vermeulen NP,Commandeur JN

    更新日期:2016-07-25 00:00:00

  • Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region.

    abstract::The classical way to demonstrate the efficiency of remediation is measuring the reduction of toxic compounds in the environment. Nevertheless, more important is the risk reduction in human health. To determine changing health effects, exposure and bio-effects have to be monitored at time of and during remediation. Kin...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rolle-Kampczyk UE,Rehwagen M,Franck U,Weiss H,Krumbiegel P,Herbarth O

    更新日期:2006-04-10 00:00:00

  • Impairments induced by sublethal doses of two pesticides in the ovaries of a freshwater teleost Channa striatus Bloch.

    abstract::Impairments induced by sublethal doses of two pesticides Carbaryl and Endosulfan have been studied on the ovaries of a freshwater teleost Channa striatus by exposing the fish for a period of 2 to 30 days during the spawning season. The pesticide exposure produced reduction in the number of oocytes, reduction in size a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kulshrestha SK,Arora N

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chelation in metal intoxication. IX. Influence of amino and thiol chelators on excretion of manganese in poisoned rabbits.

    abstract::The effect of two polyamino-polycarboxylic acids, N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) and diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and two thiol-chelating agents, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMS) on the excretion of manganese (Mn) in rabbits given Mn i.p. w...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khandelwal S,Kachru DN,Tandon SK

    更新日期:1980-08-01 00:00:00

  • Hexachlorobenzene induces cell proliferation and IGF-I signaling pathway in an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

    abstract::Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide widely distributed in the biosphere. ERalpha regulates the expression of genes involved in growth and development, and plays an important role in breast cancer. The present study focuses attention on the effect of HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 microM) on cell prolifera...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: García MA,Peña D,Alvarez L,Cocca C,Pontillo C,Bergoc R,de Pisarev DK,Randi A

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Role of NADPH oxidase in cooperative reactive oxygen species generation in dopaminergic neurons induced by combined treatment with dieldrin and lindane.

    abstract::Environmental exposure to the highly persistent chlorinated pesticides including dieldrin and lindane is postulated to be a risk factor to the development of Parkinson's disease, a devastating movement disorder. We have previously reported that the combined treatment with dieldrin and lindane induces a cooperative tox...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma H,Hirko AC,King MA,Liu B

    更新日期:2018-12-15 00:00:00

  • Methoxetamine--a novel recreational drug with potent hallucinogenic properties.

    abstract::Methoxetamine is one of the constantly growing group of novel psychoactive substances that has emerged in recent years. The compound belongs to the arylcyclohexylamine class, which is used for its recreational and psychedelic effects. Methoxetamine is a structural analogue of ketamine, with a much longer duration of a...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zawilska JB

    更新日期:2014-11-04 00:00:00

  • Effects of zinc toxicity on thyroid function and histology in broiler chicks.

    abstract::Mechanisms of zinc (Zn) toxicity are incompletely understood and data regarding potential endocrine alterations in Zn toxicity are scarce. To examine mechanisms of Zn toxicity, day-old chicks were pair-fed diets containing 5280 ppm (Hz) or 73 ppm (CON) Zn. Impaired postnatal growth, independent of feed consumption, an...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dean CE,Hargis BM,Hargis PS

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Oxidative stress and inflammatory response to printer toner particles in human epithelial A549 lung cells.

    abstract::Reports on adverse health effects related to occupational exposure to toner powder are still inconclusive. Therefore, we have previously conducted an in vitro-study to characterize the genotoxic potential of three commercially available black printer toner powders in A549 lung cells. In these cell-based assays it was ...

    journal_title:Toxicology letters

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Könczöl M,Weiß A,Gminski R,Merfort I,Mersch-Sundermann V

    更新日期:2013-02-04 00:00:00