HIV-1 Ribonuclease H: Structure, Catalytic Mechanism and Inhibitors.


:Since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered as the etiological agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), it has encouraged much research into antiviral compounds. The reverse transcriptase (RT) of HIV has been a main target for antiviral drugs. However, all drugs developed so far inhibit the polymerase function of the enzyme, while none of the approved antiviral agents inhibit specifically the necessary ribonuclease H (RNase H) function of RT. This review provides a background on structure-function relationships of HIV-1 RNase H, as well as an outline of current attempts to develop novel, potent chemotherapeutics against a difficult drug target.






Beilhartz GL,Götte M




Has Abstract


2010-04-01 00:00:00












  • Field Evaluation of Deltamethrin and Ivermectin Applications to Cattle on Culicoides Host-Alighting, Blood-Feeding, and Emergence.

    abstract::The impact of topical applications of deltamethrin and ivermectin to cattle on Culicoides spp. landing and blood-feeding was studied in this work using sticky traps mounted on Friesian heifers' backs. There was no effect of the insecticides on total numbers of Culicoides trapped or the proportion engorged. Deltamethri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murchie AK,Thompson GM,Clawson S,Brown A,Gordon AW,Jess S

    更新日期:2019-08-08 00:00:00

  • Metagenomic Virome Analysis of Culex Mosquitoes from Kenya and China.

    abstract::Many blood-feeding arthropods are known vectors of viruses that are a source of unprecedented global health concern. Mosquitoes are an integral part of these arthropod vectors. Advancements in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics has expanded our knowledge on the richness of viruses harbored by arthropods. In...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Atoni E,Wang Y,Karungu S,Waruhiu C,Zohaib A,Obanda V,Agwanda B,Mutua M,Xia H,Yuan Z

    更新日期:2018-01-12 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis C virus, cholesterol and lipoproteins--impact for the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of liver disease.

    abstract::Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis C infection associates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism disorders such as hepatic steatosis, hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Furthermore,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Felmlee DJ,Hafirassou ML,Lefevre M,Baumert TF,Schuster C

    更新日期:2013-05-23 00:00:00

  • Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus.

    abstract::Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza virus infection, although current approaches are associated with suboptimal efficacy. Here, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ji X,Ren Z,Xu N,Meng L,Yu Z,Feng N,Sang X,Li S,Li Y,Wang T,Zhao Y,Wang H,Zheng X,Jin H,Li N,Yang S,Cao J,Liu W,Gao Y,Xia X

    更新日期:2016-04-21 00:00:00

  • Exosome Biogenesis, Regulation, and Function in Viral Infection.

    abstract::Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released upon fusion of multivesicular bodies(MVBs) with the cellular plasma membrane. They originate as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) during the process of MVB formation. Exosomes were shown to contain selectively sorted functional proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating cell-to-cell ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alenquer M,Amorim MJ

    更新日期:2015-09-17 00:00:00

  • Astrovirus Diagnostics.

    abstract::Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, nov...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pérot P,Lecuit M,Eloit M

    更新日期:2017-01-12 00:00:00

  • A Truncated Nef Peptide from SIVcpz Inhibits the Production of HIV-1 Infectious Progeny.

    abstract::Nef proteins from all primate Lentiviruses, including the simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), increase viral progeny infectivity. However, the function of Nef involved with the increase in viral infectivity is still not completely understood. Nonetheless, until now, studies investigating the functio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sabino Cunha M,Lima Sampaio T,Peterlin BM,Jesus da Costa L

    更新日期:2016-07-07 00:00:00

  • MERS-CoV: Understanding the Latest Human Coronavirus Threat.

    abstract::Human coronaviruses cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. In 2012, a sixth human coronavirus (hCoV) was isolated from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness. The 60-year-old man died as a result of renal and respiratory failure after admission to a hospital in Jeddah, Saudi A...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chafekar A,Fielding BC

    更新日期:2018-02-24 00:00:00

  • Genotypic and Phylogenetic Insights on Prevention of the Spread of HIV-1 and Drug Resistance in "Real-World" Settings.

    abstract::HIV continues to spread among vulnerable heterosexual (HET), Men-having-Sex with Men (MSM) and intravenous drug user (IDU) populations, influenced by a complex array of biological, behavioral and societal factors. Phylogenetics analyses of large sequence datasets from national drug resistance testing programs reveal t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brenner BG,Ibanescu RI,Hardy I,Roger M

    更新日期:2017-12-28 00:00:00

  • Production of Recombinant African Swine Fever Viruses: Speeding Up the Process.

    abstract::African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease in pigs, with no vaccines for control. The genetic manipulation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) is often tedious and time consuming. Here, we describe a method to manipulate the virus genome to produce gene deletion viruses in a much-reduced time. This method comb...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rathakrishnan A,Moffat K,Reis AL,Dixon LK

    更新日期:2020-06-05 00:00:00

  • Fatal Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with Bovine Coronavirus in Cows from Southern Italy.

    abstract::An outbreak of winter dysentery, complicated by severe respiratory syndrome, occurred in January 2020 in a high production dairy cow herd located in a hilly area of the Calabria region. Of the 52 animals belonging to the farm, 5 (9.6%) died with severe respiratory distress, death occurring 3-4 days after the appearanc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amoroso MG,Lucifora G,Degli Uberti B,Serra F,De Luca G,Borriello G,De Domenico A,Brandi S,Cuomo MC,Bove F,Riccardi MG,Galiero G,Fusco G

    更新日期:2020-11-19 00:00:00

  • Identification of Circovirus Genome in a Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) on the Antarctic Peninsula.

    abstract::Circoviruses infect a variety of animal species and have small (~1.8-2.2 kb) circular single-stranded DNA genomes. Recently a penguin circovirus (PenCV) was identified associated with an Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) with feather disorder and in the cloacal swabs of three asymptomatic Adélie Penguins at Cape Cro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levy H,Fiddaman SR,Djurhuus A,Black CE,Kraberger S,Smith AL,Hart T,Varsani A

    更新日期:2020-08-06 00:00:00

  • Cell surface markers in HTLV-1 pathogenesis.

    abstract::The phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed CD4(+) T lymphocytes largely depends on defined viral effector molecules such as the viral oncoprotein Tax. In this review, we exemplify the expression pattern of characteristic lineage markers, costimulatory receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, cytokine r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kress AK,Grassmann R,Fleckenstein B

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction of a Densovirus with Glycans of the Peritrophic Matrix Mediates Oral Infection of the Lepidopteran Pest Spodoptera frugiperda.

    abstract::The success of oral infection by viruses depends on their capacity to overcome the gut epithelial barrier of their host to crossing over apical, mucous extracellular matrices. As orally transmitted viruses, densoviruses, are also challenged by the complexity of the insect gut barriers, more specifically by the chitino...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pigeyre L,Schatz M,Ravallec M,Gasmi L,Nègre N,Clouet C,Seveno M,El Koulali K,Decourcelle M,Guerardel Y,Cot D,Dupressoir T,Gosselin-Grenet AS,Ogliastro M

    更新日期:2019-09-17 00:00:00

  • Identification of Diaryl-Quinoline Compounds as Entry Inhibitors of Ebola Virus.

    abstract::Ebola virus is the causative agent of Ebola virus disease in humans. The lethality of Ebola virus infection is about 50%, supporting the urgent need to develop anti-Ebola drugs. Glycoprotein (GP) is the only surface protein of the Ebola virus, which is functionally critical for the virus to attach and enter the host c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cui Q,Cheng H,Xiong R,Zhang G,Du R,Anantpadma M,Davey RA,Rong L

    更新日期:2018-11-30 00:00:00

  • Expression Level of Small Envelope Protein in Addition to Sequence Divergence inside Its Major Hydrophilic Region Contributes to More Efficient Surface Antigen Secretion by Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotype D2 than Subgenotype A2.

    abstract::Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) promotes persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. It primarily corresponds to small (S) envelope protein secreted as subviral particles. We previously found that genotype D clones expressed less S protein than genotype A clones but showed higher extracellular/intracellular rati...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Q,Fu S,Zhang J,Yuan Q,Li J,Xia N,Wen YM,Wang Y,Tong S

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation of PCV3 from Perinatal and Reproductive Cases of PCV3-Associated Disease and In Vivo Characterization of PCV3 Replication in CD/CD Growing Pigs.

    abstract::Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) has been identified as a putative swine pathogen with a subset of infections resulting in stillborn and mummified fetuses, encephalitis and myocarditis in perinatal, and periarteritis in growing pigs. Three PCV3 isolates were isolated from weak-born piglets or elevated stillborn and mummifi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mora-Díaz J,Piñeyro P,Shen H,Schwartz K,Vannucci F,Li G,Arruda B,Giménez-Lirola L

    更新日期:2020-02-16 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Two Real-Time, TaqMan Reverse Transcription-PCR Assays for Detection of Rabies Virus in Circulating Variants from Argentina: Influence of Sequence Variation.

    abstract::In rabies diagnosis, it is essential to count on a rapid test to give a quick response. The combined sensitivity and robustness of the TaqMan RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) have made these methods a valuable alternative for rabies virus (RABV) detection. We conducted a study to compare the applicability of two widely used qR...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caraballo DA,Lombardo MA,Becker P,Sabio MS,Lema C,Martínez LM,Beltrán FJ,Li Y,Cisterna DM

    更新日期:2020-12-25 00:00:00

  • Sphingolipids as Potential Therapeutic Targets against Enveloped Human RNA Viruses.

    abstract::Several notable human diseases are caused by enveloped RNA viruses: influenza, AIDS, hepatitis C, dengue hemorrhagic fever, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Being enveloped, the life cycle of this group of viruses is critically dependent on host lipid biosynthesis. Viral binding and entry involve interaction...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yager EJ,Konan KV

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Deletions in Genes Participating in Innate Immune Response Modify the Clinical Course of Andes Orthohantavirus Infection.

    abstract::Andes orthohantavirus (ANDV) is an important human pathogen causing hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a fatality rate of 30% in Chile. Around 60% of all cases have a severe clinical course, while the others have a mild clinical course. The main goal of this study was to understand if the genetic variatio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ribeiro GE,Leon LE,Perez R,Cuiza A,Vial PA,Ferres M,Mertz GJ,Vial C

    更新日期:2019-07-25 00:00:00

  • Discovering host genes involved in the infection by the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus complex and in the establishment of resistance to the virus using Tobacco Rattle Virus-based post transcriptional gene silencing.

    abstract::The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members of th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Czosnek H,Eybishtz A,Sade D,Gorovits R,Sobol I,Bejarano E,Rosas-Díaz T,Lozano-Durán R

    更新日期:2013-03-22 00:00:00

  • Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Full-Length Pr77Gag Expressed in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.

    abstract::The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Pr77Gag polypeptide is an essential retroviral structural protein without which infectious viral particles cannot be formed. This process requires specific recognition and packaging of dimerized genomic RNA (gRNA) by Gag during virus assembly. Most of the previous work on retrovira...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chameettachal A,Pillai VN,Ali LM,Pitchai FNN,Ardah MT,Mustafa F,Marquet R,Rizvi TA

    更新日期:2018-06-18 00:00:00

  • Preexisting Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes-Mediated Enhancement of Adenovirus Infections to Human Blood CD14+ Cells.

    abstract::Antigen-specific T lymphocytes play a critical role in controlling viral infections. However, we report here that preexisting virus-specific T cell responses also contribute to promoting adenovirus (Ad) infection. Previously, we found that CD14+ monocytes from Ad-seropositive individuals exhibited an increased suscept...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feng F,Zhao J,Li P,Li R,Chen L,Sun C

    更新日期:2019-02-13 00:00:00

  • Oral Immunization against PEDV with Recombinant Lactobacillus casei Expressing Dendritic Cell-Targeting Peptide Fusing COE Protein of PEDV in Piglets.

    abstract::Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious disease in newborn piglets. In our previous study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei oral vaccine (pPG-COE-DCpep/L393) expressing a dendritic cell (DC)-targeting peptide fused with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) COE antigen was developed. This v...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou X,Jiang X,Jiang Y,Tang L,Xu Y,Qiao X,Min L,Wen C,Ma G,Li Y

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Fundamental Difficulties Prevent the Reconstruction of the Deep Phylogeny of Viruses.

    abstract::The extension of virology beyond its traditional medical, veterinary, or agricultural applications, now called environmental virology, has shown that viruses are both the most numerous and diverse biological entities on Earth. In particular, virus isolations from unicellular eukaryotic hosts (heterotrophic and photosy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Claverie JM

    更新日期:2020-10-06 00:00:00

  • Isolation of a Chinook Salmon Bafinivirus (CSBV) in Imported Goldfish Carassius auratus L. in the United Kingdom and Evaluation of Its Virulence in Resident Fish Species.

    abstract::This is the first record of a fish nidovirus isolated from a consignment of goldfish at the United Kingdom (UK) border. The full-length viral genome was 25,985 nt, sharing a 97.9% nucleotide identity with the Chinook salmon bafinivirus (CSBV) NIDO with two deletions of 537 and 480 nt on the ORF Ia protein. To assess t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cano I,Stone D,Savage J,Wood G,Mulhearn B,Gray J,Stinton N,Ross S,Bonar M,Taylor NGH,Bateman KS,Feist SW

    更新日期:2020-05-25 00:00:00

  • A3R Phage and Staphylococcus aureus Lysate Do Not Induce Neutrophil Degranulation.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of A3R phage and Staphylococcus aureus lysate obtained after phage infection on neutrophil degranulation. The exocytosis of primary and secondary granules from neutrophils was investigated in vitro in whole blood specimens by flow cytometry based on the expressio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borysowski J,Międzybrodzki R,Wierzbicki P,Kłosowska D,Korczak-Kowalska G,Weber-Dąbrowska B,Górski A

    更新日期:2017-02-21 00:00:00

  • Herpesviruses placating the unwilling host: manipulation of the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway.

    abstract::Lifelong persistent infection by herpesviruses depends on the balance between host immune responses and viral immune evasion. CD4 T cells responding to antigens presented on major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are known to play an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections. Here we r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zuo J,Rowe M

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Glutamic Acid Residues in HIV-1 p6 Regulate Virus Budding and Membrane Association of Gag.

    abstract::The HIV-1 Gag p6 protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of its two late (L-) domains, which recruit Tsg101 and ALIX, components of the ESCRT system. Even though p6 consists of only 52 amino acids, it is encoded by one of the most polymorphic regions of the H...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Friedrich M,Setz C,Hahn F,Matthaei A,Fraedrich K,Rauch P,Henklein P,Traxdorf M,Fossen T,Schubert U

    更新日期:2016-04-25 00:00:00

  • Differential Zika Virus Infection of Testicular Cell Lines.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus responsible for recent outbreaks of epidemic proportions in Latin America. Sexual transmission of the virus has been reported in 13 countries and may be an important route of infection. Sexual transmission of ZIKV has mostly been male-to-female, and persistence of vi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mlera L,Bloom ME

    更新日期:2019-01-09 00:00:00